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3 1833 01715 3989 

Gc 977.201 AL5o 
Geo. A. Ogle & Co. 
Standard atlas of Allen 
County, Indiana 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



Villages, Cities and Townships ofthe County. 

■Map of the State, United States and World. - 
Patrons Directory, Reference Business Directory and Departments 
devoted to General Information. 
Analysis ofthe System of U.S. Land Surveys, Digest of the 
System of Civil Government, etc. etc. 

(gmpiled and published 






134 Van Buren St. 



Copyright llffl hv Gw.A.Offle & Cu. 

Alien County Public Libm 

MO Webster Stroll 

PO Boi 2270 

ftrt Wiyru, IN 46801-2270 















ERNMENT Supplement III- VI 

Supplement VII-VIII 

Supplement X-XXII 































































To Maps, Plats, Additions and Subdivisions to the City of Fort Wayne and Environs. 


Abbott's Addition 21 

Abbott's Out Lots (two plats) 21 

Alderman's Subdivision 28 

Anderson & Wilkin's Subdivision 29 

Archer's Addition 24 

Ash's Subdivision. . . 33 

Ayer's Addition 28-29 

Baker's Addition 29 

Baker's. A. C, Addition 12 

Baker's Out Lots 12 

Baltes, Koenig A Wagner's Addition. 12 

Baltes, Fleming & Edmunds' Subdivision 33 

Baltes .V Koinv's Addition 12 and 16 

Bank Subdivision (Humia's Addition) 29 

Baptist Church Subdivision (Original Plat)... .., 29 

Barbour's Subdivision (Hauna's Out Lots) 20 

Bard's Subdivision. l<i 

Harnett'.-. Addition 12 

Barrett's Addition 25 

Bartliold's Addition 24-25 

Basil's. C. S. & W. B., Addition 24 

Bass' Subdivision (Cliutc & Prince's Addition!.... 20 

Bass' Subdivision (Hanua's Out Lots) 20 

Bass' Subdivision (Original Plat) 29 

Bass & Hauna's Addition 16 and 20 

Bass A Hough's Addition. 24 

Batten burgh's Subdivision 28 

Beach wood Addition 33 

Beck's Addition 24-25 

Beck's Subdivision 24 

Beck's. J., Addition 25 

Berghoff's Addition 32 

Bitler's Subdivision 16 

Bird's Partition 17 

Bittinger's Subdivision (Beck's Addition) 25 

Bleekman's Addition 33 

Blondiot s. F. A- M., Subdivision 17 

Bloomingdalc 24-25 

Boltz's Subdivision 20 

Boltz's Subdivision 24 

Bond's Addition 29 

Bond's First Addition 20 

Bond's Second Addition 33 

Bond', Third Addition 29 

Bond's, C. B.. Subdivision [Fairfield's Out Lots).. 33 
Bond's, S. B.. Subdivision (Fairfield's Out Lots) . 33 

Bond's. C. D.. Subdivision 33 

Bond's Subdivision (Fairfield's Oat Lots] 33 

Bond & Barrett's Subdivision. (Fairfield's Out 

Lots) 33 

Bond & Brandriff's Addition . 33 

Bond & Lombard's Subdivision (of Colerick's Snb- 


. 21 

Bond & Lumbard's Second Addition 17 

Hosier's Subdivision 29 

Bowserville..,, 25 

Brack en ridge's Addition 29 

Bracken ridge's Subdivision . 32 

Brackeui idgf'.s Second Subdivision 32 

Brackeiiridtfe's Third Subdivision 32 

Branch Hank Subdivision (Original Plat) 29 

Brandriff's Addition 53 

BrandriiT A Avers' Addition ... . 20 

Brandrifl "A Miner's Addition 32-33 

Broadway Addition 29 

Broadway Park 32 

Broadway Park Addition 32 

Broadway Place 32-33 

Brown's. J. O., Addition . . 28 

Bullard's Subdivision 16-17 

Burgess' Addition 28 

Burgess, Lolliuger.v Kainm's Subdivision 23 

Butcher's Addition 28 


;'s. C. L., Addition 

;'s Brewing Co., C. L., Addition. 

. 25 

L hute'- H..ini.--iead Addition 

Chute & Prince's Addition 

Clark's Addition 

Colerick's Addition 

Colerick's Subdivision 

Colericksburg .' 

College Addition 

College Second Addition 

Compare t's Addition , 

Comparers Second Addition.. 

Conger's Subdivision (Manila's Addition) 

Cook's Addition 32- 

Cnrcoran's Subdivision 24- 

County Addition 16- 

Cour's Subdivision 

Crawford's Subdivision (White's First Addition).. 
Crescent Addition 

Daughcrty & Porter's Stibdivi 


i (Beck's Addi- 

Dawson's Subdiv 

Ueer Paik Addition 

Delacaiup's Subdivision 

Devilbis' Subdivision 

DeWald's Subdivision (Lasselle's Addition). . 


i (Hanna's Addition) ... 20 

UudenbolTer's Subdivision 

East Crcighton Avenue Addition., 


East Wavne Addition 21 

Eckliart's Addition 25 

Eckarf- Subdivision 20 

Eckart's Subdivision 25 

Ecklcs' Subdivision (Lillie's Out Lots) 20-21 

Edgerton's, J. K., Subdivision ... 16-17 

Edgertou's, J. K„ Subdivision (Lillie's Out Lots). 17 

Edsall's Addition 20 

Edsall's Out Lots 21 

Edsall's Subdivision (Edsall's Out Lots) 21 

Eickhoff's Addition 25 

Electric Light Addition 32 

Equitable Trust Co. Subdivisions (2) 16 

Evans' Addition .' 28 

Evans' Plac 

, Addition 20 

Swing's, C. W., Addition 20 

Ewing's. C. W., Second Addition 20 

Ewing's, W. C. Addition 20 

Ewing's Grove Addition 20 

Swing's Out Lots 24 

Ewing's Out Lots 24-28 

Ewing's Out Lots 28-32 

Swing's Out Lots 32-33 

Ewing's Subdivision (Original Plat) 29 

Ewing's Subdivision 28 

Fairfield's Addition 32-33 

Fairfield's Second Addition 33 

Fairfield's Third Addition 33 

Fairfield's Out Lots 32-33 

Farnan's Addition 25 

Fisher's Subdivision 28 

Fleming A Esmond's Addition 33 

Fleming's, O. E., Subdivision (Hanna's Out Lots).. 20 

Fletcher's Addition 17 

Forbing's Subdivision (Hanna's Out Lots) 20 

Forbing's Second Subdivision (Hanna's Out Lots) 20 

Foundrv Addition 16 

Fox's Addition 20 and 33 

Freeman's Subdivision 12 

Fry's Addition 28 

Ganser's Subdivision 25 

Geary's Addition 16 

Geerkin's Subdivision 20 

Geiger A Leifel's Subdivision 16 

Gillett's Addition 16 

Glasser's Subdivision 20 

Grand View Addition 24 

Greene A Forbing'sSubdivision (Hanna'sOut Lots) 20 

Greene's Subdivision ... 16 

Greene's Subdivision (Hanna's Plat A) 20 

Greene's Subdivision (Hanna's Out Lots) 20 

Gricr's, J. H., Addition 20 

Hageman's Subdivision [Bird's Partition) 17 

Hamilton Banks' Addition 28 

Hamilton's First Addition 29 

Hamilton's Second Addition 20 

Hamilton's Third Addition 20 

Hamilton's Fourth Addition 20-33 

Hamilton's Fifth Addition 29 

Hamilton's Heirs' Subdivision 24 

Hanna's Addition 16 

Hanna's Addition 29 

Hanna's Amd. Addition 16 

Hauna's Out Lots 16-17 

Hanna's Out Lots 20-25-29 

Hanna's Park Addition 12 

Hanna's Part, of Lot UlS 20 

Hanna's Plat 12 

Hanna's Plat A 20 

Hanna's Partition Addition 16 

Hanna's. Charles H-, Addition 12 

Hanna's, Charles, Subdivision 16 

Hanna's. Charles. Subdivision 16 

Hanna's, C, Subdivision 16 

Hanna's, Elizabeth, Subdivision ' 12 

Hanna's. Eliza, Sr., Addition 16 

Hanna's, Eliza. Sr.. Subdivision 25-29 

Hanna's, E. L.. Sr.. Subdivision 20 

Hanna A Fisher's Addition 20 

Hanna's, Henry C, Out Lots 12 

Hanna's, J. T., Subdivision 20 

Hanna's, J. T., Subdivision (Hanna's Out Lots).. 20 

Hanna's. O. S., Addition 33 

Hanna's, O. S., Subdivision 32 

Hanna's, S., Addition 28-29 

Hartman's Subdivision 16 

Hattendorf's Addition 28-29 

Hayden's, J. \V., South Broadway Addition 32-33 


■, Subdivis 


s Out Lots).. 

Hough's Subdivision 20 

Huestis Addition 32 

Huestis A Taylor's Subdivision 21 

Huffman's Addition 24-25 

Industrial Park Addition 20 

Jaebker's Subdivision (Hanna's Plat A) 20 

Johnson's Addition 20 

Jones' Addition 28-29 

Jones' Subdivision 16 

i (Beck's Addition) . 


Jones', L. M., Riverside Addition . . 12 

Jones'. L. N., Subdivision (LasseHle's Addition)... 20 

Kehlcr's Subdivision 12 

Kerr A Dawson's Subdi 

Kinnaird's Addition 

Klaehn's Subdivision 

Koehlcr's Subdivision 33 

Koeuig's Subdivision (Lasselle's Out Lots) 20 

Kuhne A Heat on's Addition 32 

K. A W. S. Subdivision 25 

Lab mover's Subdivision 20-21 

Lake Side 12-13,16-17 

Lake Side Park Addition 12-13, 16-17 

Langohr's Addition 25 

Lantern ier's. J., Subdivision 17 

Lan tenner's Subdivision (Lillie's Out Lots) 16-17 

Lasselle's Addition 16-20 

Lasselle's Out Lots 20 

Laurent's Subdivision 29 

Lewis' Addition 16 

Licbtsinn's Subdivision 16 

Lillie's Addition. 17-20-21 

Lillie's Addition extended 17 

Lillie's Out Lots 16-17-20-21 

Longacre's Subdivision 28 

Lumbard's Park Addition 28 

Maples' Addition.. „ ,. 33 

Marchals Addition 

Martin's Subdivision (Har 
McCullOch's Addition 

McCnlloch's Second Addition. 
McCulloch's Homestead Addit 

McCnlloch's Park 

McCnlloch's Subdivision 

McLachlan's Addition 

McMackliu's Addition.. 


Mcegan & Kocnig's Subdivi 


Miller's Addition ". 

Miller's Subdivision (Hanna's Plat A) 

Miner's, B. D., First Addition ; . . , ,2t 

Missionary Out Lots 

Moellering's Subdivision 

Moran's Subdivision 1( 

Moran's, Peter, Subdivision (Hauna's Out Lots). 

Mower's Subdivision , 

Mitldoon's Subdivision 


* Out Lots) 20 

(Lasselle's Out 

Nestles Addition 32-33 

Ninde's Addition 33 

Ninde's Second Addition 20-33 

Ninde's Subdivision 33 

Ninde's. L. M.. Addition (So. Wayne) 33 

Noel's Subdivision 20 

Noel's Second Addition 29 

Noel's Third Addition 29 

Noel A Ewing's Subdivision 29 

North Side Addition 25-29 

North Side Addition Extended 25 

North Side Park 25 

Nussbaum's, P., Addition 25 

Oakley's Addition 29 

Old Orchard Addition 28-32 

Orff Place 28 

Orff's, J., Aiud. Subdivision (Hanna's Out Lots)... 20 

Original Plat 29 

Oruiistou's Addition 33 

O'Rourke & Gilinartiu's Subdivision (Edsall's Out 
Lots) 21 

Parisot's Subdivision 16 

Park's. V., Addition 32 

Park Place 33 

Park's Subdivision 16-17 

Parnett's Out Lots 33 

Papc's First Addition 29 

Pape's Addition 28 

Pettit's Addition 12 

Pfeifcr's Addition 24-25 

Pfeiffcr's Subdivision 17 

P., Ft. W. A C. Rv. Co. Addition 20 

Phillips' Addition 32-33 

Phillips. John. Addition (to South Wayne) 32-33 

Piepen brink's Subdivision 16 

Ptigh's Out Lots 20 

Pukownik's Subdivision 20 

Purmau's Subdivision (Lasselle's Addition) 20 

Ramsey's Subdivision 

Randall's. P. A., Subdivision 

Ran's Subdivision 

Reed's Addition 

Reed's Out Lots 

Reed's. Colonel, Addition 

Reese's Addition 

Reidmiller's Addition 

Rchling's. E., Subdivision (Hanna's Out Lots). 

Riedle's Subdivision (Maple's Addition) 

Rissing's Addition 

Roekhiil's, Adiu., Addition 

Rockhill's Amd. Addition 

Roekhiil's Second Addition 

Rockhill's Heirs' Addition 

Rockhill A Nelson's Addition 

Roiuary's, Joseph ■!.. Addition 

Romy's Addition 

Root's Addition 

. 33 


Rov's Addition 17 

Ru'disill's, E, E-. Amd. Subdivision 25 

Rudisill's. H. J.. Subdivision 25 

Rudisill's Heirs' Addition 32-33 

Rudisill's Partition 33 

Ryan & Tanccy's Subdivision (Barnett's Outlots). 33 

Saucrwein's Subdivision 28 

Saunders A Metcalf 's Subdivision 20 

Saunders', H. M„ Tr., Subdivision 20-21 

Schaich's Addition 16 

Scheie's Addition 17 

Schillings Subdivision 24-28 

Schroedcr's Subdivision 28-29 

Shawnee Addition 33 

Siemon's Addition 33 

Sieinon's Subdivision (Hanna's Plat A) 20 

Simon's Subdivision (Lillie's Out Lots) 16-17 

Skinner's Addition 20 

Skinner's Subdivision 16 

Sla taper's Addition 21 

Smith's Addition 17 

Smith's Addition .. . . . 33 

Snyder's Subdivision 12 

SolnniU's Subdivision 29 

South Calhoun Street Addition 33 

South Wavne 32-33 

Spencer's Addition 29 

Spencer's Second Addition .,. 29 

Stein's. R. Subdivision 16 

Stoop's Addition 21 

Stopenhagen's Subdivision (Hanna's Plat A) 20 

Stophlet's Addition 28-20 

Strodel's Subdivision 24-25 

Sturgis' Addition 29 

Sturgis' Second Addition 29 

Suter's Addition 32-33 

Suter's Subdivision 32 

Swinnev's Addition 28-20 

Swiuney'sOut Lots 28-32 

Swiuney Park 2S 

Taber's Addition : 16 

Taylor's Subdivision 16 

Taylor's Sub Lot 55 16 

Taylor's Subdivision (Hanna's Out Lots) 16-17 

Taylor's. John, Subdivision (Hanna's Out Lots)... 16 

Taylor A Ahbott's Addition '. 17 

Themiuel's Subdivision (Hanna's Out Lots) 20 

Thicm's Subdivision 16 

Thompson's Addition 32 

Thompson's Second Addition 32 

Thompson's Third Addition 32 

Thompson's Subdivision (Thompson's Addition). . 32 

Tompkins' Addition 16 

Tool's Addition 21 

Trentuian's, M. E., Subdivision (Hanna's Addition) 29 
Trent man A Monning's Subdivision (Lasselle's 

Out Lots) 20 

Trentnian A Wagner's Subdivision 24 

Tresselt's Addition....'. 33 

Tri-Statc Subdivision (Original Plat). 20 

Tyler's Addition 33 

Underbill's Subdiv 

Vanvorhis' Subdiv 
Vesey's Addition,. 

i (S. Ha 

- Add it 

. 20 

Wagners Subdivision 28-29 

Wall's Subdivision .' 29 

Walnut Place 33 

Wavne Heights 24-28 

Wavne Township Out Lots 32 33 

Wefel's Addition 24 

Wefcl Heirs' Addition 24-J5 

Wehler's Subdivision 28 

Wells' Reserve 25 

Westman's Snbdivi-ion 16 

Westman's Subdivision of Pt. Elua Hanna's Ad- 
dition 16 

White's First Addition 17 

Whites Second Addition 17 

White's Third Addition 17 

White's Fourth Addition 17 

White's Fifth Addition 16 

White's Sixth Addition 16 

White's Seventh Addition 17 

White's Subdivision 17 

White's. J. B., Addition 33 

Whites. J. W., Addition 16 

White's, M. H., Subdivision 28 

White A Detzer's Subdivision (Bird's Partition).. 17 

Wiebke's Subdivision 20 

Williams' Addition 29-33 

Williams's Addition (to Mechanicsburg). 33 

Williams Park Lot A 33 

Wilt's First Addition 29 

Wilt's Secqud Addition 29 

Wilt's. John M.. Third Addition 29 

Winch's Addition 17 

Winch's Second Addition 17 

Withers', M. A., Subdivision 33 

W. & M. Subdivision 28 

Wolkes' Subdivision (Original Town) 29 

Worthingtou's Subdivision (Barnett's Out Lot-).. 33 

/...liars A Masons Subdivi 
Zollars A Swaync's Addit 

. .32-33 
.... 33 




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Allen County, Indiana. 

EXPLANATION.— The date following a name indicates the length of time the party has been a resident, of the county. The abbreviations are as follows: S. for 
Section; T. for Township; and P. O., for Post-office address. When no Section Number, nor Township is given, it will be understood that the party resides within 
the limits of the village or city named, and, in such cases, the post-office address is the same- as the place of residence, unless otherwise stated. 

Able, John C, Attorney it Law, Fort Wayne. 

Abstract Office. The. (Kuhne & Co.), 19 Court St.. Abstracts of Title. 

Mortgage Loans, Foreign Exchange; C. W. Kuhne, Attorney at Law, 

Fort Wayne, Est. 1373. 
Adam-,. Dr. Horace, Physician & Surgeon, Res. Maysville, P. O, Harlan, 

Akey. James, Fanning & Stock, S. 35, T. Adams, P. O. Maples & New 

Haven. I860. 
Akey, Edward, Fanning & Stock, S. 20, T. Jefferson, P. O. New Haven, 

Akev, William, Farming & Stock, S. 36, T. Adams, P. O. Maples, 1874. 
Albert', P. R.. Real Estate. Fort Wayne. 
Alleger, J. D., Editor Weekly " Breeze." Mouroeville, 1855. 
Allen County Loan & Savings Association. Fort Wayne. 
Amstutz, P. S., Fanning A Stock. S. 19, T. Springfield, P.O. Harlan, 

Angevine, W. E.. Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 

Archer, J., Retired. S. 11, T. Washington, P. O. Fort Wayne. 1825. 
Archer. Nancy D., Farming & Stock, S. 10, T. Washington, P. O. Fort 

Wayne. 1841. 
Asher. Vemer, Farming & Stock. S. 16. T. Aboil, P. O. Fort Wayne. 1891. 
Atchison, Mrs. H. G., Farming & Stock, S. 12, T. Aboit. P. O. Fort 

Wayne, 1850, 

Oadiac, Chas. I., Farming & Stock, S. 2, T. Washington, P. O. Fort 

Wayne, 1852. 
Badiac, Joseph, Fanning A Stock, S. 3. T. Washington, P. O. Wallen. 1842, 
Badiac. Mrs. M. S., Farming & Stock, S. 3, T. Washington. P. O. Wallen. 

Baldwin, Abel, Fanning & Stock, S. 31, T. St. Joseph, P. O. Fort Wayne, 

Ballon, J. E.. Merchant, Hnntertown, 1S45. 

Barnett, Chas. E. & W. W., Physicians & Surgeons, Fort Wayne, 
Barrows, F. R., Photographer, Fort Wayne. 
Bass. J. H., President First Fational Bank. Fort Wayne. 
Bauscrman. E. D., Fanning & Stock. (Twp. Assessor), S. 4. T. Monroe, 

P. O. Monroeville. 
Bauserman, W. H.. Fanning A Stock, (Trustee!, S. 3, T. Madison, P. O. 


ville, : 

Beard, Milo. Farming A Stock, S. 36, T. Aboit, P. O. Fort Wayne, 1865. 
Becker. W. F. A.. Fanning and Stock. S. 24, T. Adams, P.O. New Haven, 

Herghoff Brewing Co.. The Herman, Brewers, Fort Wayne. 
Bird. O.. Farming & Stock, S. 2, T. Aboit, P, O. Fort Wayne, 1849. 
tlittinger. J. R., Attorney at Law. Fort Wayne. 
Bittinger & Clapham, Attorneys at Law, Fort Wayne. 
Bleekinan. J., Farming A Stock, S. 14, T. Perry, P. O. Gloyd. 1896. 
Ilium, August, Fanning A Stock, S. 20, T St. Joseph, P. O. Fort Wayne, 

Blume, Martin. Slock Dealer A Fanner, Trustee St, Joseph Township. S. 

3, T. St. Joseph. P. O. Fort Wayne, 1865. 
Boerger, G. W., Insurance A Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 
Bond, S. B., President Old National Bank, Fort Wavne. 
Bond, J. B., Cashier Old National Bank. Fort Wavne. 
Bonnell, John. Railway Depot Agent, Areola, 1874. 
Bowser, Edwin B.. Farming & Stock, S. 2. T. Washington. P. O. Fort 

Wayne, 1874. 
Bowser, J. A., Fanning & Stock, S. 1. T. Lafayette. P. O. Nine Mile, 1865. 
Bowser. Levi, Farming A Stock, S. 2, T. Washington. P. O. Fort Wayne. 

Bradley. H. J.. Livery A Boarding Stable-. Fort Wavne. 
Branstrator. William, Farming & Slock, Branstrator's Reserve, T. Lafay- 
ette, P. O. Fort Wayne, 1848. 
Branii. John C. Brick Manufacturer, S. 33. I. St. Joseph. P. O. Fort 

Wayne, 1859, 
Brecn A Morris, Attorneys at Law, Fort Wayne. 

Brosius, Henry. 'Fanning & Stock. S. 10, T. Aboit, P. O. Fort Wayne, 1873. 
Brown, J. H.. Fanning & Stock, S. 30, T. Monroe. P. O. Monroeville, 1846. 
Brown, W. D.. Salesman, Monroeville, 1875. 

Buck, Chas. H-. Groceries. Provisions, Etc.. Fort Wayne. Est. 1892, 
Bueker, E. F., Farming & Stock. S. 22. T. Aboit. P. O. Fort Wayne, 1870. 
Burslcv, G. C. & Co.. Wholesale Grocers, Fort Wayne, 129 Calhoun St. 
Butt, J- F.. Farming & Stock, S. 9, T. Maumee, P.O. Antwerp, Ohio, 1863. 
Butts. J. D-. Farming & Stock, S. 20. T. Lake, P. O. Areola. 1859. 
Bulls. W. W., Fanning & Stock, S. 4. T. Lake, P. O. Churubusco, 1854. 

Carnahan Co.. The W. L., Wholesale Boots and Shoes, Fort Wayne. 
Carpenter, J. D., Farming A Stock, S. 31, T. Jackson, P. O. Monroeville. 

Cavalier, V., Fanning A Stock, S, 33, T. Lake, P. O. Areola. 1845, 
Centlivre Brewing Co., C. L.. Brewers, Fort Wayne. 
Chapin. Judge A. A., Attorney at Law, Fort Wayne. 
Citizens' State Bank, General Banking, Monroeville. (C. P, Mitchell. 

City Carriage Works, Manufacturers of Carriages, Phaetons, Carts,, 

Fort Wayne, Est. 1876. 

Clark, Enoch, Farming A Stock. S. 28, T. Aboit, P. O. Aboite, 1833. 

Clark, Wilson, Farming A Stock, S. 14, T. Aboit. P. O. Fort Wavne. 1339, 

Colerick, Phil B., Attorney at Law. Fort Wayne. 

Colerick, W, G., Attorney at Law, Fort Wayne. 

Colter. Jacob. Saw Milling A Lumber, Areola, 1S66. 

Cook. A. P., Brick A Tile Manufacturer. Areola. 1857. 

Cook, Jacob, Fanninr A Sr^.rk, S J, T. St J.iMtnh, P. O. Fort-Wavne, 

Covell, A. S-. Farm G .rileuiug A 1'ri.i:-, L..Gr us Reserve. T. Wayne, P. 

O. Fort Wayne, 1693. 
Craig, James. Farming A Stock. S. 15. T. Aboit. P. O. Fort Wavne, 1850. 
Craw, E. L., Real Estate. Fort Wayne. 

Crouse, J,, Farming A Stock, S. 19, T. Aboit, P. O. Dunfee. 1846. 
Curdes, Louis F,, Real Estate. Fort Wayne. 

Daniels, W. B.. Trustee, Res. Maysville, P, O. Harlan, 1853. 

Dawkins. F., General Merchant & Postmaster, Dawkins, I860. 

Dawson, C. W., Judge of Superior Ciiirt. Fort Wavne. 

Decker, Daniel. Fanning A Stock, S, 22, T. Aboit, P. O. Fort Wayne, 

Diether Lumber Co., Lumber, Lath, Shingles. Etc., Fort Wayne, 
Dinius. H. C, Farming A Stock, S. 19. T. Aboit, P. O. Saturn, 1870. 
Doctor. H. G., Farming A Stock, S. 33. T. Adams, P. O. Soest, 1845. 
Doggett. J. L., Druggist, Monroeville, 1892. 

Dollman, Jesse, Fanning A Stock, S. 33, T. Wavne, P. O. Fort Wayne. 
Doud, W. E-. Real Estate. Fort Wayne. 
Dull. J. O., Farming A Stock, S. 1. T. Springfield. P. O. Halls Corners, 


Eckart Packing Co., Fred., Pork Packers. Fort Wavne. 

Edsall, C. W., County Auditor. Fort Wayne. 

Eggimanu.T. H., Tile Manufacturer, Saw-mill Operator A Farmer, S. 

23, T. Adams. P. O. New Haven, 1861. 
Eggiman, Win, Farming A Stock, S. 32. T, Adams. P. O. Fort Wavne, 

Eick, Frank, Fanning A Stock, S. 33, T. Jackson. P. O. Monroeville. 1831. 
Elett. C, Propr. Road House. Farmer A Supervisor, S. 33. T. Adams, P. O. 

Fort Wayne. 1869. 
Ellison, Hon. T. E.. Attorney at Law A State Senator. Fort Wayne. 
Eloph, Henry, Fanning A Stock, S. 5, T. Aboit, P. O. Dunfee, 1840. 
Ely, Edward, Farming A Stock, S. 4, T. St. Joseph, P. O. Fort Wavne, 

Erne A Son. Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 
Emcnhiser, John R., Farming A Stock, S. 7. T. Jackson. P. O. Dawkins, 

Eversoll. O. P . Insurance, Fort Wayne. 
Ewert, D. J., Fanning A Poultry, S. 23. T. Lafayette, P. O. Nine Mile. 

Fahlsing, Fred., Farming- A Stock, S. 4, T. Wayne. P, O, Fort Wavne. 

Fairfield. Charle-, Rciired, S. 21, T. Wavne, P. O. Fort Wayne. 1835. 

Fairfield. Chas. W., Farming A Stock, S. 29, T. Wayne, P.O. Fort Wayne. 

Ferber, C, Postmaster, Soest, 1852. 

Ferguson. M. A., County Commissioner. Fort Wavne. 

Ferguson A Palmer Co., Lumber, Fort Wayne. 

Fisher, D. C, Real Estate. Fort Wayne. 

Fisher, Samuel, Farming A Slock, S. 7. T. Lafayette, P. O. Aboite. 1854. 

Fitch, C. B., Insurance: Life, Fire, Accident, Liability. Indemnity. Loans 

on Improved City A Farm Property at very low rates of interest, 65 

Clinton St., Fort' Wayne. 
Fleming. John, Dairying A Farming, S. 27, T. Washington, P. O. Fort 

Wavne, 1689. 
Fleming, Mrs. Sarah, Farming A Dairying, S. 27. T. Washington, P. O. 

Fort Wayne, 1889. 
Focllinger, C. H., Farming A Stock. S. 29, T. Washington. P. O. Fort 

Wayne. 1853. 
Fort Wayne Gas Company, Fort Wayne. Indiana. 

Fort Wavne Land A Improvement Co.. Farms A Lands. Fort Wayne, 
Fort Wayne Organ Co , MamifacUrers of Organs A Pianos. Fort Wayne. 
Foster A Co , D. N, Furniture ,v Carpets. Fort Wayne, 
Foster. Samuel M.. Manufacturer-. Fort Wayne. 

Foster. W. W , Farming A Stock. S. 16, T, Wayne, P.O. Fort Wavne. 1891. 
Fouser, Jacob, Gardening A Fruits, S. 26, T. Washington. P. O. Fort 

Wayne. 1844. 
Fox, Louis, Manager U. S. Baking Co., Fort Wayne. 

Fox, Mrs. Isabella, Farming A Stock, S. 34, T. Lake, P. O. Areola. 1859. 
Frame, Edward, Fanning A Slock, S. 16, T. Aboit, P. O. Fort Wayne, 1*73. 
Frame. Frank L.. Farming A Stock. S. 16, T. Aboit, P. O. Fort Wavne. 

Frame. Mrs Rosa, Farming A Stock, S. 16. T. Aboit, P. O. Fort Wayne, 

France, H. E.. Justice of the Peace A General Collector, Fort Wayne. 
Fry, Frederick, Engineer A Township Trustee, Maples, 1842. 
Fulton, C. W.. Livery. Sale A Feed Stables, Fort Wayne. 

Gallmeicr, W. C, Farming A Stock, S. 26, T. Adams, P. O. Fort Wayne, 

Gallmeier. C. Farming A Stock, S. 26, T. Adams, P. O. Fort Wayne, 1S50. 
Garman, B. F,, Fanning A Stock, S. 10, T. Perry, P. O. Huutertown. 1370. 
Gannan. Eli H.. Merchant. S. 1, T. Perry, P. O. Collingwood. 1864. 
Gebhart, Charles, Fanning & Stock, S. 21. T. Wayne, P. O. Fort Wavne. 

Gerding A Auman Bros., Hot Air Furnaces, Metal Ceiling, Steam A H..t 

Water Heating, Hardware A Tinware. Slate A Steel Roofing, Cornice 

Work, Repairing A Job Work, Fort Wayne. 
Gerke, John Frederick, Fanning & Lumber, S. 26, T. St. Joseph, P. O. 

Goeglein, 1850. 
Gernhardt, William, Farming A Stock, Village Clerk, Woodburn, 1S93. 
Gieseking, F. W-, Farming A Stock, S. 20, T. Washington, P. O. Fort 

Wayne, 1845. 
Gilmartin, E., Lumber. Lath. Shingles, Etc. Fort Wayne. 
Gladieux, Edward. Farming A Stock. S. 25, T. Jefferson. P. O.Zulu, 1873. 
Gladieux, Hon. Francis, Farming A- Stock, Ex-Member State Legislature, 

Zulu, 1853. 
Glutting, Bauer AHartuett, Real Estate, Fort Wayne, 
Godfrey. Geo.. Fanning A Stock. Richardsville Reserve, T. Wayne, P. O. 

Fort Wayne, 1850. 
Godfrey, John, Farming A Stock, Richardsville Reserve, T. Wayne, P. O, 

Fort Wayne. 
Goeglein, George, General Merchant A Retail Liquor Dealer. S. 26, T. St. 

Joseph. P. O. Goeglein, 1865. 
Goeglein. John. General Farmer, Thresher A Supervisor, S. 26, T. St. 

Joseph, P. O. Goeglein, 1863. 
Goeglein, John H.. Farming A Stock, S, 25. T. St. Joseph, P. O. Goeglein, 

Goff A Myers, Bicycles A Repairing, Fort Wayne. 

Gorham, Jeremiah, Farming A Stock, S. 6, T. Aboit, P. O, Dunfee. 1886. 
Gorman. Mrs. Mary. Farming A Stock, S. 29, T. Lake. P. O. Areola. 1875. 
Gorrell, Milo R.. Trustee. S. 17, T. Scipio. P. O. Halls Corners, 1863. 
Goshorn, J. S., Superintendent of Water Power, Fort Wayne. 
Goshorn, W. H.. County Engineer, Fort Wayne. 
Graham, James E-. Law. Abstracts A Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 
Greenwell. Dr. Frank, Physician A Surgeon. Hnntertown, 1851. 
Gricb. J. N . Switchman of Pennsylvania R. R., La Gros Reserve, T. 

Wayne, P. < I. Fort Wavne, 1858. 
Griffin, A. C, Farming .v, S. 2, T. Perry, P. O. Glovd, 1864. 
Grin. J .le A Weatherhoff, Architects. Fort Wayne. Est. 1894. 
Grosjean. Aristide, Saw-milling. Tile Manufacturing. Etc., Wallen. 1864. 
Grosjean, Edward, Farming A Stock. S. 12, T. Washington. P. O. Fort 

Wayne, 1858. 
Grosjean, John B-. Jr.. Tile Manufacturing, Areola, 1850. 
Grubb.C. C. General Merchant, Res. Maysville, P. O. Harlan, 1862. 
Greiner, Charles, Foreman of Brick Yard, Fort Wayne. 

Hagan, Win, F., Fanning A Stock, S. 16, T. Lake, P. O. Areola, 1850. 
Hamilton, Joanna, Farming A Stock. S. 22, T. Washington. P. O. Fort 

Wayne, 1843. 
Hanna, H. C, Attorney at Law, Fort Wavne. 

Harp, A. K.. Farming A Stock. S. 9. T. Jackson, P. O. Edgerton, 1890. 
Harris, E. V.. Attorney at Law, Fort Wayne.' 

Hartman, H., Farming, S. 16. T. Adams. P. O. Fort Wayne. 1857. 
Hartman, H. C, Attorney at Law, Fort Wayne. 
Hartmau, William, Farming A Stock, S. 9, T. Adams, P. O. Fort Wayne, 

Hartzell, A. M. A W. S., Manufacturers of Ice Cream, New Haven, 
Hartzell, A. M. (A. M. A W. S. Hartzell), Notary Public, New Haven, 

Hartzell, W. S. (A. M. A W. S. Hartzell). New Haven, 1859. 
Hartr.ell. J. R.. Farming, Stock A Dairying. S. 14, T. Adams. P. O. New 

Haven, 1S52. 
Hartzell, Mrs. Mary, Farming A Stock, S. 14, T. Adams, P, O. New 

Haven, 1841. 
Hatch. Mrs, M. D., Hotel. Huntcrtown. 1850, 
Hatfield, James. Farming & Stock, S. 21. T. Washington, P. O. Fort 

Wayne, 1850. 
Hays, D, B., Farming A Stock. S. 22. T. Lafayette, P. O. Zanesville. 1*65. 
Heath, Stehpen A.. Farming A Stock, S. 8.T. Milan, P.O. Chamberlain. 

Heller. John E. A Co.. Abstractors. Fort Wayne. 
Home Telephone A Telegraph Co., Fort Wayne. 
Huffman Bros., Hardwood Lumber, Fort Wayne, Est. 1868. 
Hughes, John L.. Attorney at Law: Collections a Specialty. Fort Wayne. 
Humbert. Alexander. Farming A Stock, S. 9, T. Washington, P. O. 

Wallen, 1852. 
Hunter, L. C, County Treasurer, Fort Wayne. 


i' Savings 

n Association, Farm Loans. Fort Wayne 

Jeunev Electric Light A Power Co., C. G. Guild, Manager, Fort Wayne. 
Johnson, R. M , Farming A Stock, S. 9,T Maumee, P. O. Woodburn, 1358. 
Johnston, W,, Farming A Stock, S. 20. T. Eel River, P. O. Heller's Cor- 
ners. 1842. 
Jones, Geo. W., Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 


Jones, Jasper W., Farming »v Stock, (Ex-Co. Commissioner), S. 22, T. 

Jackson, P. O. Baldwin, 1852. 
Jones, W. A., Manager Union Central Insurance Co., Fort Wayne. 
Jones, W. D., Propr. Avelinc House, Fort Wayne. 

Kamp, D.. Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 

Kariger, John. Farming and Stock, S. 19, T. Washington, P.O. Fort 

Wayne, 1863. 
Kauffman, Dr. D. E., Physician & Surgeon, Monroeville. 1891. 
Keegan.H. G., Attorney' at Law, Fort Wayne. 
Kell. Geo. V., Farming & Stock. 3. 12, T. Eel River. P. O. Hnutertown, 

Kell, J.. Retired, S. 16, T. Perry, P. O. Hnutertown, 1843. 
Keller & Brann, Cut Stone Contractors, Fort Wayne, Est. 1870. 
Keller, Wm. N . Farming & Stock, Twp. Trustee, S. 31, T. Jackson. P. O. 

Monroeville, 1871. 
Kclscy, W. A., Fanning & Stock, S. 18. T. Aboit. P. O, Dun fee, 1858. 
Kerr, Murray Manufacturing Co., Foundry, Fort Wayne. 
Keyser, J. F.. Farming & Stock, S. 36, T. Lafayette, P. O. Zanesville, 

Keyser, P. G.. Farming & Stock. S. 15, T. Lafayette. P. < I. Roanoke, 1873. 
Kimmel, Newton, Farming & Stock. S. 33, T, Wayne. P. O. Fort Wayne. 
Klett, Jacob & Sons, Lumber, Shingles, Lath & All kinds of Mill Work, 

Fort Wayne, Est. 1877. 
Kncpper, N., Farming A Stock, S. 15. T. Aboit. P. O. Fort Wayne, 1861. 
Knight. Conrad. Retired. Zanesville, 1854. 

Knoblauch. O., Saw Milling A Real Estate, Woodburu. 1881. 
Koehlinger Bros., Builders Hardware. Nails, Glass, Paints & Oils, Stoves 

& Tinware. Implements. Fort Wayne. 
Koester. Christian, Farming A Stock. S. 24, T. St. Joseph, P. <>. Thuf- 

maii, 1857. 
Kramer. A., Farming & Stock. S. 7, T. Jackson, P. O. Dawkins. 1864. 
Kuline & Co., Abstracts, Loans & Foreign Exchange, (The Abstract Of- 
fice). 19 Court St.. Fort Wayne, Est. 1873, 
Kuhne, C. W-, Attorney at Law, Fort Wayne. 
Kuhne, F. W-, Abstracts, Loans, Etc., Fort Wayne. 

Langtrv, Dr., Veterinary Surgeon, {with Liggett Bros., Livery), Fort 

Law, C. D., Superintendent P. F. W. & C. R. W.. Fort Wayne. 

Lawrence, David, Fanning & Stock, S. 10, T. Lafayette, P. O. Aboite. 

Lcatherman, Robert, Edgerton Hotel, Edgerton, 1892. 

Lemay, Elijah, Farming & Stock. S. 28, T. Aboit. P. O. Aboite, 1859. 

Lenington, James, Farming & Stock, S. 17, T. Jackson, P. O. Zulu, 18SS. 

Leininger, Theobald, Farming & Stock, S. 32, T. Jacks™, P. O. Monroe- 
ville, 1889. 

Leonard, W. & E., Attorneys at Law, Fort Wayne. 

Lewis, Joseph, Grocery & Hotel Proprietor, Monroeville. 

Liggett Bros., Livery, Boarding A Sale Stables (Dr. Langtrv, Veterinar- 
ian), Fort Wayne. 

Lipes, Dr. R. F., Physician & Surgeon. Nine Mile, 1851, 

Little, W. R., Implement Dealer, Fort Wayne. 

Litot, Geo. A., Sub-Assessor. S. 35. T. Washington. P. O. Fort Wayne. 

LoMiller, John, Farming & Stock, S. 27. T. Monroe. P. Dixon. Ohio, 

Long. Mason & Co.. Stocks & Bonds. Fort Wayne, 

Lortie, Dominic, Farming & Stock. S. 15, T Jackson, P. O. Edgerton, 

Lowry, Hon. Robert, Attorney at Law, Ex-Congressman and Ex-Judge. 
Fort Wayne. 

Lneders, Rich., Teacher of German Lutheran Parochial School, S. 27, T. 
St. Joseph, P. O. Goeglein. 1896. 

Lupkin, Liborins, Farming & Stock. S. 25, T. Adams, P. O. New Haven, 

Madden Plumbing Co., Plumbing, Etc., Fort Wayne. 

Martin, A. L., Livery Stables. Fine Turnouts, Hacks, Surreys. Phaeton?, 

Busses & Carriages, Night Calls Promptly Attended to. Fort Wayne. 
Mason Long & Co., Stocks & Bonds, Fort Wayne. 
Mason, Geo., Farming & Stock, To-pe-ah Reserve, T. Lafayette, P. O. 

Nine Mile, 1855. 
Moudy, M. L. Grist & Saw Mills. Hursh, 1848. 
McClaren, Jesse. Fanning & Stock. Richardsville Reserve, T. Wayne, 

P. O. Fort Wayne, 1863. 
McComb. M. T-. Farming fit Stock, S. 21, T. Perry. P. O. Huntertown, 

McConnel. John. Farming & Stock. S. 16. T. Jackson, P. O. Edgerton, 

McCormick, Wm. H., Farming & Stock, S. 26, T. Lake, P. O. Areola, 1848. 
McDonald, P. J., Member Water Works Board. Fort Wayne. 
McFadden. Henry. Foreman Smith A Giddiugs Farm, To-pe-ah Reserve, 

T. Lafayette, P. O. Aboite. 
Mcintosh, A., Fanning & Stock, S. 19, T. Jefferson, P. O. Maples, 1851. 
Mcintosh, Wm.. Farming & Stock. S. 9, T. Adams. P. O. Fort Wayne, 

McKce. George W., Real Estate & Loans, (Notary Public). Farm & City 

Property Bought, Sold and Exchanged; Fort Wayne. 
McKee, Mrs. S. C, Farming & Stock. S. 20, T. Eel River, P. O. Hellers 

Corners, 1871. 
McKinnic. Wm. M., Wayne Hotel, Fort Wayne. 

McMackin, H. C, Farming & Stock, S. 8. T. Wayne, P. O. Fort Wayne. 
McMackin, W. B-, Fanning & Stock, S. 29, T. Wayne, P. O. Fort Wayne. 
McQuiston, Benjamin, Farming & Stock. (Twp. Trustee). S. 3, T. Wash- 
ington, P. O. Fort Wayne. 1852. 
Meeks. E. W., Attorney at Law, Monroeville, 1848. 
Melching, Albert E., Sheriff Allen County, Fort Wayne. 
Meyer. Charles. Farming & Stock, S. 3, T. Marion, P. O. Soest, 1847. 
Meyer & Bro., Win., Hatters and Men's Furnishers, Fort Wayne, Est. 

Michel. Herman, Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 
Miller A Dougall, Pension Attorneys, Fort Wayne. 
Miller. H. A., Drugs. Medicines, Etc., Hoaglan'd, 1891. 
Miller, J. F., General Merchant & Postmaster. Sheldon, 1879. 
Miller,, Farming & Stock, S. 8, T. Milan. P. O. Chamberlain, 1844. 
Miller, Wm. C, Farming A Stock, S. 31. T, Monroe, P. O. Monroeville, 

1866. ' 
Miner. Geo. E., Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 
Miner's Studio, Photography, Fort Wayne. 
Mitchell, C. P., Cashier Citizens - State Bank, Monroeville. 
Mock, W. W., Fanning & Stock, S. 13, T. Madison, P. O. Monroeville. 
Moliet. H. 6., Farming A Stock, S. 30, T. Wayne. P. O. Fort Wayne. 
Monn, Valentine, Fanning & Stock, S. 24, T. Washington, P. O. Fort 

Wayne. 1864. 
Monning, J. B., Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 

Morrell. A., Farming A Stock. S. 21. T. Wayne, P. O. Fort Wayne. 
Morris, Bell, Barrett & Morris. Attorneys A Counselors at Law, Fort 

Moses, A. A.. Merchant, Sheldon, 1864. 
Mot7. A Co., Geo.. Fire, Life A Accident Insurance, Real Estate A Loans, 

Fort Wayne, Est. 1891. 

Myers, Fred. H., Proprietor Washington Boulevard Livery, Boarding & 
Sale Stables, Fort Wayne. 

Myers, Win, F., Veterinary Surgeon (with Fred. H. Mvers), Fort Wayne. 

Muhler & Son, Chas. F., Manufacturers & Dealers in Huntington Lime. 
Cement, Plaster, Sewer Pipe. Fire Brick and Builders' Supplies Gen- 
erally, Fort Wavne. Est. 1857. 

Muhler. B. C. (Chas. F. Muhler A Son). Builders' Supplies A Material, 
Fort Wayne. 

Murchland. A., Livery, Sale and Boarding Stables, Monroeville. 

Neeb. George, Farming A Stock. Richardsville Reserve, T. Wayne, P. O. 
Fort Wayne. 

Newton, C. H.. Agent Wabash Railway, Fort Wavne. 

Nonamaker, J. P., Farming A Stock, S. 14, T. Lafayette, P. 0. Nine 
Mile, 1873. 

O'Brien A Rolf, Sanitarv Plumbers, Hot Water A Steam Fitting A Elec- 

- trical Work. General Plumbing Supplies, Fort Wayne, Est. 1894. 
Oettine, Lewis, Farming A Stock. S. 36. T, Wavne. P. O. Fort Wavne, 

Ogdcn Plumbing Co., Robert, Plumbing, Etc.. Fort Wavne. 
Ott, G. W., Farming A Stock, S. 10, T. Perry. P. O. Huntertown, 1885. 
Old National Bank. General Banking, Foreign Exchange; S. B. Bond, 

Pres., J. B. Bond, Cashier (Cap. 5350,000, Surplus 5140,000); Fort 

O'Rourke, E.. Judge of the Circuit Court, Fort Wavne. 
O'Rourke, I'. S., Superintendent G. R. A I R. R., Fort Wavne. 
Orvis, Mrs. Robina L-. Fanning A Stock, S. 28. T. Washington, P. O. Fort 

Wavne, 1874. 

Page, Wm. D . Publisher A Postmaster, Fort Wayne. 

Panuct, Rev. L. R., Pastor of Catholic Church, Monroeville, 1895. 

Parham, F. C. Farm Implements. Buggies, Wagons, Binders A Mowers, 
Fort Wavne. 

Parker, D., Farming A Stock, S. 17, T. Perrv, P. O. Huntertown, 1334. 

Payne, W. C, Farming A Stock, S. 33, T. Aboit, P. O. Aboite, 1864. 

Peltier, J. C , Undertaker. Fort Wavne. 

Perrv. Ed. F., Photographer, Fort Wavne. 

Peters Box A Lumber Company, Fort Wayne- 
Peters A Co., J. C, Hardware. Fort Wayne 

PeMit, D. L., Fanning A Stock, S. 7, T. Washington. P. O. Fort Wayne, 

Pfciffer A Schlatter, Hardware, Fort Wavne. 

Phillcy, Charles. Fanning A Stock, S. 24, T. Wavne. P. O. Fort Wavne. 

Pranger, Edward H.. Farming A Stock, S. 33. T. Lake. P. O. Areola, 1861. 

Pranger, J. H., Sr., Fanning A Stock, S. 33, T. Lake, P. O. Areola. 1854. 

Pranger, John H.. Jr.. Farming A Stock, S. 33, T. Lake, P. O. Areola. 

Poinsett, Joseph, Farming A Stock, S. 16, T. Aboit, P. O. Fort Wayne, 

Poole, J. T-. Fanning A Stock, S. 31, T. Wayne, P, O. Fort Wayne, 1849, 

Poirson. Peter F., Real Estate. Fort Wayne. 

Potts. William A., Fanning A Stock, S. 27. T. Madison. P. O. Monroe- 
ville. 1876. 

Purinan, D. C. Lumberman and President of the town of Monroeville, 
Monroeville, 1868. 

Rackweg. Charles, Fanning A Stock, La Gros Reserve. T. Wayne, P. O. 

Fort Wayne. 
Rademacher. Rt. Rev. J. P., Catholic Bishop, Fort Wayne. 
Randall, Donghman A Pfciffer. Attorneys A Counsellors at Law, Fort 

Randall. Alfred L., Bicycles, Fort Wayne. 
Reichelderfer, E. C, General Merchant. Res. Marvsvillc. P. O. Harlan. 

Reichelderfer, W. A.. County Recorder, Fort Wayne. 
Repp. P.. Farming A Stock, S. 21, T. Springfield. P. O. Hall's Corners. 
Riedmiller. Charles, Livery, Sale A Boarding Stables. Fort Wavne. 
Ringwalt, W. H.. Fanning and Stock, S. 11, T. Springfield, P. O. Halls 

Rippe, Charles E., Livery. Boarding A Sale Stables. Fort Wayne. Est. 

Rippe, Christ H.. Livery, Boarding A Sale Stables, Fort Wayne. 
Robertson A O'Rourke. Attorneys A Counsellors at Law, Fori Wavne. 
Robinson, Adam C, Farm Machinery, Buggies, Wagons, Harness. Etc., 

Monroeville, Est. 1885. 
Rochall A Wagner (V. C. Rochall, J. F. Wagner), Real Estate A Loans, 

Fort Wayne. 
Rogers, L. M. A W. S.. Merchants, New Haven. 
Romarys, Goeglein A Co.. Hardware, Cutlcrv, Farm A Garden Tools A 

Implements, Fort Wavne, Est. 1896. 
Romy A Bobilya, Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 
Rostetter A Son, Louis, Manufacturers of Wood Rims. Handles, Buggy 

Bows. Saddle Cantels. Dress A Chain Guards, Etc., Fort Wayne. Est. 

Root A Co., Drv Goods, Fort Wayne. 
Rothschild Bros.. Brokers, Fort Wayne. 

Rousseau. James, Fanning A Stock, S. 30, T. Aboit, P. O. Aboite. 186S. 
Roy, J.. Farming A Slock, S. 6, T. Monroe, P. O. Monroeville. 1879. 
Roy, F., Fanning A Stock, S. 33, T. Perry, P. O, Fort Wayne, 1846. 

Schauz, F., Photographer, Fort Wayne. 

Schell (J. F.) Loan A Investment Co., Loans, Fort Wayne. 

Scheumann A Klaehn, Undertakers A Embalmers, Wood finished, Cloth 

covered and Metal lined Caskets, Safety Boxes, Burial Robes A 

Wrappers, Etc.. Fort Wayne. 
Scheumann, C. D. W., Farming A Stock. S. 26, T. 'Marion, 'P. O. Bingeti. 

Schlatter. B. S., Fanning A Stock, S. 13, T. Cedar Creek. P. O. Hursh, 

Schlatter, J. J.. Farming A Stock, S. 12, T. Cedar Creek, P. O. Hursh, 

Schlandraff. C, Farming A Stock (Twp. Trustee), S. 17, T. Adams, P. O. 

Fort Wayne, 1860. 
Schinctzer. M. F., Trustee Fort Wayne Township. Fort Wavne 
Sehnelkcr A Co., H. F., Cooperage Manufacturers, New Haven. 
Schnelker. H. F., (H. F. Schnelkcr A Co.), Cooperage Manufacturers. 

New Haven, 1854. 
Schroeder Bros., Drugs, Medicines. Perfumes, Toilet Articles, Cigars & 

Tobaccos, Fort Wayne. 
Scott, William. Farming A Stock. S. 27. T. Lafayette, P. O. Zanesville. 

Seavey Hardware Co., Jobbers A Retailers, Hardware, Stoves, Steel 

Ranges, Tinware, Steam A Hot Water Heating, Plumbing A Gas 

Fitting. Also Galvanized A Sheet Iron Work, Furnaces, Tin A Slate 

Roofing, Fort Wavne. 
Sentinel. The, Daily Newspaper, Fort Wayne. 

Shaffer, Jacob, Farming A Stock, S. 22, T. Lake, P. O. Areola, 1852. 
Shaffer, V. L., Fanning A Stock, S. 20. T. Monroe, P. O. Monroeville. 

Shambaugh, W. H., City Attorney, Fort Wayne. 
Sheridan. Michael, Farming, Fruits A Vegetables, S. 9, T. Adams, P. O. 

Fort Wavne, 1854. 

Shirley. Robert B., Farming A Stock. President of Village. Woodburu 

s " kmau Georffi Farming A Stock, (Twp. Trustee), S. 27. T. Marion, 

Shordon, U . Farm implements, Binders. Mowers, Etc.. Fort Wayne. 
Simon, S.. Farming \ Stock, S. 5. T. I'erry, P. O. Huntertown, 1836. 
Smith. A. A., Fanning .* Stock, S. 21. T. Wayne, P. O. Fort Wayne. 
Smith. Elisha. Farming A Stock, S. 5, T. Aboit, P. O. Areola, 1853. 
Spake, G. E., Hardware, Stoves A Tinware, Agricultural Implements 

Monroeville, 1895. 
Spangler. G. W., Farming A Stock, Fort Wayne. 
Soest. William, Saw Milling. S. 11. T. Marion, P. O. Soest, 1842. 
Sprankel. John. Farming A- Stock, S. 28. T. Aboit, P. O. Fort Wayne, 

Stauffer, Absalom, Farming A Stock, S. 17. T. Milan. P.O. Thurmau. 

Stcllhoru, John H.. Farming A Stock, (County Commissioner), S. 35, T 

Wavne, P. O. Fort Wavne. 1351. 
Stolte. Adolph, Farming A Stock. S. 28. T. Washington. P. O. Fort 

Wavne 1864. 
Stouder. J. H.. Fanning A Stock, (Twp. Trustee), S. 16, T. Aboit, P.O. 

Fort Wayne. 1855. 
Strack, Chas. F., Farming A Stock, S. 21, T. Wayne. P. O. Fort Wayne, 

Sluart. Jacob A., Farming A Stock. S. 28, T. Aboit. P. O. Fort Wavne. 

Stuck, Win. J.. Farming A Stock. Richardsville Reserve. T. Wayne, P. O. 

Fort Wavne, 1877. 
Swaidner, J., Farming A Stock. S. 13, T. Springfield, P. O. Halls Corners. 
Swari?,, Dr. W. W., Physician A Surgeon, Vil. Williamsport, P. O. Poe, 

Sweany, W. O., Druggist, Monroeville, 1871. " 

Tagtmver, David, Dealer in Hardwood Lumber. Fort Wayne. 

Tapp, Herman W., Contractor, Fort Wavne. 

Taylor, R. S., Attorney A Counsellor at Law, Fort Wayne. 

Teutonic Building A Loan Association, Building Loans, A. M. Smith. 

Pres.. Fort Wayne. 
Thomas, Chas. M.. Dairy Farming. La Gros Reserve. T.Wayne. P. < ». 

Fort Wayne. 1861. 
Thorward. Thco.. Real Estate. Fort Wayne. 
Tillo, C. D., Fort Wavne Newspaper Union. Fort Wayne. 
Torrence. Geo. K., Real Estate. Fort Wayne. 
Turner, Asu, Farming A Stock, S. 33, T. Aboit, P. O. Aboite. 1838. 

Ulmer, C J.. Livery, Boarding A Sale Stables, Fort Wayne. 
Underbill. E. S.. Real Estate, Fort Wayne. 
Union Central Telephone Co., Fort Wayne. 

Urbiue. Bridget. Farming A Slock. S. 2. T. Washington, P. O. St. Vin- 
cent, 1852. 
Urbiue, Catherine. Retired. S. 2, T. Washington, P. O. St. Vincent, 1841. 
Urbine, Mary, Farming A Stock, S. 2, T. Washington, P. O. St. Vincent, 

ling A Stock. S. 33, T. Eel River, P. O. Hellei 
ning A Stock, S. 2. T. Lake, P. O. Fort Wayn 
i Stock, S. 18, T. Aboit, P. O. Fo 


Valentine, Jackson, Far 
Corners, 1834. 

Valentine. John W., Faru 

Van Hooj-.en. George. Fa: 
Wayne. 1852 

Van Hoo/en, John, Farming A Saw Milling, S. 30, T. Aboit, P. O. Aboite. 

Vandolah, Thomas, Farming A Stock, S. 13, T. Perry, P. O. Gloyd, 1837. 

Veasey A Heaton, Attorneys A Counsellors at Law, Fort Wayne. 

Vonderau, C. G., Farming. Steam Threshing A Picket Manufacturing, S. 
24, T. St. Joseph, P. O. Goeglein, 1866. 

Vonderau, Fred J. Farming A Threshing, S. 36, T. St. Joseph. P.O. 
Goeglein, 1857. 

V ought, Wm, S., Farming A Stock, S. 15, T. Aboit, P. O. Fort Wayne. 1884. 

Wallick, H., Farming & Stock. S. 22, T. Lafayette, P. O. Zanesville, 18S4. 

Washington Boulevard Livery, Boarding A Sale Stables, Fred H. Myers. 
Propr., Fort Wayne. 

Waters. Charles. Farming A Stock, S. 1. T. Washington, P. O. St. Vin- 
cent, 1879. 

Waters. Christ. Farming A Stock, S. 1, T. Washington, P. O. St. Vin- 
cent, 1883. 

Waters, Edward. Farming A Stock. S. 1, T. Washington, P. O. St. Vin- 
cent, 1870. 

Waters, Elias A., Farming A Stock, S. 2, T. Washington, P. O. Fort 
Wayne, 1850. 

Waters, J. S., Farming A Stock, S. 12, T. Washington, P. O. Fort 
Wayne, 1852. 

Watters. Oliver P., Farming A Stock, S. 12, T. Washington, P. O. Fort 
Wayne, 1840. 

Wavne Buggy Co., Manufacturers of Buggies, Carriages, Etc., Fort 

Wayne Hotel, Win. M. McKinnie, Propr.. Fort Wayne. 

Webster, B. H., Trustee Pleasant Township, S. 17, T. Pleasant, P. O. 
Nine Mile, 1857. 

Weisell A Co., A. T., Bicvele and General Repairers; Wheels Enameled in 
any Color of Baking Enamel A Made as Good as New; Fort Wayne, 
135 Broadway. 

Wells, Charles, Farming A Stock, S. 32, T. Aboit, P. O. Aboite, 1861. 

WeUheimer, L., Farming A Stock. S. 3. T. Lake, P. O. Chnrnbnsco, 1853. 

Werts, J. F., Fanning A Stock, Twp. Trustee, S. 4, T. Milan, P. (). 
Chamberlain, 1874. 

Western Telephone A Telegraph Co., Fort Wayne. 

White, Robert, Manager. J. H. Bass' Black Hawk Farm, S. 27, T. St. 
Joseph. P. O. Fort Wavne, 1883. 

Whitehead, H. O.. Farming A Stock. S. 32, T Wayne. P. O. Fort Wayne 

Wilbur, Geo. W-, Farming A Stock (Notary Public), S. 4, T. Milan, P. O. 
Chamberlain. 1851. 

Williams, Henrv M.. Real Estate A Loans. Fort Wayne. 

Williams, Jordan D., Attorney at Law, Fort Wavne. 

Williams. W. D., Insurance, Real Estale A Loans. Fort Wayne, Est. 1893. 

Wilsou, Wm. T., Shoemaker. Monroeville, 1851. 

Winkelmeyer A Han.-. Livery A Boarding Stables: Funerals a Specialty. 
Fort Wayne. Est. 1884. 

Work, Mrs, H. M.. Retired, Fort Wayne, 1857. 

Work, R. C, Farming A Stock. Fort Wayne. 1877. 

Woebbeking, Henry. Farming A Stock. Twp- Trustee, S. 8, T. Maiimee. 
P. O. Woodburu, 1887. 

Wvatt, Mrs. Elizabeth. Farming A Slock. S. 9. T. Perry, P. O. Hunter- 
town, 1378. 

Vant. C, Farming A Stock, S. 28, T. Aboit. P. O. Fort Wayne, 1848. 

Yctter, M. J., Farming A Sioek, S. 6, T. Aboit. P. O. Dunfec, 1874. 

Young, C. C, Twp. Trustees. 22. T. Lafayette. P. O. Zanesville, 1853. 

Zcimmer, Geo. , Farming A Stock. S. 23, T. Springfield. P. O. Halls Cor- 
ners. 1846. 

Zollars, Hon. Allen, Attorney and Counsellor at Law (Ex-Congressman). 
Fort Wayne. 


;^iaz^rx i. 

: RHiS£a£iisa£a£EE!rS£a^ r Eai 








w miwi® awMimi 


H@SV ; 1W1^S| 


(I?v t P to the time of the Revolutionary War, or until about the beginning of the present century, land, when parcelled out, and 
I/l sold or granted, was described by " Metes and Bounds," and that system is still in existence in the following States, or in 
H_JL those portions of them which had been sold or granted when the present plan of surveys was adopted, viz.: New York, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky. Texas, 
and the six New England States. To describe land by "Metes and Bounds," is to have a known laud-mark for a place of beginning, 
and then follow a line according to the compass-needle (or magnetic bearing), or the course of a stream, or track of an ancient high- 
way. This plan has resulted in endless confusion and litigation, as land-marks decay and change, and it is a well-known fact that 
the compass-needle varies and does not always point due North. 

As an example of this plan of dividing lands, the following description of a farm laid out by " Metes and Bounds," is given: 
" Beginning at n stone on the Bank of Doe River, at a point where the highway from A. to B. crosses said river (see point marked 0. 
on Diagram 1); thence 40° North of West 100 rods to a large stump; thence 10" Nortli of West 90 rods; thence 15 u West of North 80 
rods to an oak tree (see Witness Tree on Diagram 1); thence due East 150 rods to the highway; thence following the course of the 
highway 50 rods due North; thence 5" Nortli of East 90 rods; thence 45° East of South 60 rods; thence 10" North of East 300 rods 
to the Doe River; thence following the course of the river Southwesterly to the place of beginning." This, which is a very simple 
and moderate description by "Metes and Bounds," would leave the boundaries of the farm as shown in Diagram 1. 


IDI-ei-G-IR^ItvC ZL. 

Land Surveys was 
adopted by Con- 
on the 7th of May, 
1785. It has been in use ] 
ever since and is tho lej 
method of describing a 
dividing lands. It is culled , 
the "Rectangular System," 
that is, all its distances and 
bearings are measured from 
two lines which are at right 
angles to eacli other, viz. :+. 
These two lines, from which 
the measurements aro made, 
are the Principal Meridians, 
which run NorLh and South, 
and the Base Lines, which 

i East and West. These | 
Principal Meridians ace es- 
tablished, with great accu- 
racy, by astronomieid obeer- i 
vatious. Each Principal 
Meridian has its Base Line, i 
and these two lines form the 
basis or foundation for the 
surveys or measurement of | 
all the lands within the ter- i 
ritory which they control. J 

Diagram 3 shows all of the 
Principal Meridians and Base | 
Lines in the central portion ■ 
of the United States, and 
from it the territory gov- i 
erned by each Meridian and | 
Base Line may be readily 
distinguished. Each Merid- 
i and Base Line is marked j 
th its proper number or 
me, as are also tho Stand- j 
avd Parallels and guide (or 
auxiliary) Meridians. 

Diagram 3 illustrates what 
is meant when this method | 
is termed the "Rectangular 
System," and how the nieas- 

ents are based on lines j 
which run at right anglesto I 
each other. The heavy line I 
running North and South I 
(marked A. A.) represents I 
the Principal Meridian, 
this case say the 5th Principal I 
Meridian. The heavy line I 
running East and West I 
(marked B. B.) is the Base I 
Line. These lines are used I 
as the starting points or basis j 
of all measurements or sur- 
veys made in territory con- 
trolled by the 5th Principal I 
Meridian. The same fact J 
applies to all other Principal I 
Meridians and their Base I 
Lines. Commencing at the I 
Principal Meridian, at inter- I 
vals of six miles, lines are 
run Nortlumd South, parallel I 
to the Meridian. This plan j 

followed both East and 
West of the Meridian I 
throughout the territory J, 
controlled by the Meridian. L 



e-owx/sMsara re. -U"2nTITE13 STATES Xj-A-HSTD SVEVETS 

!=fll Tlicse lines are termed "Range Lines." They divide the land into strips or divisions 6ix miles wide, extending North and South, parallel with the Meridian. 
Each division is culled a Range. Ranges are numbered from one upward, commencing at the Meridian; and their numbers are indicated by Roman 
characters. For instance, the first division (or first six miles) west of the Meridian is Range I. West; the next is Range II. West; then comes Range III., 
IV., V., VI., VII., and so on, until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian is readied. In the same manner t lie Ranges East of the Meridian 
are numbered, the words East or West being always used to indicate the direction from the Principal Meridian. See Diagram 3. 

Commencing nt the Base Line, at intervals of six miles, lines are run East and West parallel with the Base L:-ie. These are designated as Township 
Lines. They divide the land into strips or divisions six miles wide, extending East and West, parallel with the Base Line. This plan is followed both 
North and South of the Base Line until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian and Base Line is reached. These divisions or Townships are 
numbered from one upward, both North and South of the Base Line, and their numbers are indicated by figures. For instance : The first six mile division 
north of the Base Line is Township 1 North ; the next is Township 2 North ; then comes Township 3, 4, 5, and 6, North, and so on. The same plan is 
■,, i !.,-.',. .] h 1 1 f 1 1 1 * ■ H:ue L ne ; the Township; being designated as Township l South, Township 2 South] and bo on. The " North " or "South " (the 
initials N. or S. being generally used) indicates the direction from the Base Line. See Diagram 3. 

These Township and Range Lines, crossing each other, as shown in Diagram 3, form squares, which are called "Townships'' or "Goverument Townships," 

which are six miles square, or as nearly that as it is possible to make them. These Townships are a very important feature in locating or describing a piece 

of laud. The location of a Government Township, however, is very readily found when the number of the Township and Range is given, by merely 

counting the number indicated from the Base Line and Principal Meridian. As an example of this. Township S North, Range 4. West of the 5th Principal, 

n. is at once located on the sqi 

rn L.U1I1H 

are marked + on Diagram 3, by counting c 

s -north of the Base Line and 4 tiers west of the Meridian. 


















\ ff f OWNSHIPS are the largest sub- 
©J ■ vs 1 divisions of land run out by the 
X. United States Surveyors. In the 
Governmental Surveys Township 
Lines are the first to bo run, and a Township 
Corner is established every six miles and 
marked. This is called "Townshipping." 
After the Township Corners have been care- 
fully located, the. Section and Quarter Section 
Corners are established. Each Township i; 
six miles square and contains 23,040 acres, 
or 36 square miles, as near as it is possible 
to make them. This, however, is fre- 
quently made impossible by: (1st) the pres- 
ence of lakes and large streams; (2nd) by 
State boundaries not falling exactly on 
Township Lines; (3rd) by the- convergence 
of Meridians or curvature of the earth's 
surface; and (4th) by inaccurate surveys. 

Each Township, unless it is one of the 
exceptional cases referred to, is divided 
into 30 squares, which are called Sections. 
These Sections are intended to be one 
mile, or 330 rods, square and contain 040 
acres of land. Sections are numbered 
consecutively from 1 to 36, as shown on 
Diagram 4. Beginning with Section 1 in 
the Northeast Corner, they run West to 
C, then East to 12, then West to 18, and 
so on, back and forth, until they end with 
Section 36 in the Southeast Corner. 

Diagram 4 shows a plat of a Township 
as it is divided and platted by the govern- 
ment surveyors. These Townships are 
called Goverument Townships or Congres- 
sional Townships, to distinguish them from 
Civil Townships or organized Townships, 
as frequently the lines of organized Town- 
ships do not conform to the Government 
Township lines. 



IAGRAM 5 illustrates how a section 
may be subdivided, although the 
Diagram only gives a few of the 
many subdivisions into which a 
section may be divided. All Sections 
(except fractional Sections) are supposed to be 320 rods, or one mile, square uud therefore 
contain 640 acres — a number easily divisible. Sections are subdivided into fractional parts to suit 
the convenience of the owners of the land. A half-section contains 320 acres; a quarter-section 
contains 160 acres; half of a quarter contains 80 acres, and quarter of a quarter contains 40 acres, 
and so on. Each piece of laud is described according to the portion of the section which it 
embraces — as the Northeast quarter of Section 10; or the Southeast quarter of the Southeast 
quarter of Section 10. Diagram 5 shows how many of these subdivisions are platted, aud also 
snows the plan of designating aud describing them by initial letters as each parcel of land on the 
Diagram is marked with its description. 

As has already been stated, all Sections (except Fractional Sections which are explained else- 
where) are supposed to contain 040 acres, and even though mistakes have beeu made in surveying, 
as is frequently the case, making sections larger or smaller than 640 acres, the Government recog- 
nizes no variation, but sells or grants each regular section as containing 640 acre6 "more or less." 

The Government Surveyors are not required to subdivide sections by running lines within 
them, but they usually establish Quarter Posts on Section Lines on each side of a section at the 
points marked A. B. C. and D. on Diagram 5. After establishing Township corners, Section 

Lines are the next to bo run, and section cor- 
ners are established. When these are carefully 
located the Quarter Posts aro located at points as 
nearly equidistant between Section Corners as 
possible. These corners when established by 
Government Surveyors cannot be changed, even 
though it is conclusively shown that mistakes 
have been made which cause some sections or 
quarter sections to be either larger or smaller 
than others. The laws, however, of all the 
States provide certain rules for local surveyors 
to follow in dividing Sections into smaller 
:els of land than has been outlined in the 
Governmental surveys. For instance, in divid- 
ing a quarter section into two parcels, the dis- 
ance between the Government Corners is care- 
fully measured and the new post is located at a 
point equidistant between them. This plan is 
followed in running out "eighties," "forties," 
"twenties," etc. In this way, if the Govern- 
ment division overruns or falls short, each 
portion gains or loses its proportion. This is 
not the case, however, with Fractional Sections 
along the North or West sides of a Township, 
adjoining a lake or large stream. 













r r 

a i 


, i 





^^■.SxoTWJk. ' 

i -..:■ r- ■;.-■ ', ■— . 






N. E. "/■+ 

% 1 



N.Vfe Of S. E. V4- 
80 A. 


S. E.'A 

of S.E.'/t 


> (20 A.) | IDA. 



^rONG SESSIONAL Townships vary 

I /i» considerably as to size and boundaries. 
\^ Mistakes made in surveying and the 
fact that Meridians converge ns they 
run North cause every Township to vary 
more or less from the 23,040 acres which a 
perfect Township would contain. See 
Diagram 4. In arranging a Township into 
Sections all the surplus or deficiency of land 
is given to, or taken from, the North and 
West tiers of Sections. In other words, all 
Sections in the Township are made full — 
640 acres — except those on the North and 
West, which are given all the laud that is 
left after forming the other 25 Sections. 

Diagram 4 illustrates how thesnrpiusor 
deficiency is distributed and the Sections it 
affects. It will be seen that Sections 1, 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 30 and 31, are the 
" Fractional Sections," or the Sections 
which are affected if the Township overruns 
or falls short. Inside of these Fractional 
Sections, all of the surplus or deficiency of 
land (over or under 640 acres) is carried to 
the "forties" or "eighties" that touch the 
Township Line. These pieces of land are 
called "Fractional Forties" or "Fractional 
Eighties," as the case may be. Diagrams 4 
and 6 show the manner of marking tho 
acreage and outlining the boundaries of 
these "Fractions." 

Diagram 6 illustrates how thesnrpiusor 
deficiency of land inside of these Sections is 
distributed and which "forties"or "eighties" 
it affects. From this arrangement it will be 

seen that in any Section that touches the North or West Township Lines, the Southeast Quarter may Lil 
be full — 160 acres — while another quarter of the same Section may be much Inrger or smaller. ff^J 
Frequently these fractional "forties" or "eighties" are lotted as shown in Diagram 6. They are 
always described as fractional tracts of land, as the "fractional S.W. ^ of Section 6," etc. Of course 
those portions of these Sections which aro not affected by these variations aro described in the usual ^ll 
manner — as Southeast +, of Section 6. As a rule Townships arc narrower at tho North than at the "[— ! 
South side. The Meridians of Longitude (which run North and South) converge as they run North [=[]] 
and South from the Equator. They begin at the Equator with a definite width between them aud 
gradually converge until they all meet at the poles. Now, as the Range lines are run North and South, 
it will at once bo seen that tho convergence of Meridians will cause every Congressional Township 
(North of the Equator) to be narrower at its North than at its South side, as stated. See Diagram 
4. In addition to this fact, mistakes of measurement are constantly and almost unavoidably made 
in running both Township and Range 
lines, and if no new starting points 
were established the lines would 
become confused and unreliable, and 
the size and shape of Townships 
materially affected by the time the 
surveys had extended even a hundred 
miles from tho Base Line aud Princi- 
pal Meridian. In order to correct 
the Biirveys and variations caused 
by the difference of latitude and 
straighten the lines, " Correction 
Lines" (or Guide Meridians and 
Standard Parallels) are established at 
frequent intervals, usually as follows: 
North of the Base Line a Correction 
Line is run East aud West parallel 
with the Base Line, usually every L, 

twenty-four miles. South of the L.32 AC. (O ^ j-|| 

Base Lino a Correction Lino is usually 
established every thirty miles. Both 
East and West of the Principal 
Meridian "Correction Lines" are 
usually established every 48 miles. 
All Correction Lines are located by 
careful measurement, and tho suc- 
ceeding surveys are based upon , - 1 q-, 



JLOT 4. 

LOT 3. 

lot a. 

LOT 1. 

(62 AC. 

i 85 


? 83 
''" ACRES. 

" 80.5 

| .13 R. 

j i •■ i r.. 


1 29 AC. 


40 B 
ACRES. '■■ 

80 ACRES. ~ 

1 S3 R. 

BAR. ( 

| lot a. 

1G0 Bods. 

C32 AC. 

I 6i R. 

DC a 
o « 
< g 



160 ACRES. 

I LOT 7. 

1* 37 AC. 

I 71 B. 

60 Rods. 

ICO Bods. 















THE GOVERNMENT of the United States is one of limited and 
spetinc powers, strictly outlined and defined by a written con- 
stitution. The constitution was adopted in 17H7, and, with the 
amendments that have since been made, it forms the basis of 
the entire fabric of government under which we live. The 
constitution created three distinct branches of government, each of 
which is entirely separate and distinct from the others. They are the 
executive, legislative and judicial departments. The constitution spe- 
cifically vests the executive power 111 the President, hut all members 
of the cabinet are usually classed with the executive department; the 
legisl itive power is held by Congress, and the judicial authority is 
vested in the Supreme Court and various other courts which Congress 
has provided for in pursuance of the provisions of the constitution. 

It has been the aim of these pages to explain each of these different 
branches of government, and lo briefly review the duties and powers 
of the principal officials connected with each department 

The President and Vice-President are elected by popular vote, hut 
the vote of each State is separate, so that a candidate may have a large 
majority of the aggregate popular vote of the country and vet fail to be 
elected. I'he Presidential election is held on the first Tuesday after the 
first Monday in November, when Presidential electors are chosen in and 
for the various States, each State having as many electors as it has rep- 
reveii! Hives in both branches of Congress. The' electors aie chosen bv 
the ballots of the people of their States, and all the electors of a .still- 
constitute an electoral college. The electors meet in each State at the 
capital on the first Wednesday in December following a National elec- 
tion and vole for President and Vice-President, certificates of which are 
forwarded to the President of the Senate, at Washington, who, on the 
second Wednesday iu February opens the certificates and counts the 
votes in the presence of both Houses of Congress and declares the result- 
and the final step is the inauguration, which takes place on the 4U1 of 
March. The law provides thai if neither of tile candidates have a major- 
ity then the House of Representatives shall elect a President from the 
three candidates receiving the highest electoral vote. In elections of 
tins kind each State is entitled to only one vole, and two-thirds of the 
State:; form a quorum. 


The President is the highest executive officer of the United Slates. 
He is elected for the term of four years, and receives a salary oi £50,000. 
per annum. He must be thirty-five years old or more, and a native-born 
citizen of the United States. The President is charged with a general 
supervision over the faithful execution of laws passed by Congress, and 
has supervision over all executive departments of the government. He 
appoints a Cabinet of eight officials who become- the heads of the various 
departments, and these departments are intended to be managed and 
conducted as the President directs. The President is Coiuniaiider-in. 
Chief of the Army and Navy. He has power to grant pardons and re- 
prieves for all offenses against the United States, except in cases of im- 
peachment; has power, with the advice and consent of the Senate, to 
Make treaties. He nominates, and with the advise and consent of the 
Senate, appoints Ambassadors and other public Ministers and Consuls, 
all Judges of the United States courts, and all other executive officers of 
the United Stales, except in such cases where the appointments may be 
vested in the various "departments." When the Seriate is not in session 
he can appoint, subject to its action when it reassembles. He has 
power, iu certain extraordinary occasions, to call together both Houses 
of Congress, or either of them, in extra session ; and is required from 
time to time to communicate with Congress, as to the state of the Union, 
and offer such suggestions or recommendations as he may deem proper. 
He is empowered to approve or veto all measures adopted bv Congress, 
but it is provided that any measure may be passed over his veto by a 
two. thirds vote of Congress. 

The President consults frequently with his Cabinet, and nearly all 
important official matters are discussed by thai body. In case Hie office 
of President becomes vacant through the death, removal or resignation 
of the incumbent, the law provides that the olfice shall iu turn tie filled 
by the Vice-President, Secretary of Stale, and other Cabinet Ministers 
in regular order. 


The Vice-President of the United States is elected for the term of 
four years, and receives a salary of gio,ooo. In case of the death, re- 
moval or resignation of the President, the Vice-President succeeds hi in. 
The chief duty of the Vice-President is to act as the presiding officer of 
the Senate. He has no vote in the Senate, except 111 cases of a tie, or 
an equal division of the members of that body. The Vice-President ad- 
ministers the oath of olfice to the Senators. 


The head of this department is the Secretary of State, who is ap- 
pointed by the President as a member of the Cabinet, and receives a 
salary of ?S,ooo per year. The law provides that in case the office of 
President becomes vacant, through the death, removal or resignation of 
both the President and Vice-President, the Secretary of State assumes 
the duties of the Presidency. The Secretary of State may he said to be 
the official Secretary of the President, and countersigns all commissions 
issued by the President. 

The Secretary of State is the head of the Department of State and is 
the chief diplomatic officer of the United States. In his department and 
under his supervision is conducted the public business relating lo foreign 
affairs; to correspondence, com missions or instructions to or with public 
Ministers from Hie United States ; or to negotiations wilb Ministers from 
foreign Stales ; or to memorials or other applications from foreigners, or 
foreign public Ministers, or citizens of this country in foreign lands, or 
1 ompl nations arising therefrom. The Secretary of Slate also has charge 
of all other business connected with foreign affairs, extradition mailers 
and diplomatic officers; furnishing passports to vessels going lo foreign 
countries, etc., and has charge of the Great Seal of (he United States. 

Connected with the Department of Stale and forming a part of it in 
the great work of performing and caring for the duties outlined are the 
following bureaus: 

The Diplomatic Bureau, which looks after ihc affairs pertaining to 
foreign governments. 

The Consular Bureau, correspondence with consulates. 
'The Bureau of Indexes and Archives, the duties of which are lo 
open the official mails, prepare an abstract of the daily correspondence 
and an index of it, and superintend miscellaneous work of department. 

The Bureau of Accounts, in which all of the finances of the depart- 
ment are looked after, such as the custody and disbursement of appro- 
priations; also indemnity funds and bonds; also care pf the building 
and property of the department, etc. 

The Bureau of Rolls and Library, which is charged with the cus- 
tody of treaties, rolls, public documents, etc.; has care of revolutionary 
"" of international commissions, superintendence of library, etc. 
of Statistics, (or the preparation of reportson commer- 

Thc Bui 

The chiefs of all of these bureaus receive 82,100 per year. In addi- 
tion to these there are connected with the State Department the offices 
of translator, at 82,100 per year; assistant secretary, S4,. r i00; second 
assistant >... r.tarv, 83.500; third assistant sei rclarv. §:i,5tt0- solicitor 
§3,511(1; chief clerk, £2,750; clerk 10 Secretary of State, §2.000; passport 
clerk. §1,400. Besides these there are the various comptrollers, audit- 
ors, clerks and assistants, which number well up into the thousands. 


This department was organized in 1789. The head of this depart- 
ment, known as the Secretary of the Treasury, is appointed by the Pres- 
ident, is a member of the Cabinet, and receives a salary of $8,000 per 
annum. The Treasury Department is one of the most important 
bran, lies of the national unvcrnineut. as it has charge of the financial 
affairs,.. f ihc- government, custody of public funds, collection of revenue 
and maintenance of public credit Among the many important duties 
devolving upon this department are the following: It attends to the col- 
lection of all internal revenues and duties on imports, and the preven- 
tion of frauds in these departments. Altclaims and demands, either by 
the United States or against them, and all the accounts in which the 
United Slates are interested, either as debtors or creditors, must be set- 
tled ;kw\ adjusted 111 the Treasury Department. This department also 
includes the Bureau of the Mint, in which the government coin ami 
moneys are manufactured. The Ini-nu Department authorizes the 
organization of national banks and h,i- supei\ ision over them; lias 
charge of the coast surveys, the lighthouses, marine hospitals, etc. It 
has charge of all moneys belonging to the United Slates; designates 
depositories of public moneys, keeps a complete and accurate system 
of accounting, showing the receipts and disbursements of the Treasury, 
and makes reports at stated intervals showing the condition of public 
finances, public expenditures and the public debt. 

There are a great many very important officials connected with the 
Treasury Department, chief among which are the following, viz.: Pri- 
vate secretary of the head of the department, at §2,400 per year; three 
assistant secretaries, at §4,500 each, chief clerk, §3,000; chief of appoint- 
mem division, 82,750; chief of warrants division, §2,750; chief of public 
moneys division, §2.500; chief of customs division, §2,7tl0; acting chief 
of revenue marine division, 82,500; chief of stationery division. §_\..ii0; 
chief of loans and currency division, 82,500; chief of miscellaneous divi- 
sion, §2,500: supervising spicial agent. &s per day; government actuary, 
§1,-1)0; supervising an hitixr, §4,500; steamboat inspector, §3.500; chief 
Bureau of Statistics, §.*:1,000; life saving service superintendent, §4,01*0; 
assistant, §2,500; commissioner Bureau of Navigation, §3,000; superin- 
tendent United Slates coast and geodetic survey. §0,000; supervising 
surgeon-genera] marine hospital service, §4,000; Bureau of Engraving 
ami Printing. 1 Inef, §l,5in>; assistant chief, §2,250; superintend. -nt ei." rav- 
ing division, 83,(100. 

The foregoing will serve to show many of the lines of work attended 
to in the Treasury Department, as the names of these offices explain the 
branch of work they are charged with attending to. There are a num- 
ber of other important offices in the department that should be men- 
tioned, among them being the following; 

The Solicitor of the Treasury, or chief attorney, who receives 
$4,500 per year for attending to the. legal matters connected with the 

The Commissioner of Customs, who receives §4.000 per year and 
his deputy §2,250, has charge of all accounts of the revenue from cus- 
toms and disbursements, and for the building and repairing of custom 

The Treasurer of the United States receives §6,000 per year, assist- 
ant treasurer £1,000. and superintendent of national banks (Red. Div.) 
§ii,500. The Treasurer receives and keeps the government funds, 
either at headquarters or in the Sub-Treasuries or government depos- 
itories, paying it out upon warrants drawn in accordance with the law. 
and pays all interest on the national debt. 

The Register of the Treasury is paid a salary of $4,000 per 
year, and his assistant §2.250. The Register keeps the accounts of 
public expenditures and receipts; receives the returns and makes out 
the oflicial statements of United Stales commerce and navigation; 
receives from first comptroller and Commissioner of Customs all 
accounts and vouchers acted on by them and files the same. 

The Comptroller of the C rrency receives §-5,000 per year and his 
deputy §2,600. This bureau is charged with a general supervision of 
the national banks and matters connected with the issuing of paper 

The Director or the Mint receives §4.500 per annum, and is 
charged with a general supervision over all the coinage of the govern- 

Comptrollers. The first and second comptrollers are paid a 
salary of 8 >,000 per year, and each of their deputies receive §J,700. The 
first comptroller revises and certifies the accounts of the civil and 
diplomatic service and public lands. The second comptroller revises 
and cenihes the accounts of the army and navy and of the Pension 
and Indian Bureaus. 

Auditors. There are six auditors connected with the Treasury- 
Department, each of whom receives a salary of §3,000 per year, and is 
allowed a deputy at a salary of 82,250 per annum. No one auditor takes 
rank over another. The first auditor receives and adju I tl 
of the revenue and disbursements, appropriations and expenditures on 
account of the civil list and under special acts of Coo 1, reporting 
the balances to the commissioners of the customs and m ■ . ompimik-r 
respectively for their decision. The second auditor dt voti most of his 
attention to army affairs; looks after all the a. . tin n iti to the pay, 
clothing and recruiting of the army; the arsenate, armories and ord- 
nance; all accounts relating to the Indian Department; reporting to the 
second comptroller. The third auditor has all accounts t, 1 sustenance 
of the army, military academy, military road-, ; 'i\i. i-n.'is, quarter- 
master's department, certain pensions, claims .msu . fo military serv- 
ice previous to 1817; for all property lost in thi;, service; he 
reports also to the second comptroller. The fourth auditor also reports 
to the second comptroller, and attends to all accounts of the service 
connected with the navy. The fifth auditor reports to the first comp- 
troller, and adjusts all accounts connected with the diplomatic service of 
the Department of Stale. The sixth auditor adjusts all accounts grow- 
ing from the service of the Post Office Department. 


The War Department was organized in August, 1789. The head of 
ibis department is known as the Secretary of War; is appointed by the 
President, and receives a salary of 88,000 per annum. The War Depart- 
ment attends to the execution of all laws affecting ihc Regular Army, 
and carries out and performs such duties as may be provided for by 
law or directed by the President relative lo military forces, military 
commissions and the warlike stores of the United States. In former 
years this department also had charge of Indian as well as military 
affairs, but this has been transferred to the Department of the Interior. 
The War Department is also required, among other duties, lo maintain 
the signal service and provide for taking meteorological observations at 
various points on the continent, and give telegraphic notice of the 

ncd .1 Civil Engineering De- 
al out such improvements in 
y Congress. 'The Secretary of 

approach of storms. There is also main 

partment, through the aid of which is . a 

rivers and harbors as may be authorized bv <_oni 

War also has supervision over the West Point Military Acad' 

-.nJ he P rlvatc cler Y for <"<-• lw»« of 'lie Wai Department is p.,,,1 

t>2,000 per year; assistant secretary. 84.500; chief clerk. §2 7511 The 

most of the subordinates andassistauts in die War Department except 

those mentioned, are officers of the Regular Army, who are paid salaries 

and perquisites. 

The Commanding General comes next to the Secretary, and receives 
a salary of §7.500 per year. He looks after the arrangement of military 
forces, superintends the recruiting service and discipline of the army 
orders courts-martial, and in a general sense is charged with sceinc to 
the' enforcement of the laws and regulations of the army The Adjutant- 
General keeps the rolls and the orders issued. The Ouartennasier- 
General has charge of the barracks and the supplies tti that may be 
required for the army. The Commissary-General is head of the Subsist- 
ence Department, and has supervision over the purchasing and 
issuing army rations. The Judge Advocate General i*. tin head of the 
department of military justice. The Surgeon General , the nami im 
plies, look's after the affairs of the army relaime lo-n k" «■■■ .' < '.,, 
tal, etc. The Paymaster-General is the disbursing oo,'. . ■ . '■■ . ' ,,,."., ',', 
required by the department. There is also the Ordnan, . o on trol- 
ling ordnance store-, arsenals, armories, the manufacture ol arms etc 
The Topographical office has charge of all plats and drawings V.f all 
surveys made for military purposes. Besides these there are the 
Inspector-General'; Department and departments devoted to war rec- 
ords, publications. '_.c. 

In this connection i< mav be of interest to the general reader to 
refer briefly to a few facts concerning the Regular Army. The United 
Stales is divided for this purpose into a number of military districts 
Hie head of each department receives his general instructions ami 
orders from headquarters. The term of service in the Regular Army is 
live years. The pay of private soldiers at the start is SI3 per month 
and rations, and this is increased according lo time of service, heme 821 
per month and rations after twenty years' service. The pay of the 
officers is proportioned to their rank. Colonels receive 84,51m per year- 
brigadier generals, 85,500; and major generals. ?7,50O. 


The head of this department is the Secretary of the Navy, who is 
appointed by the President, and receives a salary of §8,000 pei annum 
This department is charged with the duty of attending to the construc- 
tion, armament, equipment and employment of vessels of war. as well 
as all other matters connected with naval affairs, and appropriations 
made therefor by Congress. The Secretary of the Navy lias direct 
control of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland- 
issues orders to the commanders of the various squadrons, lias general 
authority over the Marine Corps; and has control of all the several 
bureaus of the Navy Department. 

There are a number of bureaus organized in the Navy Department 
for the purpose of more thoroughly handling the work, among the 
most important of which may be mentioned the following: Bureau of 
Steam Engineering; Bureau of Medicine ami Siutierv; Bureau ot Naviga- 
tion; Bureau of Provisions and Clothing; Bureau of Yards and Docks; 
Bureau of Ordnance; Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting; Bureau of 
Construction and Repair. Attached to this department are also. >fficials 
or bureaus to attend to the following matters: Marine Barracks, Wash- 
ington, D. C; Museum of Hygiene; Naval Dispensary; Board of 
Inspection and Survey; Navy Supplies and Accounts; Naval Observa- 
tory; Hydrographic Office; Library and War Records; Naval Intelli- 
gence; Nautical Almanac, etc. 

Rear-admirals in the Navy are paid $6,000 per year; commodores, 
85,000; captains, 81,50(1, licuteiiant-cnmuiamlcrs, §.'1,000; medical direct- 
ors (rank of captains), §4,400; medical inspectors (rank of commanders), 
§4,400; pay directors (rank of captains), 8-1,400; pay inspectors (rank 
of commanders), 34,400, In the Engineer Corps the chief engineers are 
also paid S4,400 per year, 


This is one of the most important branches of the National Govern- 
ment. Its head is the Postmaster-General, who is appointed by the 
President, and receives a salary of 83,000 per annum. The Post Office 
Department has supervision over the execution of all laws passed by 
Congress affecting the postal service, and has general supervision over 
everything relating to the gathering, carrying and distribution of United 
Slates mails, superintends the distribution and disposal of all moneys 
belonging to, or appropriated for, the department ; and the instruction 
of and supervision overall persons in the postal service, with reference 
lo their duties. 

In providing (or handling the general work of the Post Office Depart- 
ment it has been found necessary to create four bureaus, or offices, as 
they are termed, each of which is presided over by an assistant post- 
master-general, who each receive §4,000 per annum; are all subject to 
the direction and supervision of the head of the department. A review 
of these various bureaus and their principal officials, with the name of 
the office, will show \, t \ clearly the work handled by each. 

The first assistant p ost mas ter-general is allowed a chief clerk at 
S2.000 per year ; superintendent >•( post office supplies, §2.000; superin- 
tendent free delivery .In .>1,000 ; chief division of salaries and 
allowances, §2,200 , superintendent money order system, 83,500 ; super- 
intendent Dead Letter Office, §2,500 ; chief division of correspondence, 

The second assistant postmaster-general has charge of a number of 
divisions, indicated by the following officials who are under his control : 
superintendent of railway adjustments, at 82,000 per year; chief of 
inspection division, 82,000; chief of mail equipment division, 81,800; 
general superintendent railway mail service, j.1,500 ; superintendent 
foreign mails. §.'1,000. 

1 he third assistant postmaster-general has charge of the postage 
stamp division and the finance division. The chief of the former 
receives §-j.550 per annum, and of the latter 82,000 per year. 

The fourth assistant postmaster-general has control of a number 
of divisions, as indicated by the following officials who are under his 
supervision, viz.: Chief of the division of appointments, who is paid 
§2,000 per annum; chief of the division of bonds and commissions, 
S2.000; chief post office inspector, 83,000; and the division of mail depre- 

Besides the various chiefs of divisions mentioned above there are 
connected with the Post Office Department a law clerk, at 82,500 per 
year; appointment clerk, at 81,800; assistant attorney-general, 84,000; 
superintendent and disbursing clerk, §2,100; and a topographer, at 
82,500 per annum. 


The Interior Department is under the immediate control of the Sec- 
retary of the Interior. He is appointed by the President, and receives a 
salary of &M.00O per year. In this department, as the name implies, is 
conducted most of the public business relating lo domestic or internal 
affairs, and, like most of the other executive departments, 11 is divided into 
a number of subdivisions and branches. The Secretary of the Interior 
is charged with a general supervision over publit Im-,.;.. --!,!,>_'■ h d 
with the following branches, viz.: 1st. The census of the United States. 
2d. All matters connected with public lands. 3d. Everything relating 
to the Indians or Indian affairs. 4th. All matters concerning pensions 
or bounty lands. 5th. The issuance and filing of patents and caveats. 
6th. The custody and distribution of publications. 7th. The compila- 
tion of statistics relating to educational matters in the various States. 


, BF GEO. A. OOLE & CO., 




He also has oversight over several of the Government's charitable and 
bcnevelcnl instil (it ions. For the purpose of handling properly llie busi- 
ncs- ■ niinecteil with most of the subjects mentioned, there are bureaus 
organized (or tlie purpose. 

The salaries paid to the principal officials connected with the Interior 
Department are as follows: First assistant secretary of the interior, 
■M,.MXI per year; assistant secretary, cS-t.UOd; chief clerk, $'2,750; assist- 
ant atloriicy-gciieral (Dept of Interim). £o,0il0; commissioner of the 
General Land Office, $- r >,000; commissioner of Indian affairs, -54,000; 
superintendent of Indian schools, S'lOHO; commissioner of the Pension 
Ollice, S!i,000; medical referee, S^t.Oo^; commissioner of railroads, 
fl.'ifMI; commissioner of the Patent Office. $. r .,000; comiiiissioner of the 
Lduc.mon Otrice. so,0i.i0; director of geological surveys, S(>,000; super- 
intendent of the Census Office, $6,000. 


This department was formerly connected with the Interior Depart- 
ment, but in 1889 it was reorganized and made independent, and the 
Secretary of Agriculture was made a member of the Cabinet. The head 
of tins department is appointed by the President, and receives a salary 
of $8,000 per annum. 

The general duty and design of the Department of Agriculture is to 
acquire and diffuse among the people of the United Slates useful infor- 
mation on subjects connected with agriculture in the most general and 
comprehensive sense of that word, and to procure, propagate and dis- 
tribute among llie people new and valuable seeds and plants. 

The following is a list of the chief ohkials connected with the 
Department of Agriculture and their salaries, and the list will also serve 
to indicate the various lines of work handled by and the various duties 
which devolve upon the department, viz.: Assistant secretary of agri- 
culture receives S4,-iQ0 per annum; chief of Weather Bureau.; 
chief of Bureau of Animal Industry, sf3,Uon ; >tati stic i.m , S'-V.oO; chemist. 

^..".iHI; entomologist, iS.'.ouO; botanist, S.',. 7 nrnirholngist. $2,. r iU0; chief 

of forestry division, S'2,'.«>0; pomologist.S'_\.\iO(l; chief of vegetable pathol- 
ogy division, $2,000. microscopist," ti.riUii; director of office of experi- 
mental stations, S-A.OOO; chief division "f accounts, 82,000; chief of 
division of records and editing, §2,-000; chief of division of illustrations 
and engravings, 62,000; horticulturist, 82,500. 


The head of the Department of justice is the Attorney-General, 
who is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of &S.0UU per 
annum. The principal assistant of the Attorney-General is the Solicitor- 
Genera), who receives $7,000 per year. There are a number of assist- 
ant attorney-generals who receive 6-5,000 per annum, and a special 
assistant aitorney-gencral is appointed for nearly all of the various 
departments, including the Treasury, State, Post Office and Interior De- 
partments. Besides these there are a number of special officials con- 
nected with the Department of Justice, such as examiner of titles, who 
receives 8*2.750 per annum; superintendent of buildings, S'3,600; ap- 
pointment and disbursing clerk, S*J,00O, and attorney in charge of 
pardons, $2,400. 

I he Attorney-General is the legal adviser of the President, and it is 
the duty of the Department of Justice to give all opinions and render 
all services requiring the skill of persons learned in the law necessary 
to enable the President and other officers of the various Government 
departments to discharge their respective duties. This department is 
also required to prosecute or defend all suits or proceedings in which the 
United States is interested. The Attorney-General has general super- 
vision over all the solicitors for the various departments; and also exer- 
cises general superintendence and direction over all United States and United Slaves district attorneys of all the districts of the 
United States and Territories. 


There are several independent departments, which, although none 
of them are as important as the foregoing, and their heads are not 
Cabinet members, yet they form a very necessary part and attend to 
very important branches of the National Government. 

Government Printing Office. The head of this branch of public 
work is the Public Primer, who is appointed by the President, and 
receives a salary of $4.f>00 per year. His chief clerk is paid $"2,400 per 
year, and there is a foreman of printing and a foreman of binding, 
each of whom receive $2,100 per annum, 

Civil Service Commission. This commission consists of three com- 
missioners, each of whom are paid $3,.->00 per year. The chief examiner 
connected with the commission is paid {$3,000 per annum, and the 
secretary $2,000. 

Interstate Commerce Commission. This commission was created 
for the purpose, and charged with the duty, of seeing that the laws regu- 
lating interstate commerce were faithfully executed and observed, and 
event unjusl 

Tion carrier.. 
appointed from different sections of the United States, each of whom 
receives a salary of $7,500 per year. The secretary of the commission 
receivesa salary of £',i>0O per annum. 

Department of Labor. The general design of this department is to 
collect, assort and systematize statistical details relating to the different 
branches of labor in the United Slates. The bead of this department is 
known as the Commissioner of llie Department of Labor, and he is paid 
a salary of 85,000 per annum. His chief clerk receives $2,500 per year, 
and disbursing clerk 81,800. 


The judicial powers of the United Slates are vested in the following- 
named courts, viz.: The United Stales Supreme Court, consisting of 
one chief justice and eight associate justices; the United States Court 
of Claims, which consists of one chief justice and four judges; the 
United States Circuit Court of Appeals; and ihe United States Circuit 
and District Courts. All judges of United States Courts ate appointed 
for life, or during "good beliavior." The chief justice of the United 
States Supreme Court receives a salary of $10,500 per annum, and the 
associate iusli._es $10,uOn each. The circuit judges receive a salary of 
$0,i W0 each per annum, district judges $5,000, and judges of the Court 
of Claims £4.500 each per year. 

The jurisdiction of the United States Courts extends to all cases in 
law and in equity arising under the Constitution, the laws of the United 
States, anil treaties; to all cases affecting ambassadors, oilier public 
ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdic- 
tion; to controversies to which the United Si ilea shall be a party; to 
controversies between two or more Stan • ■■ ■ • .Mate and a citizen 

of another State; between citizens of different States; between citizens of 
the same Stale claiming lands under grants of different Stales. In all 
cases a Electing ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and 
those in which a Slate is a party ihe Supreme Court has original jurisdic- 
tion. In the other cases the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction. 


The legislative powers of the United States are vested in a Con- 
gress, which consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, and 
which meets annually at Washington on the first Monday of December. 
The constitution gives to Congress the following general powers: To 
lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises; ' pay the debts of the 
United States; borrow money on the credit of the United States; to reg- 
ulate commerce; to establish uniform laws on naturali^alion and bank- 
ruptcy; to coin money and regulate the value thereof; fix the stand- 

ard of weights and measures; to declare war; to raise and support 
armies (but it is provided that no appropriation for this purpose can be 
for a longer period than for two years); to provide and maintain a navy; 
to grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning capt- 
ures on land and water; to make rules for Ihe government and regula- 
tion of the laud and naval forces; to establish postollkes and post-roads; 
lo promote the progress of science and the useful arts by securing for 
limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their re- 
spective writings and discoveries; to constitute tribunals inferior to the 
Supreme Court; to define and punish piracies and felonies committed 
on the high seas and offenses against the law of nations; to exercise 
exclusive legislation over the District of Columbia and places purchased 
for Tons, magazines, arsenals, etc.; and further to make all laws neces- 
sary for ihe general welfare of Ihe United States, and (or "carrying into 
execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by the Con- 
stitution in tile Government of the United States, or in any department 
or officer thereof." The Constitution expressly forbids Congress making 
any law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the 
free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of llie 
press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition 
the Government for a redress of grievances. Congress cannot suspend 
the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus except in cases of rebellion or 
invasion when the public safety may require it. No bill of attainder or 
ex post facto law can be passed. No tax or duty can be laid on articles 
exported from any Slate. No preference can be given by any regula- 
tion of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of 
another. No title of nobility can be granted. Every law passed by 
Congress must be submitted to Ihe President for his approval. If he 
turns it with his objections, or vetoes it, the measure may be passed 
er his veto by a two-thirds vote of both branches of Congress. 

The Senate, or the " Upper House of Congress," is composed of two 
Senators from each State in Ihe Union. They are elected by the Legisla- 
tures of their respective Stales, for the term of six years, and receive a 
salary of 85,000 per annum. No person can be elected to the United 
States Senate who has not attained the age of thirty years, been nine 
years a citizen of the United States, and is when elected an inhabitant 
of the State from which he is chosen. The Senate has sole power to try 
all impeachments. Its consent and confirmation is necessary for all 
important officers appointed by the President. Its consent is also nec- 
essary to conclude any treaty. 

The House of Representatives is the " Lower House of Congress." 
Each State in the Union is divided into congressional districts, of as 
nearly equal population as is practicable. In each district a represent- 
ative is elected by the people for a term of two years, and each is paid 
a salary of 85.000 per year, Besides these, a delegate from each organ- 
ized Territory is admitted to the House of Representatives, who is not 
entitled to vote, but has the right to debate on all subjects in which the 
Territory which he represents has an intcresl. No person can be a rep- 
resentative who has not attained the age of twenty-five years, been for 
seven years a citizen of the United States, and is at the time of his 
election an inhabitant of the State from which he is chosen. All bills 
for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives. 


THE method of State government throughont the United Slates 
follows very closely the general plan of government that pre- 
vails in national affairs. The various functions of government 
in State affairs are handled in departments, with a State officer 
at the head of each branch, and the hues are clearly drawn 
between the executive, legislative and judicial powers. All the States 
are governed under a constitution, which outlines and defines the 
powers which each of these departments shall exercise and possess. 
All of the most important State officials are elected by the people, but 
in many of the Stales the less important offices are filled by appoint- 
ment of the Governor, by and with the consent of the State Senate. 


The Governor is the highest executive officer in all the Slates of the 
Union, and is elected by a direct vote of the people. The term of office 
varies materially in the different States, ranging from two to six years. 
As to the matter of salary that the Governor receives, it also differs 
widely throughout the different States and is subject to frequent change. 
At llie present writing two States— New York and Pennsylvania— pav 
their Governors $10,000 per year; Illinois and California both pay 8'i.000 
per annum; ■Minnesota, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, 
Nevada, New jersey, Virginia and Wisconsin all pay 85,000 per year; 
Maryland pavs S-l.SuO: Michigan. Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, Tennes- 
see and Texas pav 64,000, Florida and Arkansas pay $3,500; Alabama, 
Colorado, Iowa, Kansas and North Carolina all pay So.000; West Vir- 
ginia $2,700; Montana and Washington, $2,000; the Dakotas and 
Nebraska. $"2,500; Connecticut. Delaware and Maine, $*2,0oi); Oregon. 
81.50U, and New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont $1,000. About 
the only statement concerning the qualifications required for this office 
that would be common to all the Stales is that he must be a citizen of 
the Slate in which he is elected. In most of the States, in addition to 
the salary named, the Governor is furnished with a residence, which is 
known as llie " Executive Mansion." 

The powers and dnties that devolve upon the Governor are about 
the same in all nf ihe States. He is charged with a general supervision 
over the faithful execution of the laws, and is the legal custodian of all 
ihe property of the State not specifically entrusted to other officers by 
law, and is authorized to take summary possession of such property. He 
is expected to communicate by message lo each sessiem of the State 
legislature such information or recommendations regarding State affairs 
as he may deem necessary and proper, and he is empowered to call extra 
sessions of that body whenever the public welfare may demand. He 
accounts lo the same body for all moneys received and paid out, and 
presents estimates of amounts to be raised by taxation for various pur- 
poses. He has a negative (or veto) upon all laws passed by the Legisla- 
ture, but it is provided (hat measures may be passed over his veto by a 
two-thirds vote of that body. The Governor is commander-in-chief of 
the Stale military or naval forces, and has authority to call out such 
forces to preserve peace and execute the laws when the local authorities 
are unable lo accomplish this. He may require Ihe opinion of Ihe vari- 
ous Slate officers upon any subject relating to then resin., i.vm n • uid 
examines and approves the bonds of Stale officials. In many States the 
Governor has power to grant reprieves and pardons, after conviction, 
for all offenses against the State except in case- of hum lehuieni; but 
in a few of the Stales the pardoning power is vested iii;a board selected 
for that purpose, of which the Governor is generally ex-ofucio a member. 
The Governor has the appointment of a number of State officers, and in 
many cases if an elective office becomes vacant he has power lo fill it 
by appointment; has power in many Stales 10 suspend a State officer, or 
even a county officer, pending a legal investigation. Die Governor issues 
requisitions Upon the executives of other States for parties charged with 
crime who escape to other States, and he has power lo issue warrants for 
fleeing criminals upon requisition of oilier Governors. 


The office of Lieutenant-Governor does not exist in all of the States 
in the Union, at least not under this name, as in a few of the States this 
officer is only known as Ihe President of the State Senate. In some of 
the States the Lieutenant-Governor is paid a certain amount per day 
during sessions of the Legislature or General Assembly, and in other., 
he is allowed a fixed salary, but it is provided that if the duties of Gov- 

ernor should devolve upon him, he shall during the continuance of such 
emergency be entitled lo the emoluments thereof. The principal duty 
of the Lieutenant-Governor is to act as the presiding officer of the State 
Senate or Upper House of the State Legislature. In case a vacancy 
should occur in Ihe ollice of Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor would 
act as Governor until such vacancy was filled by election; and in all 
eases where the Lieutenant-Governor is unable to act as presiding officer 
of the Senate, a President pro tempore is chosen by that body. The 
Lieutenant-Governor has no vote in the Senate except in cases of a tie 
or equal division of the members. 


The office of Secretary of State is one of the most important offices 
within the gift of the people of a State, and the office exists under this 
name in every State in the Union. The Secretary of State may be said 
to be the official secretary of the Governor, and countersigns all com- 
missions issued by the chief executive, and he is the custodian of ihe 
Great Seal of the 'State. As a rule it is the duty of the Secretary of 
State to call the House of Representatives to order and preside until a 
temporary presiding officer, or Speaker, is elected. It is ins duty to see 
that halls are prepared for the Legislature or General Assembly; he 
prepares the legislative manual and causes it to be printed and dis- 
tnbuted; secures the printing and distribution of the State laws; indexes 
and files executive documents; provides and distributes election blanks; 
has charge of all books, bills, papers, etc., of the Legislature, and is 
practically "keeper of all public acts, laws, records, bonds, etc." The 
Secretary of Stale is required to keep ,i register of all the official acts of 
the Governor, and affixes the Seal of the State toall official commissions, 
etc., keeps a record of them, and is obliged to give any person a copy of 
ihe same when demanded. In all of the States (he Secretary of Stale is 
ex-offido member of a number of Ihe official Slate boards, but no list of 
these could be given that would apply load States, as they are different 
: --'- Slates. 


The office of Auditor of Stale exists under one name or another in 
'.early every State-in the Union. The title of this office, however, is not 
alike in all the States, as in many of them, notably California. Conno ii- 
cut, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Nevada, New Jersey. New York, South 
Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and a few others, it "is known .i- State 

Comptroller. In a few of the Slates, including Michigan and P (yl- 

vania, the office is called Auditor-General, and in two ol the States llie 
public accounts are audited by a Board of Auditors. In all the Stales, 
however, the duties that devolve upon this branch of the State govern- 
ment are practically the same, and a general explanation of the scope of 
work handled by the State Auditor in one State will apply, except as 
regards minor details, to all of lite States. It is the duty of the Stale 
Auditor to keep the accounts of Ihe State with any other State or Terri- 
tory, and with the United States and all public officers, corporations and 
individuals having accounts with his State. He audits the accounts of 
all public officers who are to be paid out of the State Treasury, and all 
persons who are authorized to receive money out of the State Treasury. 
in fact, all claims against the State which are to be paid out of the State 
Treasury must be presented to the Auditor, who, after the same is 
adjusted, issues warrants therefor payable at the Treasury. A com- 
plete record of each warrant is kept by the Auditor, who also keeps an 
account with the Stale Treasurer, charging him with all moneys paid 
into the Treasury, and giving credit for all warrants paid, and the books 
and vouchers of the Treasury must balance therewith, as settlements 
are made between these two officers at stated intervals. In a number of 
Ihe States the Auditor is charged with a general supervision over certain 
corporations, such as insurance and banking corporations and budding 
and loan associations, and in some States is ex-officio a member of a 
number of State boards. He generally has authority to make and exe- 
cute satisfactions of judgments and assignments thereof in behalf of 
the Stale. 


This is one of the most important executive offices in the gift of the 
people of a State. The State Treasurer handles vast sums of the peo- 
ple's money, and as a rule a very heavy bond, ranging from 8500,000 up 
into the millions, is required of him; and generally the Governor is em- 
powered to demand additional bonds if he deems the bond insufficient 
to fully protect the State. 

The duiies of the State Treasurer are implied by the title of the 
office, and they are very much the same Ihroughout all of ihe States of 
the Union. The State Treasurer is custodian of all the State funds. He 
deposits these funds in banks, which give bonds to secure the Treasurer 
or State against loss, and which pay interest on daily balances. The 
Treasurer pays out State funds onlyon warrants issued or signed by the 
State Auditor, or other proper official, and a full record of all warrants 
is kept in both the auditing office and Treasurer's office. The plan by 
which the Treasurer receives the revenues of the State is different in 
different States. In some States the Auditor issues an order for him to 
receive the same and charges the amount against the Treasury. In 
others lie is charged with all moneys which he is entitled to receive, and 
(hen given credit for delinquencies. In still other States the Treasurer 
issues duplicate receipts for all moneys paid in, which must be counter- 
signed by the Auditor to be valid, and one of these must be deposited 
with the Auditor, so he may charge the amount against the Treasurer. 
In this way a double system is carried on— both Auditor and Treasurer 
keeping a full account of all moneys received and paid out, and their 
hooks and accounts must balance, as at stated intervals the Treasurer 
must make settlements wilh the Auditor and submit books, vouchers, 
etc., to the Legislature. In most of the States the State Treasurer is 
required to publish at staled nines, in the newspapers at the capital, an 
itemized State mi ntof the public accounts, expenditures, funds, receipts 
and disbursements. He i- also required to make a complete report and 
itemized statement to each session of the Legislature. In nearly all of 
the States ihe law is very explicit in outlining the duties of the State 
Treasurer, the following being very common provisions in relation to 
the office, viz.: That a complete record of all moneys must he kept, 
showing what is received or paid out ol the various "funds," which 
"funds must be exhibited in separate accounts. In several of ihe 
States ihe Governor and one or two other Stale officials constitute a 
board, which must at certain times examine and check up the accounts. 
books and vouchers of the Slate Treasurer and ascertain the amount of 
funds in ihe Treasury. 


The Attorney-General, as the name implies, is the genera! legal 
counsel or lawyer for the various branches of the State government. In 
all of the Stales Ihe powers and duties of the Attorney-General are very 
similar. It is his duty to appear for the Stale in all actions and pro- 
ceedings in the Supreme Court in which the State has an interest; to 
institute and prosecute in all courts all actions, either for or against a 
Slate officer, in which the State has an interest; to consult with and 
advise the various county or state's attorneys in matters relating to their 
official duties, and when public interest requires he assists them in 
criminal prosecutions. It is his duty to consult with and advise the 
Governor and other State officers, and give, when requested, written 
opinions on legal or constitutional questions relating to their official 
duties, and to give written opinions when requested by the Legislature 
or any committee thereof. It is also his duty to prepare, when neces- 
sary, drafts for contracts or other writings relating to subjects in which 
the State is interested. He is required to enforce ihe proper applica- 
tion of funds appropriated to ihe various State institutions, and prose- 
cute breaches of trust in the administration of the same; and when 


A. OGLE k CO., 




necessary piosccutc corporations for failure or refusal to comply with 
the laws: to prosecute official bonds of delinquent officers or corpora- 
lions in which the State has an interest. The Attorney-General is 
required to keep a record of all actions, complaints, opinions, etc. 

This is an office which exists in nearly every State in the Union. In 
three or four of the States the management of the educational interests 
of the State is vested in a State Hoard of Education, but in these cases 
(he secretary of the board assumes most of the detail work that in most 
of the States devolve upon the State Superintendent. The full title 
given to this office is not the same in all of" the States, but it is generally 
called "State Superintendent of Public Instruction or Public Schools. ' 
In Ohio, Maine and Rhode Island, and a few others, the office is termed 
"Commissioner of Schools." 

The duties of the State Superintendent are very much alike in all 
of the Stales, as he is charged with a general supervision over the edu- 
cational interests of the State arid of the public schools. In many States 
his authority is not limilecl to the public schools, and hi- is authorized 
by taw to demand full reports from all colleges, academics or private 
schools, It is his duty to secure at regular intervals reports from all 
public educational institutions and file all papers, reports and docu- 
ments transmitted to him by local or county school officers. He is the 
general adviser and assistant of the various county superintendents or 
school officers, to whom he must give, when requested, his written 
opinion upon questions arising under the school law. It is also his duty 
to hear and determine controversies arising under the school laws com- 
ing to him by appeal from a county superintendent or school official, 
He prepares and distributes school registers, school blanks, etc., and is 
generally given the power to make such rules and regulations as are 
necessary to carry into efficient and uniform effect the provisions of the 
laws relating to schools. The State Superintendent is required to make 
a detailed report to each regular session of the State Legislature, show- 
ing an abstract of the common school reports; a statement of the condi- 
tion of public schools and State educational institutions; the amount of 
money collected and expended, and all other matters relating to the 
-i '.....!= or school funds (hat have been reported to him. He is for- 
bidden from becoming interested in the sale of any school furniture, book 
or apparatus. 


addition to those 


In nearly all of the States the laws provide for a State officer ui 
le of "State Librarian." As a rule the office is filled by appi 


ment of the Governor, although in a few States it is an elective office 
and is filled by direct vote of the people. The State Librarian is the 
custodian of all the books and property belonging to the State Library, 
and is required to give a bond for the proper discharge of his duties 
and safekeeping of the property intrusted to his care, as in many of the 
Stales the State Library is an immensely important and valuable col- 
lection. In some of the Slates the Supreme Court judges prescribe all 
library rules and regulations. In others they have a Library Board of 
Trustees, which is sometimes made up of the Governor and certain 
other State officials, who constitute a board of commissioners for the 
management of the State Library, 


In nearly all of thc.Statcs provision is made for an Adjutant-Gen- 
eral, who is either elected by the people or appointed by the Governor. 
The name of the office implies the branch of work which is handled by 
its incumbent, It is the duty of the Adjutant-General to issue and trans- 
mit all orders of the Commander-in-Chief with reference to the militia 
or military organizations of the State. He-keeps a record of all military 
officers commissioned by the Governor, and of all general and special 
orders and regulations issued, and of all other matters relating to the 
men, property, ordnance, stores, camp and garrison equipage pertain- 
ing io the State militia or military forces. 


This is a State office that is found in only about one-half of the 
States. In some Slates it is known as Bank Comptroller and in others the 
duties winch devolve upon tins officer are handled by a "department" 
in the State Auditor's office. The general duties and plan of conduct- 
ing this work, in many respects, is very similar, but there is a great dif- 
ference between the various States in the officers who attend to it. 
Where this is made a separate State office, generally speaking, the 
requirements are that he must be a skilled accountant and expert book- 
keeper, and cannot be an officer of any of the public institutions, nor 
interested in any of the financial corporations which it may be his duty 
to examine. He is charged with the duty of visiting and inspecting the 
financial accounts and standing of certain corporations and institutions 
organized under the State laws. In several of the States it is also made 
his duty to visit certain county officials at stateil intervals, and inspect 
their books and accounts, and enforce a uniform system of bookkeeping 
by State and county officers, 

(inilll^l'iMII OR vi 1-1 in \ i t v i> i \ i oi INSURANCE. 

In all of the States of the Union the department relating to insur- 
ance has grown to he an important branch of Slate government. The 
method of controlling the insurance business differs materially in many 
of the States, although they are all gradually moving in the same direc- 
tion, viz., creating a department or State office in which all matters 
relating to insurance and insurance companies are attended to. In for- 
mer years, in nearly all of the States, the insurance business formed a 
department in the State Auditor's office, and was handled by him or his 
appointees. Now, however, in nearly all the Northern States and many 
of the Southern Slates, they have a separate and distinct insurance 
department, the head of which is either elected by the people or 
appointed by the Governor, The duties and powers of the insurance 
depatiiuent of the various States arc very similar. A general pro- 
vision is that the head of this dcjyirtment must be experienced in insur- 
ance matters, and he is prohibited from holding an interest in any insur- 
ance company. The Commissioneror Superintendent of Insurance has 
extensive powers concerning insurance matters, and it is his duty to see 
that all laws respecting and regulating insurance and insurance com- 
panies are faithfully observed; he issues licenses to insurance com- 
panies, and it is his duty to revoke the license of any company not con- 
forming 10 the law. Reports are made to him at stated times by the 
various companies, and he has power to examine fully into their condi- 
tion, assets, etc. He tiles in his office the various documents relating to 
insurance companies, together with their statements, etc., and at regular 
intervals makes full reports to the Governor or Legislature. 


I Labor Statistics" is 
at may be termed the 
however, this branch 
issioners, a bureau of 
s. The general design 
and systematize, and 
stical details relating 
.„ .he different departments of labor in the State, and make such recom- 
mendations as may be deemed proper and necessary concerning the 
commercial, industrial, social, edt 
the laboiing classes. 

In several of the States a "Cornmissii 
appointed by the Governor, who is the head 
laoor bureau. In a great majority of the S 
of work is taken care of by a board of labor ■ 
statistics or by the State Auditor and his appi 
of this bureau or commission is to collect, 
in regular reports to the Legislature 

■rt °. J .___■_ ..[ 1..I . ;.. ,!.„ C 

catiolial and sanitary conditions of 


ere exist one or more other State officers in 
mentioned, which arc made necessary by local 
_. . ;ss interests. It is, therefore, unnecessary to 
mention any of these at length in this article. It may be stated, how- 
ever, that in all of the States may be found two or more of the following 
Slate officers, and further, that each one of the following-named officers 
is found in some Statein the Union, viz.: Superintendent or commissioner 
of agriculture, commissioner of mines, secretary of agricultural board, 
secretary of internal affairs, cleik and reporter of the Sujireme Court, 
i.oinnii"ioTi'_i ■■! railways, commissioner of immigration, State printer, 
S) tie I "det. laud agent or commissioner, commissioner, register or 
superintend eat 'if State land office, register of lands, commissioner of 
schools and lands, surveyor-general, inspector-general, State oil inspec- 
tor, dairy commissioner. 


Besides the officers and departments which have already been men- 
tioned, there are a number of State boards or bureaus that are necessary 
in carrying on the complex business connected with the government of 
a State. The following list of such State boards and bureaus includes 
all that can be found in the majority of the States; some of them, how- 
ever, are only found in a few of the States, because they are of a local 
nature and arc only made necessary by the existence of certain local 
conditions or business interests. It will also be observed thai some of 
the boards named cover the same line of work that has tin id] been 
mentioned as belonging to some State officer. This grows from the fact 
that a few of the States place the management of certain lift of work 
in the hands of a State board, while in others, instead of having a Stale 
board they delegate the powers and duties to a single Stale official. 
All of the States Jiowcver, have a number of the Slate boards mentioned 
in this list, the names of wb;ch imply the line of work each attends to, 
viz.: Railroad and warehouse commissioners, board of equalization, board 
or commission of agiiculture. university trustees, board or commission- 
ers of public charities, canal commissioners, penitentiary commissioners, 
board of health, dental examiners, trustees of historical library, board 
of pharmacy, commission ol claims, live stock commissioners, fish com- 
mission trs. inspectors of coal mines, labor commissioners, board -i edu- 
cation, board of public works, board of pardons, assessment commis- 


The law-making power of every State is termed the "Legislative 
Department." The" legislative power, according to the constitutions of 
the various Stales, is vested in a body termed the Legislatuie or General 
Assembly, ivbich consists of an Upper and Lower House, designated usu- 
ally as the Senate and House of Representatives, fn a few of the 
States the Lower House is called "The Assembly.' In most of the 
Slates the Legislature meets in regular sessions every two years, but 
this is not the universal rule, as in a few of the States the law provides 
for annual sessions. In all of the States, however, a provision is made 
whereby the Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, call a special 
session by issuing a proclamation. 

The Legislative Department has the power to pass all such laws as 
may be necessary for the welfare of the State, and carry into effect the 
provisions of the constitution. The Legislature receives the reports 
of the Governor, together with the- reports of the various other Slate offi- 
cers; they provide by appropriation for the ordinary and contingent 
expenses of itu government; at regular times provided by law they 
apportion the State inlo political districts, and maKcall other provisions 
for carrying on the State government. There is a general prohibition 
against the passage of any ex post facto law, or law impairing the obli- 
gation of contracts, or making any irrevocable grant of special priv- 
ileges or immunities. Any measure to become a law must be passed 
by both branches of the Legislature, and then be presented to the Gov- 
ernor for hisapproval. II he withholds his approval (or vetoes it), the 
measure may be repassed bya two-thirds vote of the Legislature, when 
it will become a law notwithstanding the Governor's veto. 

The Senate is the Upper House of the Legislature or General Assem- 
bly. The various States are divided into senatorial distrii ts, hi each of 

which a Senator is elected— the term of office v arying n two to (our 

years. Except in three or four of the Stales the presiding "ffi< er of the 
Senate is the Lieutenant-Governor, although a President pro tern, is 
usually elected, who acts as presiding officer during the absence of the 
Lieutenant-Governor. The presiding officer has no vole, however, in 
the Senate, except when that body is equally divided. Everv Senator 
lias one vole upon all questions, and the right to be heard in advocating 
or opposing the passage of any measure brought before the Legislature, 
hi hi ling all of the most important State offices that are to be appointed 
by the Governor, the appointments must be approved or confirmed by 
the Senate. 


The Lower House of the State Legislature, in nearly if not quite all 
the Stales of the Union, is termed the House of Representatives. Like 
Hie Senators, every member of the House has the right to be heard in 
advocating or opposing any measure brought before the body of which 
he is a member. The House is given the sole power of impeachment, 
but all impeachments must be tried by the Senate. As a general rule, 
there is a provision that all bills for raising revenue must originate in 
the House. 


The "Judicial Department" is justly regarded as one of the most 
important and powerful branches of government of either the State or 
Nation, as it becomes the duty of this department to pass upon and 
interpret, and thereby either annul or give validity to all the most 
important measures and acts pf both the legislative and executive 
hranches of the government. 

It is impossible in a general article to give a detailed review or 
description of the construction and make-up of the judicial departments 
of the various States. The courts are so differently arranged both as to 
their make-up and jurisdiction that it would be useless to try to give the 
reader a general description that would accurately cover the ground, 

In all of the States, except, possibly, one or two, the highest judicial 
authority of the State is known as the Supreme Court, and unless ques- 
tions arc involved which give the United States Courts jurisdiction, it is 
the court of last resort. The Supreme Court is made up of" a chief 
justice and the several associate justices or judges as may be provided 
for by the laws of the various States, usually from four to six. Generally 
i hese officers are elected by the people, either from the State at large or 
(in three of the States) as representing certain districts, but this is not 
the case always, as in several Stales they are chosen by the Governor or 
Legislature. In all of the States the Supreme Court has appellate juris- 
diction both in law and in equity, and has original jurisdiction in remc- 
dial cases, mand.sinm, habeas corpus and cases relating to the revenue, 
but there is no trial by jury in this court. 

Various oilier courts are provided for by the taws of the different 
States, such as appellate courts, circuit or district courts, probate courts, 
county courts, superior courts, municipal courts, courts of justices qf the 
peace, etc. The jurisdiction of all these courts is, of course, inferior to 
that of the Supreme Court, and varies greatly in the different Slates. 
Beside-, these, where there are large cities, various other courts are also 
established to aid in caring for tae enormous amount of judicial work 

that arises from such vast and complex business interests. The va 
courts are also provided with the necessary officials for carving on l 
judicial business— such as clerks of court, court reporters, bailiff? -ic. 


SO far as the principal county offices are concerned, the general 
arrangement and method of handling (he public business is very 
much the same in all of the Slates; but the offices are called by 
different names, and in minor details— such as trans fen ing from 
oneoffice to an Oth or certain minor lines of work— there are a 
number of points in which the method of county government in the various 
States differs. The writer hasadopled the names of the principal county 
offices which are most common in the Northern States, as in the South- 
ern and New England States ihere are scarcely any two Stales in which 
the names or titles of all ihe county offices are identical. 


Generally the principal auditing officer of the county is known as 
ihe "county auditor" or "county clerk." In Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, 
Wisconsin and many mher States the office is called" county clerk." In 
Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, Ohio and others it is termed 
" county auditor." In a few of the States under certain conditions this 
office is merged wnh some oilier county office, A notable example 
of this is in ihe Stale of Michigan, where they have one official, under the 
simple title of "clerk," who iooksafter about all ol the work which in 
most of the States devolves upon both the county clerk and also clerk ol 
court. In all of the States a bond in a moderate sum is required of the 
county clerk or auditor, and he is paid a salary of from £1.000 to &l..'>00 
per year, besides in some States being allowed certain fees, unless it is in 
a very large and heavily populated county, where ihe salary paid is of 
necessity much higher than this amount. No county treasurer or mem- 
ber of the county board is eligible to this office. In general terms il 
may be stated as a rule the auditor acts as the clerk or secretary of the 
official comity board, although in a few of the Siati - the . ourt clerk is 
required lo look after [his matter. The clerk of the county board keeps 
an accurate reconl of the board's proceedings and carefully preserves 
all documents, records, books, maps and papers which may be brought 
before the board, or which the law provides shall be deposited inliis 
office. In the auditing office an accurate account is kept with the county 
treasurer. Generally they tile ihe duplicates of the receipts given by 
the county treasurer, charging him wnh all money paid into the treasury 
and giving credit for all warrants paid. The general p]ivi\ of paying 
claims against a county is as follows: If the claim is one in which ihe 
amount due is fixed by law, or is authorized to be fixed by some other 
person or tribunal, the auditor issues a warrant or order which will be 
paid by the treasurer, ihe certificate upon which it is allowed being duly 
hied. In all oiber cases the claim must be allowed by the county hoard, 
and the chairman or presiding officer issues a warrant or order which 
is attested by the clerk. A complete record of all these county warrants 
or orders is kept, and the accounts of the county treasurer must balance 
therewith, The above in general terms outline the most important 
branch of work which the County clerk or county auditor looks after in 
most of the Slates, but in all of ihe States the law requires him to look 
after a number of other matters, although in these there is no uniformity 
between the various Stales, and no general description of these minor or 
additional duties could be given that would apply to all the States. 


This Is an office winch exists in all of the States, and it is one of tne 
most important of the various offices necessary in carrying on the busi- 
ness of a county. It is an elective office in all of the Slates, and the 
term of office is usually either two or four years, but a very common 
provision in the various States is that after serving for one term as 
county treasurer a party shall be ineligible to ihe office until the inter- 
vention of at least one term after the expiration of the term for which 
he was elected. This provision, however, does not exist in all of the 
States, as in some of them the county treasurer is eligible for re-election 
for any number of ternis. 

The general duties of the county treasurers throughout the various 
States is very similar. The county treasurer is the principal custodian 
of the funds belonging to the county. It is his duty to receive and 
safely keep the revenues and other public moneys of the county, and 
all funds authorized to be paid lo him, and disburse the same pursuant 
to law. He is required to keep proper books of account, in which lie 
must keep a regular, just and true account of all moneys, revenues and 
funds received by him, stating particularly the time, when, of whom 
and on what fund or account each particular sum was received ; and 
also of all moneys, revenues -t\\<\ funds paid out by him according to 
law, stating particularly the time when, to whom and on what fund 
payment is made from. The books of the county treasurer must 
always be subject to the inspection of the county board, which, at staled 
intervals, examines his boc L .ud makes settlements with him. In some 
of the States the provision, k the law relating to county treasurer are 
very strict; some of them provide for a county board of auditors, who 
are expected, several times a year, to examine the funds, accounts and 
vouchers of the treasury without previous notice to the treasurer; and 
in some it is provided that this board, or the county board, shall desig- 
nate a bank (or banks) in which the treasurer is required to keep the 
county funds deposited— the banks being required to pay interest on 
daily or monthly balances and give bond to indemnify the county against 
loss. As a general rule the county treasurer is only authorized to pay 
out county funds on warrants or orders issued by the chairman of the 
county board and attested by the clerk, or in certain cases on warrants 
01 orders of the county auditing office. A complete record of these 
warrants or orders is kept, and ihe treasurer's accounts must balance 
therewith. In most of the States the law is very explicit in directing 
how the books and accounts of the county treasurer shall be kept. 


In a few of the States the office of county recorder or register of 
deeds is merged with some other county office, in counties where the 

fiopulation falls below a certain amount. A notable example of this is 
ound in both the States of Illinois and Missouri (and there are others), 
where it is merged with the office of circuit clerk in many counties. The 
title of the joint office is " circuit clerk and recorder," and the duties of 
both offices are looked after by one official. 

The duties of the county recorder or register of deeds are very 
similar in the various Stales, although in some of the Eastern and South- 
ern States the office is called by other names. The usual name, how- 
ever, is county recorder or register of deeds. In Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, 
Missouri, Ohio and many other States, it is called "county recorder." 
In Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin and many 
more it is called "register of deeds." In all of the Slates this office is 
the repository wherein arc kept all records relating to deeds, mortgages, 
transfers and contracts affecting lands within the county. It is the duty 
of the recorder or register, as soon as practical after ihe filing of any 
instrument in writing m his office entitled lo be recorded, to record the 
same at length, in the order of the time of its reception, in books pro- 
vided by the county for that purpose; and it is his duty to endorse on 
all instruments a certificate of the lime when the same was filed. All of 
the States have some of ihe following provisions concerning the duties 
of the recorder.but these jirovisions are not common la allot the States, 
viz.: The register or recorder is not allowed to record an instrument of 






as has alri 
some Dlhe 
whore in n 
In Michig 

any kind unless it is duly executed according lo law; he is not obliged 

lo record any instrument unless his fees .ire paid in advance; as a rule. 
it is unlawful for him 10 record any map, |dat or subdivision of 'and 
situ. id d within any incorporated city, town or village until it is approved 
by the proper officers of the same. In many States he is forbidden to 
enter a deed on the records until it has been endorsed "taxes paid" by 
the proper official; he is required to exhibit, free id charge, all records, 
and allow copies to be made, he is authorized lo administer oaths and 
take acknowledgments. 


In nearly ;:li of the States, each county elects a " clerk of court or 
i.ourls, ' some! lines also known as circuit clerk or district clerk, indicat- 
ing the court i itli i> in- li 'lie offn.c is connected. In some of the Stales, 
■■i stated, the office of clerk of court is merged with 
, :ii, g I his is the case in Illinois and Missouri, 
n*i' • it is connected with the office of county recorder. 
... official under the name of "clerk " handles the busi- 
rc-s which usually i - given to the clerk of court and county clerk or 
auditor. In Wisconsin, Missouri, Illinois and other States the name 
used is "circuit clerk;" in Kansas, Minnesota, North Dakota and many 
others the office is called "clerk of district court;'" while in many of the 
States, including Indiana, Ohio, Iowa and is called simply 
" clerk " or " clerk of the court or courts." 

The chief duty of this official is to act as clerk of the district or cir- 
cuit court, and sometimes other courts ol inferior jurisdiction. It is the 
clerk's duty to keep the seals and attend the sessions ot their respective 
courts, preserve all the files and papers (hereof, make, keep and pre- 
serve complete records of all the proceedings and determinations there- 
( of and carry out such other duties as may be required by the rules and 
orders of their respective courts. They must enter of record all judg- 
ments, decrees and orders of the court as soon as possible after they are 
rendered; keep all indictments on file as a public record, have authority 
to administer oaths, take acknowledgments; take and certify deposi- 
tions, and are required to exhibit all records free of charge. In nearly 
all the States the law defines the character of the record books which 
the clerk of court must keep. Although there is no settled rule in litis 
matter, the general provisions are thai he shall keep: !■ irsi, a general 
ducket or register of actions, in which is entered the title of each action 
in the order in 'which they are commenced, and a description of each 
paper filed in the cause and all proceedings therein; second, a plain- 
tiffs index and defendant^ index; third, a judgment book and execution 
dork. 'i, in which he enters the judgment in each action, time of issuing 
execution, satisfaction, etc.. and such other hooks as the courts or tiie 
laws may prescribe. 


In all of the Stater the office of sheriff is one of the most important 
of the county offices. The term of officevanes in different States, being 
usually either two or four years, and in several of the States one party 
cannot hold the office a second term consecutively. The general pro- 
vi-ions outlining the dimes pertaining to this office are very much alike 
in the various States, and the following resume of his duties may be said 
to apply to all of ihe various Stales except in a few minor and unim- 
portant details. The sheriff is charged with the duty of keeping and 
preserving the peace in his county; or, as has been written, "he is the 
conservator of peace," and it is his duly to keep the same, suppress 
riois, affrays, lighting, breaches of the peace and prevent crime, and 
may arrest offenders "on view" and cause them to be brought before 
the proper magistrate; and to do this, or lo execute any writ, warrant, 
process, order or decree, he may call to his aid when necessary any per- 
son or the " power of the county." It is the duty of the sheriff to serve 
and execute within his county, and rciurn, all writs, warrants, process, 
orders and decrees of every description that may be legally directed 
and delivered to him. He is a court officer, and it is his duty to attend, 
either in person or by deputy, all courts of record held in his county; 
by virtue of his office he has custody of the jail. It is his duty to pursue 
and apprehend felons and persons charged with crime and has custody 
of prisoners. He is not allowed to purchase any property exposed for 
sale by him as sheriff. 


This is an office which exists under one name or another in nearly 
every State in the Union. The title of the office in a great niajurny of 
the Si.ues is "county superintendent," but in Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, 
New York, and possibly one or two other States, the office is termed 
"school commissioner." and in several of the States the laws provide for 
a board of county examiners or school commissioners, who are given 
consid :rable of the work thai in most of the other States is handled by 
the county superintendent. 

The name of this office implies the duties winch devolve upon it, 
and they are very much alike in all of the States. The incumbent of 
this office is charged with a general supervision over the schools of the 
county, and must be a fitting person as to education and moral charac- 
ter. As a rule it is their duty to examine and license teachers, but in a 
few of the States provision is made for a board of examiners. County 
superintendents are required lo visit and inspect the schools at regular 
intervals, and give such advice and instruction to teachers as may be I lo:" e-^irv and proper. 1 hcv are required to organize and con- 
duct institutes for the instruction of teachers if deemed necessary, and 
entourage teachers' associations. They introduce to the notice of 
teachers and the people the best modes of instruction, the most 
approved plans of building and ventilating school-houses, etc., stimu- 
late school officers to ihe prompt and proper discharge of their duties. 
They receive reports from the various school officers, and transmit an 
abstract of these reports lo the Stale Superintendent, adding a report of 
the i ondition of ihe schools under their charge. In nearly all the Slates 
they are forbidden having any interest in the sale of any school furni- 
ture, apparatus or books used in the schools. In many States they have 
authority to annul a teacher's certificate for proper cause, and in gen- 
eral to lake such steps and enforce such methods as will elevate and 
make more efficient the schools under their control. 


There is a great difference between the various States in the method 
of handling or attending to the legal business relating to county matters 
nr growing from county affairs. In many of the Slates ihe ofiicial who 
attends to this line of work is known as the "county attorney," in other 
Mali's he is called Ihe Stale's attorney or prosecuting or district attorney. 
In a few of the States they divide the State into districts embracing a 
number of counties, antl a district attorney is elected in each district, 
who in some cases attends to all the legal work of the various count ies, 
and in others he assists the county attorneys in their most i-nportant 
dunes and prosecutions. Rut whatever [dan maybe followed in the 
various States, and whatever title maybe given to this office, ihe- general 
duties of the office are very much the same throughout all of the Stales. 
It is the duty of the county attorney to commence and prosecute all 
a. tions. suns, indictments, and prosecutions, civil and criminal, in any^ 
court of record in his county in which the "people of the State or county ' 
may be concerned; to prosecute all forfeited bonds and recognisances, 
and all actions for the recovery of debts, revenues, moneys, lines, etc., 
:n cruing to his county; to commence and prosecute all actions and iiro- 
i ui-.lini's brought by any county officer in his official capacity; to defend 
all actions and proceedings brought against his county, or against any 
county officer in his official capacity; to give legal opinions and advice 

lo the county board or other county officers 
du ies; to attend, if possible, all preliminary 
When requested, he is required to attend 
examine witnesses in their pi 

relation to their official 
xaminaiions of criminals, 
.ssions of the f;rand jury 
legal advice and see thai 

proper subpoenas and processes are issued; draw up indictment 
prosecute Ihe same. The county attorney is required, when requested 
by the Attorney-General, lo appear for the Slate m cases in his county 
in which the State is interested. The rounty attorney makes an annual 
report to his superior State officer of all the criminal cases prosecuted by 


The method of handling probate matters is not uniform throughout 
ihe various States. In many States the higher courts are given juris- 
diction over probate matters, and in others they have created districts in 
which are held probate courts, whose jurisdiction extends over several 
counties and takes in other matters besides purely probate affairs. In 
a majority of the States, however, particularly Ihe Western and Northern 
Mates, they elect a county or a probate judge, who holds court and 
handles the probate matters which arise within his county. The juris- 
diction of these county or probate courts is not always confined ex- 
clusively lo probate affairs, being frequently extended lo many other 
matters, and they generally include such matters as apprenticeship 
affairs, adoptions, minors, etc. In some of the Slates they have both a 
county judge and a probate judge, and in these cases the jurisdiction of 
the latter is confined to such mailers as are in line with probate affairs. 
In Missouri they have a probate judge, and also a county court, com- 
posed of county judges, in whom the corporate powers of the county 
are vested— as the official county board. In Michigan they have a 
probate judge and a probate register. The probate judge is generally 
given original jurisdiction in all matters of probate, settlement of 
estates of deceased persons, appointment of guardians and conserva- 
tors and settlement of their accounts. They take proof of wills, direct 
tiie administration of estates, grant and revoke letters testamentary and 
of administration, appoint ana remove guardians, etc. 


This is an office which is common to nearly all of the "States. It 
is the duty of the county surveyor to execute any survey which may be 
ordered by any court, or upon application of any individual or corpora- 
tion, and preserve a record of the surveys made by him. Nearly all of 
the States provide that certain records shall be kept by the county sur- 
veyor, and provide penalties for his failure to place on record the surveys 
made by him. While he is the official county surveyor, yet the surveys 
made by him are not conclusive, but may be reviewed by any compe- 
tent tribunal, and the correctness thereof may be disputed. 


This is another county office which exists in nearly all of the States. 
In the average county (here is not much work for the coroner, but in 
the counties in which large cities are located the office is a very impor- 
tant one. In general terms it may be stated that the coroner is required 
lo hold inquests over the bodies of persons supposed to have met with 
violent or unnatural deaths. In most States he has power to impanel a 
jury to enquire into the cause of death; but in some of them this is not 
the case, and lie is given power to act alone. He can subpa-na witnesses; 
administer oaths; in certain cases provide for a decent burial, and can 
bind over to the proper court any person implicated in the kil |; ug of 
the deceased. COUNTY OFFICES. 

The county offices that have already been mentioned are the prin- 
cipal ones found in all of the States. There are, however, a few other 
county officials besides those mentioned which exist in many of the 
States, and which should be briefly mentioned in this connection. These 
are such offices as county physician, county assessor, county collector, 
county poor commissioner or superintendent of the county poor-house, 
master in chancery or court commissioner, county examiners, board of 
equalization, board of review, etc. The names of these offices imply the 
duties. These offices do not exist in all of ihe States, but in nearly 
every State the law provides for one or more of these county officials. 


The powers of every county as a body politic and corporate are 
vested in a county board. This official county board is generally termed 
the county "board of supervisors," or "board of commissioners," but 
there are some exceptions to this, like Missouri, where the" county board 
is known as the "county court." There is considerable difference in the 
make-up of the county board in the various States. In some it is made 
up of one member from each township in the county. In others the 
counties are divided into districts, and one member of the county board 
is chosen from each district. No general description of this could be 
given that would be accurate, as some of the Slates follow both of these 
plans. For instance, in Illinois some of the counties are governed by a 
board "f supervisors, which i-. made up of one member from each town- 
ship, while other counties in the same Slate are governed by a board of 
county commissioners, consisting of three or more members, each rep- 
resenting districts into which the counties in question are divided. 

The general powers of the county hoard throughout of all the States 
is about the same, except in minor details. It represents the legislative 
and corporate powers of the county. One of their number is always 
chosen as chairman or president, and acts as the presiding officer. The 
county board has general charge over the affairs of the county. It is 
their duty to provide county offices, provide desks, stationery, books, 
fuel, etc. ; examine, investigate and adjust claims against the county, 
and have general care and custody of all the real and personal estate 
owned by the county. At regular intervals they settle with the county 
treasurer ; examine accounts and vouchers. They locate county roads ; 
determine the amount of county tax, and regularly publish a statement 
of their proceedings ; make statements of receipts, expenditures, etc.; 
and make all contracts, and do all other acts in relation to the property 
and concerns of the county necessary to exercise ils corporate powers 
that are not specifically delegated to other county officials. 


THE method of township government throughout the different 
States varies so much that it is impossible in this article to treat 
of it more than in a general, way. In many of the States the 
townships arc not organized as bodies corporate, and in other 
States in some counties Ihey may have township organization, 
while in other counties in the same Slate it does not exist. In cases where 
there is no township organization the law provides that certain county offi- 
cials shall attend to the local work, or I hat work which in other localities is 
assumed by the township officials. But even where they have township 
organization the plan of township government in the different States 
where it exists differs so widely that scarcely any two States may be 
said to be alike. About the only statements concerning the organized 
townships that could be made which would apply to all the States are the 
following: Every organized township in us corporale capacity has 

Eower to sue and be sued; to acquire by purchase, gift or devise, and 
old property, both real and personal, for the use of its inhabitants, and 
again to sell and convey the same; and to make all such contracts as 
may be necessary in the exercise of its powers as a township. _ 

In a great many of the States the township government is carried 
on after a plan very similar to ihe county and State governments, hav- 

ing various executive offirers and a township board in which the cor- 
porate and legislative powers, of the township are vested. In other 
States they follow a plan which reserves ta the people all corporale and 
legislative powers, and therefore have no need fora township board, 
but have various other township officers to carrv out the wishes and 
orders of the- voters. Where this plan prevails ihev hold what is gen- 
erally termed "town meetings," at which every legal voter of the town- 
ship hasa voice. At these meetings reports are had from the various 
township officials, and the necessary measures are adopted and direc- 
tions given for carrying on the township business. 

Still other States combine good features from both of ihe plans 
above mentioned, and besides the other usual township officials they 
maintain a township board, which is given certain restricted powers, 
such as those of a review or an auditing board, but they are not vested 
with the complete corporate and legislative powers of the township, this 
jeing reserved in a large measure to the voters, and all questions call- 
ug lor the exercise of such authority are acted upon at the town meet- 
ings. In man,y of the Slates the township board just described is made 
up of three or more of the other township officers, who are ex-officio 
members of the township board, and they meet at certain times, per- 
form ihe work required of them, and report to the town meetings. 

The principal officials in township organizations in nearly all the 
States are the following: " Supervisors, or trustees," " clerk," "treas- 
urer," "assessor,"' "collector," "justices of the peace," "constables," 
overseers, supervisors or commissioners of the highways," and" pound- 
riasters," although as has been stated, many of the States do not have 
11 of these officials. 



that no 

HE "common school system," or, tospeak with greater accuracy 
the method of governing school districts, in the various States, 
differs widely, yet all follow in a general way one of two separate 
and clearly defined methods, being amended in minor respects 
to meet local conditions and ideas. All of these methods have 
;elleut points, and yet it has been claimed by eminent educators 
ane of them is free From fault and objection, nor has reached per- 
il will be the aim in this article to briefly explain the principal 
features of the several methods, but it is not possible to go into detail in 
the matter of giving the system of school government that is followed 
in each of the many Slates of the Union. The constitution and statutes 
of all the States agree, however, cy.on several points. They aim to pro- 
vide for a thorough and efficient system of free schools, whereby all ihe 
children of the Slates may receive, a thorough common school education; 
they provide that all lands, money:, and other property donated, granted 
or received for school, college, :cr..'mary or university purposes, and the 
proceeds thereof, shall be faithfully applied to ihe objects staled; with 
two or three exceptions they provide that no appropriation shall be made 
or public funds applied in aid of a*y church or sectarian purpose, or lo 
support or sustain any school,, seminary, college or university 
controlled or run in the interest o< any church or for a seciarian pur- 
pose; and they prohibit the varices school officials from holding any 
interest in the sale, proceeds or profits of any book, apparatus or luriu- 
ture used in the schools in which they, as officers, are interested. 

In many of the States they follow what may be teimed the " inde- 
pendent school district" method, inasmuch as each district, so far as us 
corporate powers are cot.cemed, is entirely separate and independent of 
other districts. Where this plan is followed the boundaries of each dis- 
trict are clearly defined, and each district is complete within itself. 
They elect a full set of district officials, and exercise their corporate 
powers and manage their district affairs within themselves. In this 
plan the corporate powers of the district are usually vested in a dis- 
trict board, which has general charge of the interests_ of the district, 
hires teachers, and makes such contracts and carries into effect such 
methods as is deemed necessary to raise the grade or aid in ihe- effi- 
ciency of the schools. The measure of the authority given lo these dis- 
trict boards is not the same in all the States, and in many States it is re- 
stricted, and a part of the corporate power is reserved to the people 
themselves, the officials being required, in all important mailers, to 
carry out the wishes and orders of the people of the district asexpressed 
and decided upon at the " district school meetings." 

Another method which is followed in many of the Slates may be 
termed the "township system. 1 ' In such States the law provides for the 
organization of each township for school purposes, or as one large "dis- 
trict," and each township, so far as its educational interests are con- 
cerned, is organized, has the necessary officials and becomes a body 
politic and corporate. As a general rule, where this method prevails, 
the townships arc- divided into three or more sub-districis. All of these 
sub-districts are a part of the whole, and the finances and general busi- 
ness is generally managed by a township board made up of representa- 
tives from each sub-district. This board is generally clothed with the 
corporate powers, hires teachers, provides fuel and supplies and makes 
all the contracts necessary to carry on the various schools in the town- 
ship. As with independent districts, the powers of this board are not. 
alike in all States where the township system prevails, for in some- 
States their power is very much restricted, and is limited to certain offi- 
cial matters, ihe corporate powers and right to make important contracts 
being reserved to the people, who decide On these questions at what are 
termed the school meetings. In a few of the States where they follow 
ihe township system they have no official board. This is the case in In- 
diana, where they elect a township trustee, whose duly it is to look after 
all the educational interests of the township, subject to the approval of 
ihe people at the regular meetings. In most of the States where (he 
township system prevails the law provides for the organisation, under 
cerlain conditions, of sub-districts into independent district-, which gives 
them the power to elect their own officers and act independently of the 
other schools in the township. 

In nearly all of the States one of the two general methods given 
above is followed, with certain changes to make the plan more efficient 
and satisfactory, and to better meet the desires and needs of the people 
of the different' States. Many of the States combine good features from 
botli these systems, as some of the States have the township system, 
wherein each sub-district has its own board, and so far as controlling its 
own ail airs is concerned, is independent of all other districts. But local 
conditions have in many instances made special and local provisions 
necessary that are different in each State, and while there may be a 
vast difference in ihe methods followed, their aim is the same, and, as a 
whole, the various systems have accomplished the result of giving 
throughout the length and breadth of the Union the grandest and most 
efficient system of free schools that the world has ever known. 


IN all of the States the laws provide for the local government of 
cities and villages, so that when ihey attain a certain population 
they maybe seperated Irom, and thus manage their affairs indc 
pendent of. the township in which ihey arc located, both as to 
school matters and civil authority. In school affairs provision is 
made for handling the morn complex educational interests of villages 
and cities— line school boards being made larger, and in many cases the 
scope of their authority is very much extended. In civil matters pro- 
vision is made in all of the States for the organization of villages and 
cities as corporate bodies, seperate and distinct from ihe townships, and 
providing for the necessary officers to carry on the affairs oi Ibemunici- 





General Information 

Bunion and Business Methods. 

R elations betw e en a bank and its customers. 

should bu guarded \vi. ;;-n mis cure, so thai both, may retain the full coiili- 
dence nf the oilier. Business development 1" the Cnltcd Stales bun pro- 
gressed with such gigantic utrldeathatitbas long since passed Hie stage 
where It Is even possible to carry on business without tho agency of banks. 
They are to-day a necessity In the transaction al business and making ex- 
changes. It lins been Haiti, and tvlth o (.-rent deal of truth, that la llic 
present day Hie etillre and sole object and result of business Is the transfer 
or credits on tlic books of the banking houses-; and that about the only use 
to which money is put la In making small change or paying balances. Bus- 
iness, In the most general aurl comprehensive sense, Is almost wholly carried 
■mby tho all of bauks with checks, drafls and exchange. And It will be seen 
»lmt a very important part the element of eoutldeneo ploys In business 
life, when It is remembered Ihal every check Or draft thai chances hands, 
implies tho confldenceoa tho part of the party receiving and accepting It, 
thai It will be honored at the bank when presented. 


a bonk Is the Interview with the hanker, either the President, or Cashier, 
as the ease may be If Unknown to the banker It Is necessary for someone 
who Is known to Identify and vouch for the applicant as being honorable 
and straightforward, for banks are compelled 10 be careful In this matte t< 
as ihey subsequently must handle all the cheeks, drafts or exchanges that 
the prospective customer employs In tils business, so that while the busi- 
ness of an honest man Is valuable to litem and Is appreciated, that of a 
dishonest man Is shunned by Ihem as an element of risk anil dancer— the 

The identification and reference, however, being satisfactory the pros- 
pective customer is given a pass book or account book, writes his signature 
in a book kept for that purpose, is made known to the receiving and paying 
tellers, makes his tlrsl deposit and is then a full Hedged customer and 
depositor of the bank. 

D eposits. 

r^EPOSlTS are made In the following manner; A ■■Deposit Ticket" or "De- 
L ^ posit Blank" Is furnished the customer, and lie enters upon this a lull 
description of all the items which ho desires entered to his credit, staling 
whether It is gold, silver or currency and making a separate entry for each 
draft or check that he deposits. In entering such items as drafts and checks 
Home banks require a separate entry for each item which will show upon 
what bank or at least what city or town each draft or check Is drawn. 
After having endorsed hi- name on the back of all checks anil drafts he 
hands Ihe "Deposit Ticket," together with alt the Items named upon It, and 
his Pass Book, to the itcelvlng teller.wlio examines It, cheeks off t lie various 


o the 

customer's credit In Hie "Pass Book ;" and it i 
the Deposit Ticket onto llic books of Ihe ban! 
Important feature of the transaction, and the customer Is required to till 
nils out with Ink. It bears his name anil the dale and Is carefully pre- 
served for future reference by the hank losellle an)- dispute or difference 
llialmaj arise. As all men are liable to error Ihe depositor, to prevent mis- 
takes, should always see that the amount of the deposit Is correctly entered 
in his book before leaving llic bunk. II a deposit Is mode when a customer 
has not Ins -Pass Book" a duplicate ticket should be taken, and the amount 
entered properly when nest at Ihe hank. 

It will he seen from the above that alt cheeks and drafts are entered to 
Hie credit ol the customer at the lime be deposits them, the same as cask 
Items. The depositor, however, is held responsible for the non payment of 
all checks, drafts and other items deposited as cash until payment, has been 
ascertained by Hie bank. The bank, however, must use due diligence In 
attending lo them within a reasonable lime. IT a cheek or draft is Held 
beyond a reasonable time and, mean while, the hank upon which It Is drawn 
(alls, the receiving bunk would be compelled to Inse It. What Is a reason- 
able time, according to decisions of Ihe courts, depends upon the circum- 
stances and varies In different cases In cities, where they have a Clearlug- 
Housc, cheeks on other city banks are expected lo reach the Cleurlng-I louse 
on Hie next day succeeding the limeof the deposit; but as to checks nnd 
drafts drawn upon other or distant cities, a reasonable time must In' allowed 
for them lobe presented tor payment. If the banker, however, is negllgenl 
concerning It, lie must stand the loss. Suoli eases very rarely, If ever, occur, 
and It may safely he staled that In the absence ol any special or unusual 
conditions for nil Hems such as checks, drafts, etc., the banker only receives 
[in m d.r oll.'i'tli.n fr>r ii..- :„■.-. m. r, r ..', hi.- iii-|n..~ii.-ii' ami then for acts onlj 
s agenl and as such Is charged with using only due diligence In altcnd- 


Q iscounts. loans, etc. 

THE word "Discount" Is applied to Interest when it is deducted from the 
amount at the lime a loan Is made— la other words, Interest that Is paid 
In advance. It is the general rule of tianh s In making "short lime" loans to 
customers to give credit for the amount of Hie loan, less Ibe interest. 

Many business men foil to obtain Hie full benefit that a bank can give 
thetn, through hesitancy or diffidence in asking for a loan; and In many In- 
stances will borrow of a neighboring business man ami thus, frequently 
embarass him, rather than go lo ihe banker, whose business it Is lo help 
hliii through such times of need, when possible. Tills Is what banks ure 
established for largely, and they are always glad lo "get their money out 
and keep 11 out" provided they can be reasonably sure of Its return. If an 
applicant Is unable to furnish reasonable security, or Is Irresponsible or 
Unworthy he must necessarily be refused, but In securing money which lie 
cannot guarantee the return of, whether It be from a banker or another 
business man he does an Injustice to the interests of business genet-ally. 
However, every business man In need of financial help, whether his needs 
be great orllttlc. should go to the banker first and submit the situation, 
Securities, etc. to htm, as of all men he Isby training Ihe best Judge and ud- 
visor,In infeh matters. He maybe compelled to decline to give the required 
aid, but Ibis refusal should n«7«r be taken as a personal matter, as It must 
be remembered that he has other interests to serve and depositors, stock- 
holders and directors lo protect hi- for.- following his own personal desires. 

C ollections 


ca or other items for collection the custom or writes on the 

1 back of each the words; "For Collect Ion for Account of " and places his 
signature below It. Upon receipt of thin, the proper officer or clerk of the 
bank, will enter Hie Items either in the back of Ihe customer's "passbook" 
or give a separate receipt as the case maybe. When ihe bank receives 
payment on the Items the customer is notified ninl tbc amount Is entered lo 
his credit both on Ills Passbook and on the books of the bank Hie snine 
as any other deposit. A hank in receiving paper for collection nets only as 
the agent of the customer and docs not assume any responsibility beyond 

the city where they are located for their customers at very moderate rates. 
These items should always be left at the hank before they become due, so us 

cation the bank will fu 

Statements and balances. 

n KEWwordsconccrnlugstatementsandbalanecswlllnotheltiappropil- 
) ale In this connection. Every customer of a bank should always un.l 
without fall, once In ench m„nlh. have hi 8 " Pass Book " balanced by the 
banker. This rule should always be observed to correct any error Hint 
might occur and avoid loss and complications. The amount of deposits Is 
added up ii 3d a balance Is Struck by deducting the lotal amount of the cus- 
tomer's checks which ihe bank has either paid or "accepted" (certified) 
during the month. The cancelled checks are returned I o the eusiouier. If 
any error Is discovered It should he reporti 


lately i 

Negotiable paper 

PROBABLY the greatest factor In the business world of to-day Is "Negotl- 
able Paper," without which It is nol probable that business development 
could have assumed the vast proportions that it has reached In America; 
and without which Hie business of ihe civilised world could not be carried 
na. This term Includes a variety of Instruments, such as promissory uotes, 
checks, drafts and bills of exchange. The bill of exchange Is one of i\n' 
oldest forms of negotiable paper, and has been In use for a number of 
centuries. The draft and cheek came into use at a much later day, and the 
promissory note Is a comparatively recent Invention, and bus very largely- 
taken the place of the bill of exchange as It was used In former limes. The 
most Important attribute of promissory notes, bills of exchange, and other 
Instruments of tlic same claBs, which distinguish them from all other con- 
tracts, Is their negotiability, This consists of two entirely distinct elements 
or branches— first, the power of transferring Hie paper from one owner to 
nnolher, so that the assignee shall assume a complete title, and bu able lo 
sue on It; second, Ike cITccl upon the rights of Ihe parlies produced by sueli 
n transfer when made before maturity, In the regular course of business, 
for a consideration lo a purchaser In good faith, and without notice of any 
defect or defense, whereby nil defenses of the maker (with few exceptions) 
arc cut off, and Hie holder becomes absolutely entitled to recover. 

A written order or promise may be pcrfeclly valid as a eoutract; but 11 
will not be negotiable unless certain requisites are compiled with. The 
following requisites are Indlspensr ble: It must be written ; must be signed ; 
it must be absolute, not depend! .ig upon any contingency ;It must be to pay 
money In a certain amount or In an amount capable of being certain bv 
compittalion; the time of rayment must he certain or such as will become 
certain; but when not' „r la expressed the law implies Ihat payment Is due 
Immediately; and lastly, the order or promise must be accompanied by 
words of uegotinbilily-lbnt Is payable lo a certain payee's order or to 

Promissory notes 

QCCOItDIXO lo the general "law merchant." unaffected by statute, a 
| promissory note Is the written promise of a person, called the "maker" 
lopayacerlalnsiimof money at a certain lime lo a designated person termed 
the " payee " or to his order or bearer. It must have all the requisites that 
have been mentioned for negotiable paper, otherwise, If it falls In any of 
these matters It becomes a contract, as It thus loses theclemeulof negotia- 
bility. Contracts may be perfectly valid without all of these requisites, but 
Ihey do not possesstbe peculinrquallllcs which belong to promissory notes. 
It is cuslomury In all promissory uoles to write the words " value re- 
ceived " but this la not absolutely essential, as a cansldcrnHou and value 
is implied In every nolc, draft, check, bill of exchange or endorsement, it 
is the common law of both England and this country Ibat no promise enu be 
enforced unless made for a consideration or sealed but negotiable instru- 
ments as a rule are mi exception to this. Between Ihe original parties a 
want of consideration can be pleaded in defense and would operate to de- 
feat a recovery. It would have Ihe same effect as between an endorser and 
ids endorsee, but this ooly applies to Irainedlnle parlies or lo those who 
llad notice of the defense or became holders of the paper after maturity. It 
may be slated as an almosl invariable rule ihat no defense will operale lo 
defeat Ike recovery if ihe paper has been negotiated and passed Into Hie 
hands of an Innocent purchaser. In the regular course of business, before 
maturity nnd for value. The absence of nny of these elements, however, win 
allow a defense lo be set up and will defeat recovery even In the hands ol 
third parlies If it can be shown thai there was either: a want of considera- 
tion, that it was obtained by duress, or fraud or circumvention, or larceny; 
or that the consideration wss illegal. In order to cut olT these defenses 
and give the holder the absolute right lo recover, all of the conditions 
nnmed must be fulBlled. If ho purchases the bole even one day nfler It 
becomes due It Is Ihen subject to any defense or sel off which the maker 
may have against the original pnyee. 

Demand of payment for a note must be made at Ihe place where 11 is 
payable al the time of maturity; Ifnotpuld notice must Immediately be 
given lo the endorsers, olherwise. In a majority of the Stales, all endorse- 
menls that are not qitalllled will bo released. It a note la not dated It will 
not defeat 11, but will be considered as daled when It was made; but a writ- 
ten date Is prima facie evidence of the time of making. When a note falls 
due on Sunday, or n legal holiday, it becomes payable the day previous. If 
a sum is written al length In Ike body and also In figures at the corner 
the written words control It. It destroys the negotiability of a nole to write 
In Ihe body of It any conditions or contingencies. A valuable consideration 
Is not always money. It may be either any gain or advantage lo the prom- 
isor, or injury snslalned by Hie promisee al the promisor's request. A pre- 
vious debt, or a fluctuating balance, or a debt due from a Ihird person, 
might be a valuable consideration So Is a moral consideration, If founded 
upon a previous legal consideration; as, where one promises to pay a debt 
Ihat Is barred by limitation or by Infancy. But a merely moral consideration 
as one founded upon natural love and affection Is no legal consideration. 
No consideration is sufficient Inlaw If It be Illegal In iis nature, or II dis- 
tinctly opposed lo public policy. If a note Is payable nt a bank It Is only 
ueccssary lo have Hie note at the bank at the sllptilaled lime lo constitute 
u sufficient demand ; and If there are no funds there lo meet It, Ihis Is suf- 
ficient refusal. 

Days op Gil ACE, —111 a great many States three "Days of Grace," as they 
are termed, are allowed on negotiable Instruments beyond Ihe dale set for 
puyment. Tills Is not Hie universal rule, however, us the lent'cney of laic 
years lias been toward doing away with this custom, and a number ol 
Slates have already passed laws abolishing the "Days of Grace." Where 
Ihe rule is In effect, however, and II Is not specifically waived In the Instru- 
ment the payor lacntltled to Ihe three days as fully as though It were so 
11 filiated , 111.- luddei ear '. .-u li.iv. , . . , |. . I i. i until I i pi rut lull ol 

three days after the date set for payment. 

B ills of exchange. 

THE "bill of exchange" Is an open letter or order whereby one person re- 
quests nnolher to pay a third party (or order or bearer) a certain fixed 
sum of money. They are of two kinds, the Inland nnd Foreign bills, the 
names Of which imply the difference between them. The three parlies to 
ihe bill are called the Drawer, Drawee und Payee. The bill mnsi be pre- 
sented to the Drawee and If he agrees lo obey Ihe order he "accepts" the 
bill by writing Ihe word "accepted" across lis face and signs his name be- 
low It— and tints becomes Ihe "Acceptor." The Instrument Is usually made 
negotiable and Ihe payee can transfer it lo others by endorsement, which 
method of transfer may go on Indefinitely. 

The following Is a common form of an Inland bill of exchange: 
Dili, or Eacuanok. 
KKW ClUCAflo, H.L., dune 1, ItsBl. 

Sixty days alter sight pay la John Sims, or order. Six Uui.dreil Dollars, 
mid charge same lo my account. 

To Hbsuv Holt* Co. j„iin Dot: 

C hecks 

Q CHECK on a bank Is one form of an "Inland Bill of Exchange," but there 
) is some slight dlfferenecilii I tin liability of Ihe parlies loll. A check 
requires no acceptance, ns a bank Is bound to pay the checks ofllsdeposl- 
lors while still in possesslon-of Ihelr funds, and the drawer of a clu. I, lmvln" 
funds on deposit has an aclion for damage for refusal to honor his check, 
under such circumstances, on tho ground of un Implied obligation to pay 

drawn payable Immediately, hut they may bo made payable at a future 
day, and In this case their resemblance to a bill of exchange Is vorj close 
As stated, a check requires no acceptance, so far as pay men! or liability of 
the drawer Is concerned, but It creates no obligation against a bank lo 
favor of tile holder unlll acceptance. When accepted by the bank the word 
"Accepted" is stamped oo lis face with Ihe Blgnatun of il.<- hanker. II Is 
then said to be certified and thereafter the bank Is liable lo tit.- bolder 
As soon as the check Is "certified" the amount Is charged against Hie 
account of the "drawer" Hi? same ns If paid, and Ills considered paid so 
far as Ihe "drawer" is concerned. 

The drawer of a cheek Is not a'surely in the same sense as Is Hit-drawer 
of a bill of exchange, but Is the principal debtor like the maker of a nole. lie 
cannot complain of any delay In the presentment, for it is an absolute ap- 
propriation to tho holder of so much money, In the hands of thu bank, and 
there It may lie at the holder's pleasure. The delay, however, Is at Hie 

holder's risk, nnd If the bank should fall titter he could luivcg |-i mom y 

the loss la his. If, before he presents llic cheek, the bank pays oul nil Ihe 
money of Hie drawer, I hen he may look in the drawer for payment. If the 
holder of a check transfers It to another lie has the right to expect that It 
will be presented lor payment within a reasonable lime. He has the rlghl 
lo expect that It will either be presented the next day or started to the 
point on which it is drawn. If It Is held beyond a reasonable llmo and a 
loss Is occasioned thereby, the parly responsible for Hie delay must hear 
Iholoss. If a bank pays a forged cheek it Is so far ilsown loss that II con. 
not charge the money lo the depositor whoso name was forged. Silt It Is 
entitled lo recover the money from Ihe parly who presented it, If 11 pay a 
cheek of which Ihe amount has been falsely and fraudulently Increased, ii 
can charge the drawer only with Ihe original amount, provided the drawer 
himself has not caused or facilitated the forgery by carelessly writing It ,.r 
leaving It in such bands as lo make the forgery or all oration easy. In some 
of the Stales the Supreme Court has In cases where checks were 
"raised" Ihat the drawer must boar llic loss as they had failed loiak.rea -..,- 
able precaution lo prevent II. Perforating and culling machines are oa Ihe 
market which make It almo-t Impossible to raise or alter the amounts so 
as to avoid detection, and tho tendency of [he decisions Is lo regard the use 
of these ns only a reasonable precaution on Ihe part of check drawers to 
save their bank from trouble and loss. Some, however, adopt the plan of 
writing the amount In red Ink across their signature. 

If many persons, not partners, Join In a deposit the;' mtial Join In a 
check. If a payee's name Is misspelled or wrong in a check, the usual plan 
Is lo endorse it first exactly ns it appears and then sign the name correctly. 

There is no settled rule as to how checks should be drawn. In nearly all 
Ihe cities it Is an almost Invariable rule to make (hem payable "lo order" 
so as to require the endorsement of the payee ; but lu smaller towns many 
check drawers make them payable "to hearer," In which ease they require 

D rafts 

Q DHAFT Is a lorin of an " inland bill of exchange." The two forms of bills 
P of oxehangoiisu.-illycalle.l"dra(ts"aro tho hank draft lor exchange) 
and the "sight or lime draft." Tile bank draft is, to all luteins and pur- 
poses, Ihe same as a check, hut the term is usually applied lo "checks" 
drawn by one bank upon funds which It may have In some other hank, 
termed Its "correspondent." A draft I ■, but very seldom made payable to 
bearer, It being almost an invariable rnlo to make them payable lo a cer- 
tain payee or order. They are negotiable aud ean be transferred indefi- 
nitely by endorsement. If a draft Is lost or slolen, by applying lo tho bank 
that Issued It, the payment cna be stopped, and after the expiration of 
thirty days a duplicate will be Issued. 

The "Sight Draff or "Time Draft." In which case It reads lo pay after 
a certain number of days, is a very common method of making collodions 
to-day by creditors, and It serves Ihe double purpose of being an order to 
pay lo a bnnk or third parly, and Is also a receipt to the deblor It is sim- 
ple In Its wording, the following being a general form: 

SKWO Ciiicaoo, June 1, 1SW. 

At sight (or so many days after sight as the case may bel pay to the 
order of Bank One Thousand Dollars and charge 1, 

To Geo. Sins, New York, N. Y, John S 


gHE signature of any payee or holder on the back of any check, draft, 
w nole, bill of exchange or other negotiable Instrument \„ termed his "en- 
doi-scmeul." It simply menns Ihe placing of the name of the holder, or 
payee. On the back ol the instrument, thus Indicating thai, lor a consider- 
ation, he has relinquished his title lo It, nnd Ir. the absence of any condi- 
tion or qualification expressed in the endorsement, It implies thai i/,< . n- 
dorur will see Hint Hi e Instrument Is paid In case It Is not taken up by the 
maker or payor. Where the instrument Is made payable to "bearer," us to 
"John Sims or bearer," no endorsement Is necessary to pass tlie title— It 
passes with delivery and any holder may collect or sue upon 11 tin- same a-. 
If he were the payee named therein. In a ease of Ibis kind If any holder en- 
dorses Hie instrument, the law Is construed strictly against him, and, as It 
was not necessary for him to endorse lo pnss title, the law presumes lu the 
absence of a positive qualification that Ids endorsement was made fov tilt 
fturpof of indicating that ho would pay it If the payor failed to do so. 
micro several payees are named lu the Instrument II must bear the en- 
dorsement of all of litem to pnss Ihe title and make one transfer of It. In 
thisense, hoWever, their liability as endorsers Is joint, nol several. But 

from one to Ihe other their liability Is several, Joint. 

Every check, draft, bill of exchange, nolo or olhcr negotiable Instru- 
ment which Is made payable to a certain "payee Or oriirr" must bear the 
endorsement of the party nnmed, lo pass the title, and even In cases where 
they are made payable to "bearer" It Is generally customary for the party 
to whom a transfer is made to require the person from whom ho secures It 

There are several kinds of endorsement which should be mentioned In 
this connection. The llrst Is the "blank endorsement," or "endorsement in 
blank," in making which tin- payee simply places his signal ure on the back 
of the Instrument, without condition or qualification of any kind. This 
passes the lllle lo Ihe Instrument, n lid, from that time on, It becomes pay- 
able to bearer, nnd the title passes wllh delivery, until some subsequent 
bolder sees nt to llmll It by making It payable lo some other payee, or 
places some oilier iiuallllenil. in or condition lo the endorsement. When a 
negotiable Inst nunc nt bearing a " blank endorsement," has once been put 
Inlo circulation, any subsequent holder of it has the right lo limit or restrict 
it by writing the conditions over his own endorsement, or, by writing over 
the endorsement o( the original payee, words making it payable to himself 
or some oilier party, "or order." This point has been decided by Hie 
supreme courts of several of tho Slates, 

The endorsement may bo restricted or qualified in a number of ways. 
One, which la called a "full endorsement," Is very common lu the business 
world. II Isslcnply tbc act of the payee named making It payable losome 
other certain payee or order. To do this, the endorser writes on the back of 
Hie last rumetit, the directions, as: "Pay to John Sims, or order." nnd places 
bis signature below It. This does not limit his liability as an endorser, but 
Ihe title lo the Instrument must thereafter pass through John Sims, and It 

Entered according to Act of Con gross, lu tho year 189J, by Ge< 

e & Co., in the office of tho Librarian, of Congrt 



Another common form of limiting the endorsement Is lo enable luc 
payee (when It Is made payable to Ms order) to transfer his title to the 
Instrument without becoming responsible for I is payment, nod making the 
parly to whom His transferred assume, all responsibility eon corning pay- 
ment. Todo this Ihuendorscr writes the words "Without Recourse" over 
his signature, which lins the effect of relinquishing Ills title without milk- 
ing him liable lo the holder In cose the payor falls to take It up. 

Another method of limiting Ibe ondurscmcut is to make It conditional, u 
good illustration ot which Is Ihe following: "Pay to John Sims or order 
upon his delivering lo Hie First National Bank a warranty deed 10 lot G, 
block i, etc.," below which tbo endorser places bis signature. Ho Can also 
make It payable lo "A. B. only," or In equivalent words, in which case "A. 
B." cannot it over. 

til, and cither to lessen at lac ,...-.'. ihiiity, sucb ns cllhcr -'waiving lui- 

l lee of demand ;" making 1.1- ,-ndor— iii.iit a "general mid special guaranty 
of payment '• loall fiitiii- . I Bti nut he cannot, by bis endorsement, 
either Increase or lessen the liability of any other endorser on Ibe 

An endorser, at it rule, is en 11 1 led to Immediate notice la ease Ibe payor 
falls to pay II. This la Ihc case in nearly all of the United Stales, ns 11 lias 
been a rule of lhe "law merchant" for many years. A few modifications, 
however, of Ibe gcnerol 'Maw merchant" have bee a made by statute In sev- 
eral of lhe States, relating lo negotiable paper, In changing Ihu endorser's 
liability by rendering his contract absolute Instead of conditional, making 
notice unnecessary unless lie suffers damage through want of 11, or requir- 
ing a judgment to be first recoveied before ho can be held. In the absence, 
however, of statutory provisions of I Ids kind, mid ili.-y only exist In a few of 
Hie States, 11 may lie said that lo hold endorsers they must have prompt 
notice of non-payment, and It may bo said lo be a gtatral rule of the "law 
merchaur' Ibnl nil parlies to negotiable paper as endorsers who are en- 
titled lo notice are dl -charged by want ot notice. The demand, not lee and 
protest must 1* made according to lhe laws of the place where payable. 

The term Protest Is applied lo the official net by an nnthorljed person 
(usually a Notary Public), whereby be nlbruis inn formal or prescribed 
manner in writing thai a certain bill, draft, check orother negotiable paper 
has been presented fur acceptance or payment, ns Hie case may be, and 
been refused This, ami the notice of the "Protest." which must be senl to 
all endorsers and parlies lo lhe paper Is lo notify them officially of its 



log, and unless it Is a sealed Instrument there inusi bo aconslilerullon lo 
support it. As a rule It Is not negotiable, so ns to bo enforced by the trans- 
feree as It ii had been given lo him by lhe guarantor, but this depends upon 
the wording, as, If it contains all the characteristic!! of a note, payable lo 
order or bearer. It will be held negotiable. A contractor guaranty Is con- 
strued strictly, and. if the liability of llie principal be materially varied by 
the aetot lhe party guaranteed, wilhont lhe consent of (he guarantor, lhe 
guarantor is discharged. The guarantor is also discharged If the liability 
or obligation Is renewed, or enlended by law or otherwise, unless he In 
writing renews the contract. In lhe case of a bank incorporated for twenty 
years, which was renewed for ten years more without change of officers, 
the courts held thai the original suicil-s could not be lie Id nrii-r the first term. 

The guaranty can be enforced even Ihough Ibe original debleiiniiot. ns Is 
the case In becoming surely for the debt of a minor. A guarantor who pays 
the debt of lhe principal Is entitled to demand from Ibe creditor all the 
securities be holds, or of the note or bond which declares the debl; and, In 
some States, the creditor cannot fall back upon the guarantor until be has 
collected as much as possible from these securities and ovhnusted legal 
remedies against the principal. If the debt or obi I gal ion be tirsi incurred 
and completed before lhe guaranty Is given, there must be a new consider- 
ation or lhe guaranty is void. 

A guaranty Is not binding unless the guarantor lias notice o I Ms accept- 
ance, but the law presumes this acceptance when the o lie rot guaranty and 
aela uf lhe parly to whom it Is given, such as delivery of goods or extending 
credit are simultaneous. But an oiler lo guarantee u future operation does 
not bind the offerer unless he has such notice of Hie acceptance as will af- 
ford him reasons til,- opportunity lo make himself safe. A creditor may give 
his debtor some Indulgence or accommodation without discharging the 
guarantor, unless it should have the effect ot prejudicing ibe Interests ol 
the guarantor. In which ease he would be released. Generally a guarantor 
may, at any lime, pay a debl and so, al once, have the right to proceed 
against lhe debtor. Where lliere has been failure on the part of Hie princi- 
pal and the guarantor Is looked lo, lie must have reasonable notice— and 
uollee Is deemed reasonable if It prevents the guarantor from sutlering 

II [s, Iti many cases, difficult to say— and upon It rests the question of 

another Is nn original promise, ns lo pay for one's own goods. In which case 
11 need not be In writing; or n promise lo pay the debt or guaranty the 
promlscof him to whom lhe goods are delivered. In which case It must be 
in writing. The question generally resolves Itself into thin: To whom did 
the sellergive and was authorized to give eredll ? This is a question of 
fact and not of law. If lhe hooks of seller nhow that ho charged them lo 
the party to whom he delivered them, Ills almost Impossible lor him to bold 
the other party for It, but if on the other band it Is shown thai he regarded 
the goods as being sold to the party whom It Is desired to hold, but deliv- 
ered lhe in lo another parly and it Is so shown on his book 4, It Is not regarded 
ns a guaranty, bul nu original or collateral promise, and would make the 
party liable. In general, a guarantor of a bill or nolo is not entitled lo 
siteU strict and exact notice as an endorser is entitled lo, but only nurh 
notice us shall save him from actual loss, as be can not make lhe waul of 
notice his defense bo can show tint I It was unreasonably Withheld 
and that be suffered thereby. There is a marked difference In the effect ol 
a guaranty of (he "payment," or of the "collect Ion" of a debl. In lhe llrsl 
ease, the creditor can look lo Hie guarantor at any lime ; in lhe latter, tho 
ir must exhaust his legal remedies for collecting It, 

A ccommodation paper. 

AN accommodation bill or note is one for wh 

inodale the drawer, payee or bolder. lie is b 
as completely us If I hern were a good con sub- 
case, It would be of no value lo the party acre 
lo set up want of consideration us a 

n Hie In. 

he ,,:, 

I It, 


TTHEmere act of Identifying a parly or making him known lo abu 
U rlcs wilh It no liability on llio pari of the parly who thus pre 

frequently asked lo I den Illy and rnnkek uown lo their own bunkers, strang- 
ers who desire cheeks or drafts cashed or other accommodations. Ill some 
cases a mere Introduction is all that is necessary, but only because lhe 
banker relics upon the honor ami integrity of his customer, knowing that 
an Improper person would not be introduced, for in a ease of Ibis kind lhe 
bank assumes nil the risk. Generally speaking, however, Ills an almost 
Invariable rule with bankers, as It should be. to require their customer lo 
endorse all draftsor cheeks which arc honored for the stranger. In this 
case the endorser becomes personally liable to the bank If any or all of Ibe 

An endorsement which Is frequently made by parlies who are asked to 
Identify others Is to merely Indicate that they know lhe party lo be the 

payee named In lhe cheek or that the signature of lhe payee or parly Is cor- 
rect. This is done by writing the words "Signature O. K." under the party's 
name and signing it, This lias the effect of guaranteeing thai the party's 
name Isns written und that It Is bis proper signature, It does not guaran- 
tee thai llio check or draft is good or will be paid, but merely as expressed, 
that the signature is correct, and the only liability assumed is thai bo will 
pay the amount in case Hie signature proves a forgery. Many bnnks, how- 
ever, will not accept paper endorsed Ibis way and justly so, for II throws 
upon Ihem the burden of lhe risk. 

R eceipts and releases 

QNY acknowledgement thai a sum of money has been paid Is a receipt. A 
J 1 receipt which rendu "m full" though admitted to be strong evidence is 
by no means legally eon elusive. If the parly signing II can show an error will be admitted lu his favor. Receipts for money will be 
held open, to examination, and the party holding it must abide lb" resulls 
Of such examination— the great aim of the law being to administer sli'lcl 
justice, A receipt may be of different degrees of e.vpllclitiess, us the word 
"Paid" or"Rceelvcd Payment'' written oil a bill. A " release " is simply a 
form of receipt, but is more binding upon (lie parlies, inasmuch as, if prop- 
erly drawn, under seal, for a consideration. U is a complete defense lo any 
action based on the debis or claims so released. Herein, releases differ from 
receipts. A release Is In the i- at lire of a written contract and therefore 
eannol be eootrollcd or contradicted by evidence, unless on the ground o( 
fraud. Qui if Its words are ambiguous, t,r may have either of two or more 

Infants and minors. 


Incapacity of a person 10 make a valid contract may arise from several 
kUSCs, and Ibe fact of being an Infant, or minor, Is one of them. The 
il rule of law may be stated as being thai the contra et of an infant or 
is not always void, bill Is voidable, and in many cases special excep- 
i made, giving validity to their contracts for necessaries. By being 
ble, but not void In themselves, means that the Infant has the right lo 
row and annul the contract, either before or within a reasonable time 
' he reaches his majority. He may do Ihis byword only, bill a mere 

A gency 

■^BElfEnrea few well-settled and important rules of law governing lhe 
** matter of agents and ngeney, which every business man should under- 
stand thoroughly. The relation of principal und agent Implies that lhe 
principal acts by and through the agent. A principal Is responsible for Hie 
acts uf the agent only when he has actually given full authority to the 
agent, or when lie has by his words, or ills nels, or both, caused or permitted 
the person with whom the agent deals to believe luin clothed with this 

a nth only. This Is a point which Is not always Iboi ghly lerslood, but 

it la a well-settled principle of law. There are Iwo kinds of 113c ills— general 
and special. A general agent Is one authorized to represent bis principal 
in all liis business, or in all his business of a particular kind, anil Ills 
power li limited by the immil scope und character of the business he is 
empowered lo transact. If he la given out as lhe general agent, (lie prin- 
cipal Is bound, even if Hie agent transcends bis actual authority, but docs 
i.ot go beyond the tin; itral and usual scope of the business. 

On Hie other hand, n special agent Is one authorized to do only a speci- 
fic thing, or a few specified thlngs.or a specified line of work. If Ibis special 
agent exceeds his authority, it maybe slated nsan almost Invariable rule 
til at lhe principal is not bound, because the parly dealing with the agent 
must Inquire for himself and at his own peril, Into the extent and limits of 
tbo authority given lolhc agent. Especially is litis the case where Ibe 
parly knew thai the agent bad been or was engaged in attending to a par- 
ticular and specified line of work connected wllh ihe business Of lhe princi- 
pal. The parly, however, Is not bound by any special reservations or limit- 
ations made secretly by Hie principal of which he had no reasonable or easy 
means of having nollec. The authority of an agent may be given by Hie 
principal, by writing or orally, or may hi* implied from certain acts. Thus 
If a person puts his goods into the custody of another whose business it Is 
10 sell such goods, he authorize.? the whole world lo uuHovi lint thin person 

has them for sale; and any person buying then I —11. . in Ibis belief, 

would hold Hiein. If one, knowing thai .11 rb.oi.i ■■■ 1 1 ibis i.vm. ,],., >h 

not dlsnvow Hie aulboilty tissoon as he eonieiiicntli can. but lies 1., and 
permits a person to go 011 and deal with the supposed agent, or lose an op- 
portunity of Indemnifying himself, this Is nu adoption and con Br -nation of 
Hie nets of the agent. 

A principal is bound by (he acts of nu ugent even after the revocation 
of his agency, If such revocation has not been made public or Is unknown 
lo lhe party dealing with the agent. An agent can generally be held per- 
sonally liable It be transcends his authority; but this Is not Ihc cose if the 
parly with whom he dealt knew that the authority was transcended. 


|N general, banks may 
1 lounJayKnoxooei - 

sin credit. 

M-ld a 

.effected by tin- It. '■■ 1 I Oi the eredll system, and banks and 

bankers are ihe niacin.., r, by -Much ibis Is done." Metallic money und lis 
representative, the nlroulalinj note, are only lhe small change of "Trade" 
employed In lhe settle men l of balances and small purchases ami payments. 
This fact Is Illustrated by the operations of the New York clearing house. 
The exchanges have been about. «O,00O millions of dollars during the pasl 
thirty years ivhllc Ibe balances paid lu money have only been about 30,000 
millions, or about four per ceo I. of (lie n mount of Hie Settlements, 

It has always been claimed thai lhe business of banking originated 
wllli the Venetian money changers who displayed their wares null moneys 
on the streets and Ihus supplied those in need ot change. According to Hie 
most eminent aulliorlllcs the earliest banking instil nil mi In Europe was llio 
Bank of Venice, which was founded in I ITS, and was based upon a forced 
loan of the government. Funds deposited in 11 could be transferred lo 
others on the books of the bank al the pleasure of the owner, but they could 
not be withdrawn. The perpetual annuities of lhe British debl are handled 
In a very similar manner at Hie preseut day. The Bank of Venice was con- 
tinued unlll 1787. In HOI, Lhe Bank of Barcelona was formed. Al a period 
miiehcarller than Ihis, the Jewish money-dealers had invented what ave 
known as ''foreign bills of exchange." but it Is said that this hank wns ibe 
llrsl Institution Hiat made a business of negotiating and handling litem. 
The Bunk ol Genoa commenced oporullon lu 1107 and for centuries was one 
cf Hie principal banks of Europe. II was the llrst to Issue circulating 
notes-whlch were passed only by endorsement, not being payable lo 

The Dank of Hamburg, established lu 1010, was a baak of both deposit 
and circulation based on line sliver bars. This bank, like nearly all of 
that early time, had, as a principal object, 111 protection of lhe people 
from worn, sweated, clipped and plugged coins, or coins of certain em- 
pires that ware reduced lu standard value. Tboremedy generally adopted 
was to lock up lhe debased and depreciated coins and circulate lhe credit 
granted for them. Various other banks sprang Into existence throughout 
Europe, many of them being powerful government agencies, and in ninny 
eases cxerled u wide Influence lu shaping lhe destinies of empires. 

In liltll the Hank of liuglaud was established, and there Is no banking 
institution In the world equal to It in tin.* management of national finances. 
The Bank of France was authorized In 1800. Il Is nol a fiscal agent of Ihc 
government ns Is that ot England. It does not collector disburse the 
revenues of the exchequer but It lends lo It largely, while lis credits, In Ibe 
form of circulating notes and Other acceptances, have home the govern- 
ment safely through extraordinary needs. 

it Is claimed thai Hie llrsl organized bank In tho United Slates bad Its 
origin In the formation of 11 banking company without charier Juno 18th, 

1TS0. by lhe clllzens of Philadelphia, and first action by Congress was lukon 
June £.', of the same year In reference lo ihis proposed association. Two 
years afterward, o> "perpetual charier 1 ' was granted lo the Bank of North 
America al Philadelphia. In 17*11 the Slate of Massachusetts Incorporated 
the SI assac hit setts Bank. The Bank of New York was chartered lu March, 
I7B1, al though It had beeu doing business since IT&l, under articles of asso- 
ciation drawn by Alexander Hamilton. Mosl of these Institutions are still 
running and have been convened Inlo national banks. The Bank of the 
United Slates was organized In 1701. The most of the stock wns owned by 
lhe United Slates Government, but later the Government interest was dis- 
posed of, ntid In 1343 lhe bank failed. 

Stale banks were organised rapidly, and private banking Arms sprang 
inlo ex Isle nee nud lhe business of banking assumed Immense proportions. 
In 1883, lhe NATIONAL Bank Svsieu was adopted and In ItsJi the National 
Bank Bureau of the Treasury Department was organised, the chief officer 
of which is lhe comptroller of lhe currency. In March, 1865, nil act was 
passed providing for a ton percent, lax on notes of any person orStnto 
bank Issued for circulation, and making an exception of National banks, 
This had. llio effect of taxing lhe State bank circulation out of existence. 
As the National banking system has proven one of lhe most c Indent and sat- 
isfactory methods the world has ever known. It will be of interest 10 review 
here some of lis principal features. Under this act National banks may be 
organized by any number r,t persons not less than live. Nol less than one. 
third of the capital must be invested in Uniled Stales bonds, upon which, 
lay be Issued ci|Ual 10 00 per eenl of Hie par value of the 
listing notes arc receivable al par in lhe United Stales 
Inall payiuenis except for duties on Imports, Interest on ihe public debt 
and in redemption of 11.. Li . 1 m The National banks are re- 
quired lo keep a . . rim, r. -,..., Hi,-, ...c authorized lo loan, money at the 

rale of Interest ,l11,.a,-.i bj [he rut - States— when no rate Is fixed by the 

lawsof IheSlale, lhe banks may charguTper cent. Shareholders arc held 
Individually liable, equably and ratably, for all debts of ihc association to 
the extent of lhe amount of their stock, in addition to the amount Invested 
therein. The banks are required, before the declaration ofn dividend, to 
carry one-tenth part of their net proBlsof the preceding half year "to 
surplus fund until lhe same shall amount lo 20 per eenl. of lhe capital; nnc) 
losses and bad debls must be deducted from net profits before any dividend 
la declared. Areceivcrmay be appointed by lhe comptroller to close up 
under his supervision the affairs ot any national bank which shall fall to 
keep good lis lawful money reserve or which may become Insolvent. While 
there have been national bank failures, there has never been any loss lo 
the people whatever on the circulation. A suit may be brought for forfelt- 
U re of (be charier of a bank If the directors shall knowingly violate lhe 
law; anil In sucb casus Ihey may be lie Id liable In their Individual capacity. 
There are other restrictions In the law— such as for Instance, the prohlbl- 
llon against loaning to any one borrower ot more Hum ten per cent, of lhe 
capital; 01- the holding of any real estate except such as Is required for 
banking purposes, or the granting ot loans upon Hie security of lhe bank 

bonds. Thes 

1 claws regulating Slate Banks and provld- 
ic laws of Hie various States are not alike It 
ascription of Hie matter that would apply 10 
or, provide for nud require State banlin 

banks in It. All of Ibe 
log certain restriction) 
Is impossible to give a 
all tho Stales. The la 
hold n certain reserve, and al regular intervals they make full statements 
as to their condition and their affairs are examined Into by certain .Slate 
officials at frequent Intervals. The laws of all the Stales have reached a 
high degree of perfection In Hie method of regulating and overseeing State 
I .-. and Ike almost universal soundness and reliability of these Insti- 
tutions reflect credit upon the laws under which (hey exist, 

Clearing house 

TTHECIearlng-Housc Is the pi aco where Hie exchanges of Ihe banks are 
U made In all the principal cities of the world. The clearing-house sj s- 
lem was llrsl established in London about the beginning of the present 
century, [1 was llrst introduced into Ibis country by lhe banks of the city 
of New York organizing an association, under the name ot lhe New York 
Clearing House, which commenced operations Oct. 11,1653 At that lime ll 
consisted of lllly-lwo banks, but Hvoof them were soon closed beenuse of 
their inability loinecl iis requirements. Clearing Houses hare since been 
established in nearly all of (lie principal ell lea of the continent, 

In all cities a bank receives large 1 nmoun's of bills of and checks on oilier 
banks, so that at Hie close of each day's business every bank has, in Its 
drawers, various sums thus due il by other banks. It is, in like manner, 
Itself 1 ho debtor of oilier banks, which have during the day received lis bills 
and cheeks drawn upon It. Prior lo the establishment of lhe clearing- 
house It was necessary for each bank, every morning, lo makeup Its 
account with every oilier bauk, and to send Its porter or a gem to present (he 
bills and cheeks so received lo lhe debtor bunl.s for ouyiuent. The balances 
were adjusted by payments in gold, which became so laborious, dangerous, 
and complicated, Hiat the balances were aettlid only weekly instead of 
dally— a plan that resulted in greut risk and evil. This was obviated by 
tho clearing-house system, through which Ibe settlements are so simultane- 
ously and quickly effected thai lu Ne-.v York the transactions In one single 
day tmve amounted 10 over-smouo.OOO.ln adjusting which ihe exchanges were 
settled In 'be space of nn hour. Besides saving a vast amount of work, 
bookkeeping and expense, It enabled Hie banks by united aid to strengthen 
each Other In limes of excitement and lltiuneinl panic. 

The following Is the manner in which Ibe settlements are made In about 
all lhe clearing-houses of this country: The clenrlug-room Is provided 
With a continuous line of desks, one for each bank that is a member of the 
association, each desk bearing lhe name and number of the bank. Each 
bank Is represented every morning, at the hour tixed for settlement, by 
Iwo clerks, one a messenger who brings with him the checks, drafts, etc., 
thai his bank has received during Ihe day previous upou lhe other banks 
— called the "exchanges," and these ere assorted for each bank and placed 
in envelopes. On (ho outside of each cuv elope is a slip on which are listed 
ihe amount 3 of the various Items which H contains. The messengers take 
their places In a line outside the row of desks, each opposite the desk as- 
signed to his bank, while at each desk Is a clerk with a sheet containing 
the names of all lhe banks In lhe same order as the desks, with the aggre- 
gate amounts which his bank's messenger has against each hank. Jusl 
previous to the hour llxed for making Ihe exchanges the manager takes Ills 
position and calls the house lo order. Al a signal lhe 1*11 rings and each 
messenger moves forward to lhe desk next his own and delivers tile envel- 
ope containing lhe checks, etc., for the bank represented ni ibnl desk 10 
the clerk althatdesk, together wllh a printed list of the hanks In lhesamc 
order, with the amount opposite each bank. The clerk receiving U, signs 
ami returns U lo the messenger , who imrui ■■dlnlelj passes on lo the 
desk; then lo the next, and so on until he has made a complete circuit 
and has again reached the desk of his own bank -the starling point All 
the other messengers moving In the same manner; each messenger has. by 
this means, visited every bank and delivered to each everything his bank 
held for It, inking a receipt for ibe same; and al lhe same lime each bank 
has received all tho exchanges thai every other bank had against It. This 
operation even in thegrentest clearinghouses only consumes from lento 
lift cc.11 minutes. 

This enables the banks to know at once the exnel balance for or against 
It, ns the clerks Immediately enter from lhe slips on their own sheets the 
aggregate amount from each bank, and the difference between Ihe total 
amount brought by them, which at oneo shows the balance due lo or from 
lhe clearing house 10 each bank. 

This Is reported lo their bnnks, und lhe balnuce Is paid to or drawn 
from the clearing bouse, thus nl once Be tiling lhe accounts between nil the 
banks. The lists are ■' proved'' carefully, nnd certain tines are laid for all 
errors, tardiness, etc. 

9, In the year ISM, by tin. 

E & Co., In tbo office o( tbu Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D, C. 

-1 Itl.FMKXT X. 





Copyright. 1SS6. by 

The chief aim of Ihis Chronological History is to give in a comprehensive and attractive form the principal events of the history of the world tree from 
unnecessary details. For convenience this history is arranged under — I. Ancient History, II. Medieval History. III. Modern History. The ' 

Second. From the birth of the United States to the present tin 

uiiiictc^iuv utruuii. rut convenience uns insiory is arrangeu unuer— 
From the beginning of the Sixteenth Century to American Revolution. 

latter is given — First. 
time by countries. 

Ancient History 

i Silicon I. [vine of Babylon. 

■"I lie llrsi Egyptian ihnavtv under Huns. 
' Snelru. 3d Egyptian dynasty. 

Egipilon I use rip (Inns bKgln. 

I'hcnlcla Mid lo have been (copied by 

' Tyre .in.) Sldon rounded. 

111.. Egyptian 'lynnst; begin:;. 

ih" rvramld Tombs erected. 

Mf.Tin 1'epl I.. Slxih Egyptian dynasty. 

Cluildi-a Sllld 1. 1 liriVe heo(i eon quo rod by 

Menus or Armenians. 
Tho deluge. 

Tlic 1 -; I n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - Conquest. 
The UlUlles In Cnppadocla. 


3f Ass 

j, Egypt, founded. 

Alleged beginning of Chaldean astro 

leal observations sent by Culllsit 

lo Aristotle: the carllosl extant 

TiO B. C. 

' The Illn dynasty In Chlnn rounded. 

Cuneiform writing probably In Use. 

i Pyramids built norih or Memphis. 

■ llio obelisk of On erected. 
Hoist* of I'rlcli of Chaldca. 
Uranus arrives In Greece. 
Slcyon. Crecce founded. 

. Birth or Abrnhom. 

Cull of Abraham. 

Abraham nrrlies in Syria. 
! Isaac born. 
: Death of Abnihnto. 

Kingdom <<l Argus founded, 
i Reign ol lsml-dngun. who conquers As- 

Ulrlli of Jacob nntl Esau. 

Monition linvtii.n I In; Egyptian alphabet 

■ llykos in Egypt. 

1 Joseph Bold Into Egypt- 

Arcadians emigrate to Italy and found n 

Jii. ob and bis family settle In Egypt. 
Sosostrls conquers Asia and Elh1"pia. 
l.ioginliliig i.i III,- ehl log.y mI (Up Amti- 

dcllan marbles, which were brought 

t.j England. In A. D. 1017. 

Mule Infanls la Egypt destroyed. 

Allien* rounded. 

Kingdom dI Sparta formed. 

\~,\\ ul.'-li.ii u( iln- llvto:.- from Egypt. 

Animus 1. founds lUli Ecvpllan dynasl). 

TIli- li"- .o.iri i "ii'jiK-.ii "1 liahi I, in. 

Uiiini ■: -es 1. founds lillh Egyptian dy- 

Arablana subdue CbfUdca and establish 

v .1.-1,. 


n of the alphabet into Greece. 
The passovcr Instituted. 

Departure id the lnraeliKs from Egypt. 
The law given from Mount Slnaj. 
Tabernacle established In tlic ivllderneȣ. 
Heath ur Muses and Aaron. 
I ,-,..[! il.i h id- (In; l-r.i.rlit. ■■ iril.. < aliuuli. 
. Joshua divides Cnnaun. 
lo 1136 Hebrews .subject to sl\ periods of 

Othiil. I. first Judge In Israel, 
i King ol Babylon marries the daughter 
of the Assyrian King. 

Ehud, ;■■■ ■ ..-lid Judge ol Israel. 

Corinth built. 

Kurlgab.u Line ol Babylon. 

Eglon, King of Muab. 
■ Israel wars with her neighbors. 

|-:h:ii:ilnlaii uionusl.-rlrs Instituted. 

King Chang.;* tlic Egyptian 

I k) [iikin iiln-li -ks 

rrles E 

: Dorak and Deborah In Israel. 

i IVInpj selllos in South Grcese. 

. Itlse ol the Assyrian Empire. 

i itahikiu i ,>n<,n. i-.-l bv the Assyrians. 

i Gideon, the greaiesi of Die Judges of 

i KitriibCi-Si^'iKirls reigns In Egypt. 

i Abinif l.-eb King ot Israel. 

i Proctus 1" Egypt. 

; Melon carried oft* by Paris. 

; Trojan war begins. 

Trov destroyed by Greohs. 

I Hrmiesvs III. the last Egyptian native 

Ell, High Priest in Israel. 

. Israel wars against Amorltes. 

: Albn I-onga founded, 

i of Babylon Invades 


; I,.; Hiali Judge over Israel. 

; Samson defeats the Philistines. 

i Tlglath Plloi'.T I. Iniados Babylonia. 

1 Samuel, Judge and flrat prophet in 

lelrca) Tin. Chow dynusly In China 

Saul made (Irnl King of Inracl. 
S.-iul dcl.nts I In.- Philistines. 
. Birth of David. 

gealli of Samuel, 
enlh of Saul and Jonathan, and acces- 
sion ot David. 
I Tvro becomes the leading city. 

ll'lrliur the Egyptian throne, 
t !i,.vld takes Jerusalem. 
1 King I Urn in .>f Tyre, nldh the I: rn'-llte:. 
I I.uiI.i.cj i.etile lii Asia Minor. 
i David defeat:: the I'lilln UneM anil re. ov- 
ers the Ark. 
The Ark removed to Jerusalem. 
David, of Israel, subdues the Syrians. 
1 The revolt and death of Absalom. 
I Death of David. 

Solomon becomes King. 
1 Solomon's Temple begun. 
I Completion ~ * 
i Tlie ifiieen of Sheba visits King Solomon 
, Dontta '■( Solomon. 
It. .,oli ..r the Ten Trlbi 
Division Into Ulngdeii 

The kingdom of Israel established under 

i Independence. 

■Ih nt [.hi nr .- i] ..'iV 

of Israel i 

•Egyptian History la In a slate of almost 
hr.|,rlos;i oh:-xurliy. Hi" eiiilmatcH of tho Croat 
Egyptologers dm. Ting nmre limn S.OOO years. 
Tbo ilalea here given are generally aceeplod 
by the greater part of ChronologlBls. 

B. C 

Oit Shlshak, King of Egypt, enpturca and 

plunders Jerusalem. 
9:,7 Abljah. King of Judali, defeat! the King 

550 The decline or Thebes. Egypt. 
Assur-dnyan II.. King ,,r Assyria. 

vp. !!h..di:iii;i I'iiiiihI run igmion laws. 

SOU Israel Isnllllct.d with a lauilne predicted 

by the Prophet Elijah. 
9'il Syria makes war upon Israel and Is de- 

aaa Erection of the nor lb we »l palace ot Nlin- 

S37 Elijah translated to heaven. 
S9l! Jehnshupliat defeats the Aiiimotilles. 
Death of Ahnb. King of Israel. 

S'l-, Mirnele~ ..f Elbdia tin I'rui.ln-t. 
^ ^ '. , Samaria b.-^ieg.,,! by ti M , Syrians. 

551 I-acedemon settled. 
Legislation ol Ly. urgua e( Sparta. 
Assur-mii.',lr-] King ol Assyria. 

SSii The ,\iisiTliiti-i again Inv.-el.- ll.ibi l.inla. 
SIS Cartboge founded by nidi the Tyrhiu. 
Sla Sardannralus I. of Assyria. 
S70 The Assyrians i-iiiihuit Plionlcla. 
S.'.U Assyrian . on'juest undi 

lla~ael attacks Israel. 
Sir. Lycurgus nourishes. 

Olympic games revived In Elis. Greece. 


its Tar 

TIG Commeii. eiiieni id the Olympiads. 

First nuthenttr date In Greek history, 
7C0 The Etruscans In Campania, 
"53 Rome founded by llomulus. 

7.-.U ifablne wiir |..||..w ; , ill" lin tlnn ,,( ti,.. 

Sabino women. 

Ethiopia Independent. 
717 liabylnn Independent or Nineveh. 

League belnein lioiuans and Sablnes. 
"ti Pul assume* (lie name of Tlgltith I'llespr 
and founds the ln<\ Aii.vrh.n Empire. 

Assyria Invades Palestine. 
713 Messenlan wnrs. 

Sparta victorious. 
711 Pekah. King of Israel, besieges Joru- 

71'1 Tlglath'piloser destroys Syria. 

Israel forms an alliance with Syria 

against Judali. 
Syria becomes subject to Assyria. 
7.10 Slialmnnoser subdues Israel. 
;.■■: II. ■.■...•Hali iil.'.lkLli, i Idi.lnlrv In .liei.ili. 
7JJ \V. Invades I'henlcla. 
721 Assyrians Invest Samaria and carry llio 

Tsn Tribes Into captivity. 
Tho Kingdom ■■( l*n.el destroyed. 
717 Assyrians t.ii.illv defeat llir- Mitlltes. 
71f, AssasHlnatlon of Itoinulus. 
71' N'uina Piuupillus. King of Home. 
713 Sennacherib. the Assyrian. Invades 

7ln Senmtelierlb Invades Judah. 

IS-'i.iXH) Assyrians deslrevcd In one lllglil 

by an angel. 
70n Sargon of Assyria conquers Babylon. 
G:.S Manns*eh. King ot JnUnh. 

Oros3 Idolatry In Judah. 
63" Gygos round, the ;lrd Lvdlun dynasty. 
.:->; ICgi-pi ,li. Ide.l l,.-..iH L .,Tii lj h nig,. 
OSS— 063 Second Messenlan War. under Arls- 

&SI Archoustilii nt Mlerr. made annual, 
liSl Esar-haddon King of Assyria. 

Babylon becomes the second capital. 
BS3 Creon becomes Drst annual arclion of 

r;7* ^aiinii-lri i i.l'.nli'ed by Assyrians. 
i.7J Assyria conquers Egypt. 
fi71 Psammelhu* n-lKiis In Egypt and en- 
courages IntcriourH' with (lie Greek;.. 
670 Alban lnvB3i..n and b.itd.-.- or the Horath 

and Curiam. 
Rise of Magarla. Greece. 
C67— 625 Reign of Assur-banl-pal. King of 

•:<■:. Sea light between anil Cin.'yr.i. 

Tulllus HohMIIIii^ del. -at;, lb.- Alban:. and 
destroys Alba Longa. 
tiSJ bv Assyrians. 
ISC' I Messnny. Italy founded. 

CGO Byzantium founded by Mcgarlana under 

•",-, [i,i. , lijudar- opened from Greece. 

ilSli Median Monarchy founded. 

Mo Egypt Independent of AssyrlB. 

f.Yl Kahmlte dynasty. Media, rounded by 

Cli Cyrcne rounded. 

>;|i. Aneus Marlins relgus In [tome. 

Invasion of Scythians whn subjugate 

Ostla, Italy, founded. 

Religious reformation under Joslab. 
King ot Judali. 
032 Inva.fion of Assyria by the Scyiblans. 
623 Babylon Independent under Nabopolas- 

Assyriun Empire Ends. 
Perlnndor al Corlnlh. 
I.eghitatlon or Draco, Arcltou a( Aliens 

In repnlrlng I he temple at Jerusalem, 
llllklMi dls. hits the ib.ok of the law. 
ami Joslab lieeim a i.olemn passovcr. 

Jeremiah prophet. 

The' Ark restored. 

TiirijulnluE Prlatus begins to reign In 

The Capitol. Home, begun In honor of 
Jupiter. Juno and Minerva. 

Pharaoh Neeho li. Egypt, circumnavi- 
gates Africa. 

Palllo of Meglddo. 

Death of Joslah. 

Nit ho II. Egi lit. iitli-inpl;: to iiil a raual 
across the Isthmus ,,r Sue?.. Failure 
after a loss of over 1011.000 men. 

The t'lr. us Mavlmus. Heme, is erei ted. 

Neeho II. nf Egypt defeated by Nebu- 


years' captivity. 
Nebiielindne/./ar hikes Jerusalem. 
Johohiklm. his vassal. 
Daniel [irophesles at Babylon, 
Jeholoklin revolts from llnhylon, 

598 I 

Second captivity. 
r.57 Zedekluli innili. King over tho remnan' 

of Judah. 
B% Persians invade Syria, and Syria 

tlnues a subject of Persia tor three 

594 Code of Solon at Athens published. 
5110 The seven .vise men of Greece nourish. 

Solon. Perhinder. PHLacus, Chill 

Tholes. Cleobulus and Bias. 
War between Media and Lydla. 

B. C. 

5SS The Pylhlan games begin lo be cek- 
bralcd every five years. 
Jerusnlem. tnivlnp: r'-belb'd against llaby- 
lon, Is beiieifi'i) hv \ebin hadne/.iar. 
sS7 Nebui hadfn ■-,:;■ a r Invad.s Phenlcln. 
fioldeu Image set up. 
Shndrnch. Mesliach and Abednego 

thrown Into a furnace. 
Prophecies of Obadiah. 
5S1 Jerusalem taken ami destroyed by .Ne- 

'.v. litath ol Pc 
forty years. 
Treaty between Medio and Lydla, 
r.Sn i'D|i|ier innney coined at Rome. 
570 Nebuchadnezzar lakes Tyre. 
77s Aer.rssfun of servlus Tulllus. Rome. 
673 Civil war In Egypt. 
".To Amasls reigns in Egypt. 
5iEl Egypl romiuereii In "cliinli.i.liie... ai . 
6(10 The nrst census of Home taken— 81. "no 

562 Deatli of Nebuchadnezzar. 

Nab.inldo. King of Babylon. 
SCO Plslstrtilus l.e.T.iines tyrant of Athens. 

Confucius and Zoroaster. 

S59 Anaereon begins to be known. 

Persian Empire ionnded by Cyrus. 

550 Birth of SH ildes idled II C 167-1 

551 Conquest ,,r Lydla and rupture or Cresu* 

by Cyrus. 
513 [lcath or l'liiiliiii:-. ivraiit of Agrigi-ntuiu 
510 Fall ,,f Lyliitn Empire, 
513 Cyrus niine,, . .Asia .Miner to Porsla. 
510-51H Era ol Pythagoras. 
5,19 (elrcul Marseilles fauaded by Phent- 

G3S Daniel Interprets handwriting on the 

Cyrus conn.uers Babylon. 
Belshnizar. King ol Qabylon, la slain 

520 Cvrus ends the caiittvlty of the Jews. 

Return of the hit • aravan lo Jerusalem 
under Zerubbabel and Joshua. 

Cyrus also subdues Phenlela. 
535 Rebuilding of the Temple commenced. 

Theapls first exhibits tragedy. 
534 Servlus assassinated by Tulla, hla daugh- 

Her husband. Titrquinlus Superbus, be- 
comes King of Rome. 
532 Polvcrales. I i-rnlil of Siimns (pul lo death 

B. C. S221. 
531 Reign ol harlus I. begins after assas- 
sination oi SiiierdiT. the Maglan. 
5J9 Death of Cyrus. 

Accession of Cambyses. 
S2B Conquesl ol Bcypt by Cambyses. 
llirrh of [.;,:, divlui rdled tl. C. 156). 
The temple of Isis, Egypt, eompleted. 
Smerdis usurps (he Persian throne, de- 
feated by Darius. 522. 
522 Dentil or Cambyses. 

Greeks colonize ihe Thraeian Cherson- 

of Pers._. 
52" Slbvlllne books lirouglit from fume. 

Decree of Darius for rc-bulldlng Ih. 
Templo s.1 Jerusalem. 
51 s Ulrlli of I'indar oiled 11. C. «91. 
515 Tho Temple rebuilt and dedicated, 
fill Insurrection In Athene. 

f I * i - 1 .ir ■ -'oi slain. 

Illppias rules In Athens. 
510 Croton destroys Sybnris. 

Expulsion uf the Tarnulos from Rome. 

Poiindnlleii of the Republic. 

Junius llriKus and Tarqulnlus Colladr.u 

The ri; i.-rrl.l.- i..|nll.d [i inn Athens. 

5011 Commercial treaty between Carthago am 

60S First (realy 

First Valerian Laws. 
The Scylhlan Expedition Ol Dnrli 
507 Capitol at Home eo 

501 Sarins burned by the Greeks. 

501 Slcgo of Nines- by Arlsiagor 

Titus LarilUh made ln.-iatoi 

Ionian revolt In Asia Minor. 

600 Burning ot Sitrdls by llio lonluns and 

AV) The revolt or the lonlans IGreeco). 
ITS IVnda recovers C.v|iru*. 
127 natlle or Lake Ueglllus. 

Tanpiin and Ills Latin allies defeated by 

First authentic date In Roman history. 
1&6 Histieus, the Persian, sent lo llio eoasl 
by Darius. 

11, a ■■•: 

mpletcd nnd dcdl- 

, ^...ancles Idled II. C. 1051. 
Revolt of the Ionian*, aided by Athens, 
■194 Tribunes at Rome appululed. 

Piitrhlans secede, 
IT.'! iiiilepeiiiloine of Hie LntliiK reeogiil/c-d. 
Corioll lak.n by Cains Martins (Corl- 
olanus.l TheJ^allu League, 
492 First Pomljn eipidlilon, under Mur- 
ilonlu* uL,iiii*t lir.i"'. Is defeated and 
licet destroyed near Ml. Allies, 
|t| Crii.l.iini:. I'.'.olJli.'l 1'rorii ll'jiue. !!.■ is 

received by tho Volsclans. 
490 Second Persian es|„ dlilnn. under Dalls 
and Artuphorncs. 
Tholr defeat, and victory uf Mlltladca at 
Ihe lie uf Marathon. 
189 Corlolaniis and the Valselans beslogo 

JSS Corlolniius withdraws from siege of 
Rome nt his mother's enlrealy and Is 
slain by the Volsclans. 
ISC Egyptian revolt. 

First Agrarian Law ..[ Ca.vilus propiiiic'l. 
4*3 Aeeesslon uf Xerxes I.. King of Persia. 

Goion lyrn I S) rai u i«. 

1x5 Reeovery or Egypt b. (he Persians. 

Birth of lleroih.tu.1 dlled uller B. C. 109). 
483 Banishment of Arlstldcs the Just by Iho 

481 Athenian licet built. 

Third and groatoit Invasion o( t.reeee by 
tho Persians, led by Xerxes. 

480 Bailie of Then > 1. —lull of Letinldus. 

Battle of Sa lam Is— victory of Themlsto- 

Xerxes denlroys Alliens. 

Plrsl Invasion of Slelly by Carthage. 

Defeat ol the Carlhaglnlans by Qelon at 

Illrtii of Euripides (died B. C. «ff.) 
470—1S0 Anasngoruu Ih. 600, d, 42S) teaches 

philosophy at Alhens. 
479 Oecupiillon of Ailom: by Mardonius. 

Porslaub defeated at Platen and Mycale 

and retreat from Greece. 
Slego of Soslos. 
■177 Beginning uf tl.' supremacy ot Athens. 
Tho Fabil perish In battle with the 
1J5— 17S Ilelro I— at Syracuse. 
171 Esilier and Mordoeal. 
471 Banishment ot Thcmlstocles. 

icieetlon oi plebeian niaglnlrales given lo 
the i-oiiiltla ■[Tlbutu— lirinie 
470 Victory or Cltnon over the Persians at 
tlie Eurymedon. 
Annum lllomej tiiketl. 
Suicide- of Appius Claudius. 
109 Pericles begins lo take port in the pub- 

n flu Irs 

1GS lilrib or Socrnlcs. 

Destruction of Myeen..- bv (he Arglves. 

Diogenes el Api-ohml.. iloiirlabes. 
P.'. I'lii-lii ..i TluiuiTiocles lo Persia. 

Siege of Noxos. 

Battles at Ihe Eurymedon. 

Phenlclnns aiding Persia are defeated 
by tho Greeks under Clmon. 


5 I. 

Iteign of Arlaxer.xes I. In Persia. 
Revolt of Tliasos. 
I'll Keviilt or ii,o [|.|..(. at Srarta. 

Sparta defeats Mcsseota. 
460 Egypt revolts against Persia. 

(The reioli in suppressed In 455,) 

Birth ol Domocrltus and Hippo, rale; 
(bdlh died In II. C. 3571. 

Tho Athenian In Egypt. 
159 Gorslau nourished. 

C 1 1 rn i i , i I-./ r;i (■) i eluillrl Jerusalem. 

Birth or Lyslas (bo orator [died fi7Sl. 

Cincinnati]-, di. lal .i at Rome. 

Defeats the Eqtll. 
157 Battle of Tnnngra. 

I'.'! The Long W.illi. uf Alliens ..vnij lerod. 
151 The first I'ecomviralo or council of ten 

Laws of the Twelve Table* or code of 
laws Instituted. 
119 The Greeks defeat [lie Persians al Salo.- 
mus in Cyprus. 
Vlrglnlus hills his daughter lo save her 

from Appius Claudius. 
First Doccmvlratc abolished. 
Appius Claudius. Rome. 
IIS Valerian and llorutlun Laws. 

Tyranny of ihe second Decemvlrate. 
Secession of the Plebs from Rome, 
Abdication ot the Decemvirs. 

*>■■ 1 i-Ji.ri.-d War In (ireeee. 

447 Battle of Coronea, defeat of Athens. 
Hi! Syracuse subdu. ■„ Agrlgcnlum and de- 
teats the Etruscans. 
415 Thlrly years' truce between Athens and 
Spuria concluded. 
Decline of the Athenlun Empire. 
Revoll of Eubea and Megara. 

Nehomlab governor of Judea. 
441 Athenian Colony to Thurll. 

Pericles becomes supreme at Athens. 

Birth of Xeio.'i'lojii ,ih"iu this (line (died 

Commission or Nehomlnh. 

Tho walls of Jerusnlem rebuilt. 

Roman C.nn nl.-ir Trlbnnei established. 
■Ill— TS The Parlhelion at Alliens built by 

11:, llerodutus tloiirlrilies In Greece. 
Wl .■."■li . ..tisiltution ui Home— tensors and 
military tribune:; appoint vJ Instead of 
.[.|u u, .].,,. ■. i ■]!... | h\ ... r.-i-i-l! I., faiulne 
HO— 139 The Somlan war. 

Siege and re, lie i Ion of - nuos by Pericles. 

Death of si'iirhe, .Melius— Home. 
H7 Cornelius r,.- -,u- d Lars Tolumnlus. 

Second Spoils. Oplma, Rome. 
436 Birth ot Iiocratcs (died 338). 
131 Rome declares war against the Elrus- 

-, flourished. 
Pelo|iuniie:,li.ii War begins between 
Athens and a confederacy with Sparta 
at the head, lasting IweiHy-seveu 
years and ending In the defeat of 
P. .[idea 1... .;|..i..-.l by; Athenians, (ink 

en In 4291. 
Death or Pericles. 
Rise of Cleon. 

Battle of Ml. AlgldU*; the Equl and 
Volsel defeated, 
i The plague at Athena, 
I Plato born (died 347). 
Siege uf Plntea. 
Naval victories of Phormlo. 
I Revolt and fall of Mytllene. 
1 Reduction of Mytllene. 

Fust Athenian expedition to Sicily. 
First comedy of Arlstopliones exhibited. 
Coreyrean massacre. 
; Demosthenes In EloIlB, 
Destruction In Fldone. 
, Reign of Xerxes II. followed by Log- 
fli'i.T, r.ria token. 
Darius 11. reigns In Perila. 
Congres'i of sleillans al Gela. 
A|. ibliid' ;■ begins lo ae( In Athenian nf 

The Samanllis [Homol capture Valter- 

Copun l.iken bv (he Kamanlles. 

Illrth of Dlogoties (tie Cynic, Idled 314 (. 
I Bnttlo or Manllneu. 

.Spnrinns defeated by Alhens. 

The Hebrew, Mai... hi. prophesies. 

Invasion ol Sl.-ily Pi Hie Allo-nlans un- 
der Nlclas. 
1 Siege of Syracuse. 
; Defeat and surrender of Nlela.s lu flello- 

Elrtil treaty between Spnrln and Persli. 
Constitution of iho Four Hundred ul 

Intilgiiei of Aklblrulos with tho Persl- 

i of Syracuse and 

100 Thrco plebeian <|iii r.lors of Komo elected. 
Second invasion of Sicily by the Carlha- 
407 The Vols. Ions defeat I lie Romans. 

Rhodes founded. 
tOO Battle or Arglnuse. 

Condemnation of i Uu (en generals. 
Dlonyslua tyrant of Syracuse; reigns 
thirty-eight yours. 
105 Tho slcgo of Veil, Home. 

Battle of Egospotuml. Dlonyslua I. 
rolgns In Syracuse. 
401 Athena taken by Lysandor. End of the 
Poloponnealnn War. 


; ot tho Thlrly Tyranla i 

i i ■ , i , i., c 'ores democratic govern- 

■ lu'.r. ,,i i> ' idled 117.1 

[',[,, 1 - 1 . . n ei e. i-ii:i llie nitingi r ivho 
rebels; at llie battle of Cunaxa he is 
defeated and slain and tho "Reireai ,.f 
len thousand" Greeks under Xcnopbon 

-381 Cicalas flourished. 

r.r.'Mm, coalKlon against Sparla; Lysan- 

1'ers s ii...sisl in,.. Athenian!! and defeat 

(he Spartam- at I tie natal battle ul (lie 

The Corinthian War begins. 
The second battle of Coronea. 
llie l,on e Walk, of Alliens restored bt 

Veil slormed bv Mamlllua. 
Camillus Impeached and exiled. 
i Battle of Allia. 

The Romans defeated by Brennus and 

(he Gauls. Rome burnt. 
Siege of the Capitol. 
Victory of Dlonyaius at llelorus. 
Birth of FschlneB. 
Tlie Cauls e.ypelled from Rome and city 

End of the Corlnlhla 

Capltollne games esiabli.slied In lluui. 
'.:■". Defeat ,,( the Persians under Kvagor 
3S4 Birth of Arlalotle. 

Manllus hurled from Tarpclan rock 
-" -^vcrelgnty. 

:>■■: K.-lKure or the Cadm 

Birth or Demosthenes (died 322). 
Ilsu Death ot Aristophanes. 
Height ot Spartan power. 

. ery of ,] |0 g ui ] mea by Pelopldas. 

lied with Thebes, 
nonjan eivu war between patricians a 

Law passed that one consul shall be 

i i- Iioian. 
Battle ol I.enctra. Greece. 
Peace between Athens and Spuria. 
Viciory of Epamlnondau over the Spn 

(■■oOlol.llion of .MegapoIlB. 
Jason or Phere asrJissiiioitd. 
Alexander or Phere in Tlu-ssaly. 
Embassy of Pelopldas. the Greek. 

Arlsiotle goes lo Alhens. and rental 

with PIulo twenty years. 
Llelnlan laws [.ussed at Rome. 
loshua slain by the High Priest. 
Birth or Zeno, tho Stole Idled 2641. 
Institution of prcloclilp nnd cum 

cdiloshlp at Rome. 
Flrsi Plebeian consul elected. 
Great Plague at Rome. 
Legend of M. Curtlus. 

..-,-. n ... -. 

36;-34C Homo wars wllh Ihe Qauls. Etrus- 
cans nnd Ilomicuns. 

Battle of Mantlnea (circa). 

Victory and death ,.f l'i aininondas. 
300 The Stimarltans build the Templo at 

Kingdom of Pontus founded. 
rs$ Beginning of (he Social War In Greece. 

Siege of Chios and By/.anllum. 

.Aini'lilpulls lahen by Philip II, 
357- .151.'- 34 7 Roman laws of debt. 

Pboclan (or Sacredl War begins. 

Expedition of Dion lo Sicily. 
356 Second Sncrcd War. the Phoclans hav- 
ing seized (be ,.f Delphi. 

Blrih of Alexander the Great. 

Temple uf Dlanu. at Eplsesus, burned. 

Iifuji ...([,,-1;-. Iilonvniu-s (lotu Syracuse. 

Cuius Marcius Rulllus firsi Plebeian Dlt- 

■::-j End of ihe Social War In Greece. 

Independence of Rhodes, Cos. Chios and 
Byzantium atkmm lodged by Athens. 
134 Revolt of Arlubaius, the Persian. 
J53 Siege of Methone, Greece. 
352 Demosthenes delivers bis first Philippic, 

Phenlela revolts from (he Persian mon- 

3f,l C. Mare'lus Rnlllus first Plebeian censor, 

Sldonlans revolt and destroy Sldon. 
3r>0 The Roman I'. iHnr, d. feats the Gauli. 
34S Olynlhus laken by Philip of Macedon. 

ri.-.ii. 1 ei nr rn r_,rili ig-> and Hum.. 
34G Surrender of Phocls lo Philip. 

End of [be Sacred War. 

Philip admitted to the Amphyctlonlc 

Dlonyslus recovers (ho tyranny. 
313 First Snmnlte war begins. 
Baltic of MI. Caurus. 

Conquest of Syracuse by Tlmoleon. 
Expulsion Of Dlonyslus. 
Em bins y of Dinn-st hero's and ol hers io 
Pbl lip. 
".'IJ Kotii.ri Cenucian laws. 

Mutiny at Lanlule. Home. 
342—341 Philip of Macedon '■ expedition lo 
Blrlh of Epicurus (died 270). 
310 Perlnthus and Byzantium besieged by 


.,( Tlmoleo 

Sacred War begins between Philip 

and the Athenians. 
33B Philip general of tho Ampbyellonlc 
Battle of Cheronea. 
Philip subjugates Greece. 
337 First Roman Plebeian protnr. 
337—335 The Latin War begins, after tw« 

years the Romans are victorious. 
336 Murder of Philip. 


M... under III. Ihe Great, 
r Darius Codotnanus. 
destroys Thebes: Is chosen 

generalissimo of Ihe Greeks, 
having submitted. 
334 llallle of Iho Cranleus. 

Macedonian Empire formed. 
Alexander Invades Persia. 
313 Bailie of Issus. 

Damascus laken and Tyre besieged by 
332 Capture of Tyre and conquest of Egypt 
by Alexander. 
Alexandria. Egypt, founded on the 

Egyptian village lihacolhj. 
Treaty heliveon Al.ianJ.T and Rome. 
Alexander vlslla Jerusalem and worahlpa 
at the Temple. 
131 Phenlda subdued by Alexander. 
Battle of Arbola. 
Subjugation of PcrelB. 
Settlement of iho Jews at Aleiandrla. 
330 Darius III. assassinated. 

DeraoxUienea' oration for the crown. 
Persia becomes a part of the Macedonian 
327—325 Campaigns of A 


'in [he Indue 



: Exile or Demosthenes. 

Death of Alexander nt Babylon. 
Alexander succeeded by Pordlecas ■, 

Antlpaier In Macedonia. 
Lyalmachus In Thrneo. 
Cassnnder in Greece. 
Anlleonus In Syria. 

Kill I. Hi S 111 I 'jij |),ll!i>i 1,1. 

Seleucus at Babylon. 

Second Satnnlle War, lusts twenty-ot 

5 Macedonian general, deleo 

military road i 

322 Ptolemy I., surnained Solor. receives Ihe 
Egyptian Kingdom. 
Phonlclo annexed to Egypt by Ptolcmy 
Soter I. 


Tlatile ot the Caudlne Porks. 

Roman* terribly debated b, Pontius and 
poss under the Snmnlte yoke. 
320 Ptolemy Si.tcr lakes Jerusalem. 

liovoli ol Phenlcln. 

Jewish sen (.■unnis in Egypt and Cyreiie. 
;I1T ABBthoeles ut Syracuse. 
315 Thebes rebuilt by Cussander. 

Conquest of Antlgenus of Phryglu- 
314 Palest tin' under A nilgLiiiUS. 

Roman victory at Clnnn. 
:li:i Siinmi t ■■ victory lit l.antnle. 
313 Rattle at Gain. 

Victory of Ptolemy and Seleucua over 
Domoirlus Pollorcotes, 

Pyrrhus king of EpLrua. 

Applus Claudius censor. 

Applan Way und nnuertu 

The great B 

312—16" Sandracottus. Indian empire. 

311—300 The Etruscan War. 

310 h. Papldus Cursor. Roman Dictator. 

Agatho. li - deft ■ai-'iJ at Hiincra. 
30J Fablus crosses Clminlnn Hills; defeats 

tho Tuscans at Vndlmon. 
.TOT — 305 Navnl ivar rii Cvprus ami Rhodes. 
[iu4 Siege of ninnies I') Demetrius. 
Jill Rattle of Ipsis between Ptolemy Sotcr 
nnd Antlgonus. 
Final division of Alexander's dominions. 
;iuO Athenian deinocraev realnred. 

Chanflrogupta | Sandracottus) reigns In 
India; makes a treaty with Solcqeus. 
Foundation of Antioch by Seleucus. 
1_ ' l; t . ' - h; ' ■ ■ i - . ■ .iii li-l".T>.| i.f i'ti'ir,.> .t.-i i -- ■> 
™ifl Athens l.rsi.-cod and lake-n by Demetrius. 
21>S Third Snmnito War. iSamnlles, Etrus- 
cans. I'mbrlims and Gauls.) 
Gelllus Egnatius. leader ol the Samnlles, 
891! Tho Capltollne woll. 
™'T, Qulnlua Fablus derails the Somiilles. 

Etruscans and uaub ai Sentlnuin. 
2S2 Execution of C. Pontius. 
TiO The Tht'd Satnnlle War ends in sub- 
jugation to Rome. 
■;\1 Birth .if Ar.hlmeden idled 212). 
2SS The Hortensian Law passed al Rome; 
plehlscila declared hlndlng on all the 
2K5 Ptolemy abdicates In favor ol his sou. 
Philadelphia. «li" bf. unies Ptolemy II. 
Vnder his i-icn Egypi top* in a high 
rank among the nations In power and 

2SI Alexandrian Library founded by Ptolemy 


2S4 The Eiolian LeaEue formed. 

. KLiin-l II ■■' !'■■'- 'in" ■ '..:T'. I.. I 
Henewpd t;.illli and War. 
Second batllo .if l-ako Vadlmon 
2S1 Rome war-* wlUi Pyrrhus. king of Eplrus. 
Rome at war with Ta.cntum 
l-yslmnchus defeated ami slain by Sc- 
leueUK Ht Corupcdlon. 

of Aches established. 
Battle ot Pandosla. 
Romans defeated by Pyrrlius. 
Birth of fhrvBSlppus (died 207). 
27} Irruption ■>' the Gnuls into Greece. 
First Plot 
Romans i 

B. C. 

217 The two Solplos tent to Spain, 
21fi Battle of Canne. Rinnans ddco 
Immense loss. 
Revolt of Capua. 

211—212 Siege and .upture ,.| Syracuse liv 


211 First Commereinl War. 
Byzantium and Rhodes. 

212 Battle of Atiltorgls. 

Greek work* ,.r » r i benight to Runie. 
211 Greece coin ludes Meat, with tho Philip V. ot iVincedon. 
Defeat and death of the two Sclplos In 

Spain by llosdrubal. 
Capua recovered by Rome. 
Conquest of Judea by Antlochus. 
Hannibal before Rome. 
MS Battle of Metuurus. 

Battle of Ellngu. 
207 Battle of ihe Meiunrijs; Husdrubal de- 
feated and slain bv Hie Rouiana. 
Cold money Ilrst coined In Koiuo. 

2c J Ptolemy V. Tin- dc III f Egypt. 

Cornelius Si ipl.i conducts the war 

The Septuaglot written. • 

The Gauls si-tl I- In Galnlia. 
■"■76 Birth o( EratOitheTics— died VJh. 

The great *all of China butli 
nl Bailie ol Itenevcntum. Rome 

and Pyrrhus leaves Italy. 
273 Egyptian embassy to Rome. 
272 Antlgonus Gonalus 
■T,} Silver Tii'Uiey first • 

Illcro 11. ol Syracuse. 
2C3 Beroaus flourished. 

Antlgonus of Maccdon 
266 Rome supremo I 
2H1 First I'unli W,i 

Corltiat'' 'li'l'iK' 

Chrnnology of >) 


all Italy. 

"t» First Romon fleet launched. 

Victory of Dulllus ofl Mylf 

Rise of Parthla. 
2IW—2.10 llelgn "f Asoka In l»dl 
:>; victory ol Reguliis o' 
thaglnlans at Ecuomos. 

Invasion of Africa. 

The Arsaclde. 
"ij Defeat and capture of Regulus by the 

r the Car- 


of Africa, 
.m Of Iteclla. 

Independent 1 

217 Ptnl 

if Tain In China founded. 

111. makes war on Syria. KLvptliin g..ds .arrl.'d off 

by Canibyae* 525 I). C. 
Birth of llatiiill.iil died 1S3. 
245 Aratus of Sicyon, general of the Acheun 

"Jl Defcat U of Carthaginians by Cululus rl 
the Scales Insule. 
End or the First Punk War. 
SN Hi innde a Hainan Province. 
Atnlus. King of Pergumus. 
Agls IV. killed at Sparta. 
240 The plays of Llviua Andninlcus exhib- 
ited (Uie llrsl tragedlesl -■ n 
23« Dale of the decree Of C 

inopua; tablet 

237 Conquest of Spain attempted by t 
Seizure of Sardinia and Corsica 

Hclonim ni i.'le'.iiien.'ii at Spa 
Invasion ol CKalpln.- liuul (Hi 
Clualum. Rnini' vlclorlou™. 
Pfileni) IV. r.'lgns in I'-gM-t. 
Dcfcaib Antlochua III. o( Sy 

at Ra- 
Roman Prov 

Gallia Claolplnn b 

In co. 
Pottle of SelhiMa. 

Arutus ond Anilu i:, lake Siuirla. 

Philip V. of Macedon. 

Alliance between l'lilllp and Aclicans 

against Bioltans. 
Ilosdriibal oaaaaslnated In Spain. 
Antloelius overruns Palestine. 
Siege ol Sagunlum by Hannibal. 
Second lllyrlau war. 
; Second 1'iinlr War begliis. 

Hannibal mar.'!,,-.- fr,.iu Spain a, ro:-.: iln- 

Pyrenees and thv Alps Into Italy. 
Rattles ot the Tlrlnlus and the Trebla. 

' Vlannlbal paaaos Ibe Apennlni'H. 

Hattle of L.ik,, T r...iin. nr Flamlnlus 


f UtltB 

2M IluiiniLul leaves Italy. 

Attains und Hhodtalis war Willi Philip. 
202 Defeal of Uatinllinl ut Zauln, In Africa, 

by Sclplo Alrlcanus. 
2U1 Treaty ol pea. .■ beoveen Hume and Car- 
thage, end ..f the Se. I Punle War. 

200-197 First .Macedonian War. 

Allies attack Ma. ■•••]• hi an. I defeat I'liillp. 
10S T. Qulnuis Klamiiilui. [.'in laiins liberty lo 
Die Greeks. 
Syria becomes Iml. ■pen. lent et Egypt. 
1'I7 Battle of Cvnocophale. 

Philip defeated by Flaiiilnlus. 
Palestine and Cele-Syrla conquered by 
Antlochus the Great, nnd ..infirm..! u> 
him bv the pence with Rome. 
The Rosolta Stone written. 
1M llvnnstj ■•! Han. China, lounded. 

Hannibal Joins Antlochus. 
105 Birth of llljiparchus. ftrat syslematlc as- 

2-1S? War beiwwn Hip li.'mnns nnd Atill'i- 
chus the Great. 
PhilopemeD protor o( the Acheon 

Greece dceliire.l free from M,,c.'<lon h; 

Flam I plus. 
Philopemen defeats Nabls. of Sparta, 
Sparta Joins the Aehcan League, 
fl Battle nf MngneBla. 

S The laws anil discipline ot Lycnrgus abro- 
gated by Phllopcmen. 
I Death ol Plnutus. 
3 Death of Hnnnlbal and Selplo. 

Lyeer'as, general ol the AHican League 
2-1TI Ein 1...11 .-liiiiems ut .Masslnissa, 
1 Ptolemy VI. reigns In Egypt. 

The Vllllan Law, Rome. 
Perseus King of Macedonia. 


I Callle 

cond Ma. • douls Lokes Jeru 
10.000 Jews B 

Battle of Pydna; victory of 
lus over Perseus; Mnced 

Eumenes II. visits Rome. 
Antlochus Epiphanes lakes 
Beginning of the Macenbea 

Athenians attack Oropus, 
judos Maccabeus defeats 

First comedy of Terence performed at 

-Ml' Hlpparchus flourishes. 

5 Rise of Ihe Pharlscei- ..rid Sadrturees. 

1 Death of Antlochus, 

lie Is succeeded bv Antloeliui V. Kunator. 
who takes li.-tlionni. and besieges Jeru- 
salem, but makes peace with the Jcv.> 
Cyrene and Libya separate from Egypt. 



Seaurus, Itoniiin 

Embaaay of Camendes. Diogenes and 
Crltolans lo Rome. 

Death of Judas. 

Alliance between Rome and Jodeu. 

Jonathan Maccabeus succeeds .ludns. 
160 Bactrlana In India. 
163 Dcalh ol Terence. 
15". Athenians fined by Rome. 
163 War In Spain. 
1 '■■'■ I ' Lo.-ifalilau Wat 

Vlrlulhus i.,iiiiiiaiirL- tin' LnsltaTilan:;. 
lift Third Punic War begins. 

Sclplo Invades Africa. 

Andrlseus In .Macedonia. 

115 Birth ol Lucillus-dled 102. 

147 The Aehcan war with Koine begins. 

116 Ptolemv VI. killed In battle. 
Carthage taken b. Selplo and destroyed 

Province of Africa c 
Greece becomes a Hi 
Ptolemy VII. reigns. 

list I tilled. 
;ian Province. 
uarrlCK Cleopatra, 

Demetrius Nlcalor 

The Toner ol Zlon taken by Ihe Jews. 

India lie. nines Independent. 

Rise of iho Astnonean dynasty. 

Birth of Antonlus. Human orator Idled 

Simon made hereditary 


of the 

Death ot Vlrlathua— Home. 

Macedon foinislly aleiorl.eil hi Rom.-. 
13S Ulrlb ot L. O.nieliii! Sulla Idled 7S). 
13G Hycanus Governor ol Juilcit, 
! 11-122 Servile War In Sicily. 

Sicilian slaves rebel, are conquered ami 

133 I-a*rs of ' 

Gracchus passed 

lini'-.-liu-; murdered. 
Kingdom of Pi 

130 Demetrius Nlcalor, Syria, restored. 

IU-i Hi, rami- ■ iitnlui • bin ! all. I -iiimii ■ 

and destroys Temple ut Cerlnlm. 
125 Rise of the Esaenes. 

Fluvlus Fluceus and L. Drusus popular 

L. Caellus Antlpater, Roman Jurist, flour. 
123 Sclplo lakes nnd Ueslmys Nuniantla, 

Roman Colony sem I" Carthage. 
121 Civil war In Home arising from Agrarian 
troubles- -C'nlus '"Ira. -. -Ims la murdered. 
Mclulllus bailer ol Itonian Senate. 
120 Parthlnns subdue lluctrln. 
117 Ptolemy VIII. reigns Jointly with h's 

molbcr, Cleopatra. 
I1B Ulrth of Varro (died 28). 
113 The Teutonea and Clmbra Invade Gaul. 
111-106 The Jugurthlno War— peace conelud. 

War renewed two years 
Metollus and Marina defe 
subjects Numldla. 
100-101 War of Rome with 

103 Hyrcanus destroys Ihe St 
on Mount (ierlititn. 
AtricitB born (died II. C-. 
inn Hlrlh of Punipey and of 

102 Victory of Marlus over the Teutones nl 
Aque Sexte (Mil. 
Second Servile war breaks em In Slcllv. 
101 Victory of Marlus over the Cimbri al 
Vercelle and end of the war. 
Battle of Campus Raudlus. 
loo Hlrlh of Juliui Cesar. 

C. Marlus lion. 1..7 idled sill. Slxlh Ro- 
man Consul. 
L. App. Saiiiinlnii> I'llhune IRome). 
'"1 Ptolemy Aplon leaves Cyrene. 
95 Birth of Lucretius idled w). 

Civil War 

slon of Marlus. 
Sullii oe.uples Koine. 

Athens stormed by Sulla. 
Birth of Snllust tilled 34). 
Tlgranes at war wllh Home. 

' t peace with Potitus, king o 

the Mlthrldales, 
LI War with .Marian parly In Italy. 

Tlgranes I of Armenia annexes I'lir.gli 
3 lllrth uf Marcus Antonlus idled 10). 
2 Thebes destroyed. 

Seeond Civil War. 

Victory at the Colllne gate. 

Occupation of Home. 

Sulla becomes Dictator. 
9 Abdication of Sulla. Dies In 78. 

The Cornelian Laws of Rome. 
9-72 Civil war ..I SertorliiM In Spain: and el 

Lepldus and Catulus In Italy. 
s Alexandra 'Jo. ■'■<'■ I'i'i.a. 
:. Meoniei],,- III i.m>'~ Hnhnla to Rome. 
4-6S Third Mlthrldatlc War. 
l-Fjfj Vie torh - tl In. iillun In Asia. 

,1-71 Servlh n i Pali 1. d h. S|.arlii.u: 

Who Is d.Teilted and -lain bv CrasSUB. 
n consulship nf Ponipey anil Crassus. 

Birth of Virgil Idled 191. 

Scythians expelled from India. 
:S Victory of Lmiillus over Tlgranes. 
17 Cesar begins lo lake pari In public »(- 


I' ■■ ■ 'ii'ido. 

Lucullus recnll 
Pompey sent It 

e pirates. 

Orations of Cicero. 

Lucullus loiinds Library at Rome. 

Phenlcln absorbed n the province 

Pompey. Cesar and "rassus form the f 

Roman Triumvirate. 
Birth of Sen. .a idled SO). 
Birth nf Llvv Idled A. D. 171. 
The Callle War begins. 
Cheri banished. 
Cesar Invades Gaul, 
llelv.-tll and Arlovlstus defeated. 
Cyprus becomes a Roman province. 
End of the Seleuelde. 
Cesar defeats the Relge and Nervil. 
--,[ Ce*ar Invades llrllaln. 
Crassus plunders the Temple at Jert 

[em; Is defeated and killed by the F 

thians at Carrhe. r,3. 
Cesur defeats Trevlri and crosses 

Murder of Claudius by Mllo. 
Subjugation of Gaul completed, and ti 

comes a Roman province. 
Qulnius SextlUi (Stole) Bc-urJilied. 
Civil war between Cesar and Pompey. 
Pouipev driven fruin Hal> . 
The Pompelans detenled In Spain. 
Cc.-ar dlclator. 
Ratlle of Pbarsalin. 
Cesar rtefeals P-nnpev, 
Muider n( Pompey In Egyp' 
I'tnlemv Diony 

Egyptian throne. 
Ceaar again dictator. 

Partial destruction of the library of Alex 
iitidrla during the siege .,1 Al- ■ui..lri.. 
Cesar defeats Pharnuees at Zola. 
The African War. 
Rattle of Thnpsus. 
Suicide "f Cato. 
Reformation ot Ihe colendi 
I Ma triumphs. 
War In Spnln. 
Rattle of Munda; defeat 


Cesar Pater Patrle Impel 

1 Cleopatra lined: 

r by Cos 

of the Pom- 


nlonv lie.. on. "i ma.slet "f Koine 
orlaili and Carllmge rebuilt 
leopatrn poisons her 

brother Ptolemy 


Ilalllo q 

Sec I Trillin vlrale-C. Oclu> n 

tony. M. l.epldus. 

lilVili'el' (MO A. I). 1M. 

End ol Iho Hagldn. 
Battle ol Phlllppl. 
md Ocr.-' "' 

The Trl 1 

11 Meeting of A 

Herod the Greal made king of the Jews. 
Library ot p.-rgaums to Alexandria. 
Jerusalem taken by Herod and the 

Agrlppii ' ross. ■ il: 
Se.xtus Pompelus 

Lepldus deprived 
Defeat of " " 

In Purlhla 
Octavlus and 

Establishment ol 
Rattle of Acllum. 

Ci-lili i 

. s succesHful. 

ntony and Cleopatra. 

the best Attic Lllernlure al 

The Gates of Janus Shut, 

Cesar O.iuvlua Is innile Emperor under 

Iho title of Augustus Cesar. 
Pantheon dedicated by Agrlppa. 
Tlrldates seeks Houinn court. 
Defeat of Romans In Arabia. 

Augustus i eaar founds Confederacy of 
Raeonlan cillos. 
■ Homiin standards rest. .red by Pnrlhin. 

India embassy to Rome. 

Dcalh ol Dlonyslui. of I lallcarnassus. 
-7 Temple at Jerusalem rebulll by Herod. 

Agrlppa Invades Aslu. 

Cappailoela .real.'d a |irai line ol Home 


; Roman defeat i 

r Lol- 


Invasion of Germany by Drusus. 
-S Caiiip.ilgns of Tiberias In Pannonlo 
and Dalmatla. 
Death of rirusue. 

5 Tiberius defeats tho Germans, 
Dlodorus Sniikis. hKu.rion. flourished. 

4 Birth of Jesus Christ, according to Usn- 

Dcath of Herod, king of Judea, 
L D. 

I Tiberius commands on iho Rhine. 
?. Hlrlh of Seneca [died A. D. 65). 

6 Judea a Roman pruvln.c under Syria. 

3 Destruction ul th,- Roiuatis under Varus 
and Hire., legions by the Germans under 

Banishment of Ovid. 

1 Death of Augustus Cesar- 
Accession of Tiberius Cesar. 
Af. i -slon ol Arlalanus In Parltiia. 

4-16 Campalgna ..I G.ruuiril.ii.i In German/. 

7 Oermanleuj In Pnrthia and ihe Eos(. 
9 Death of Cermanleus. 

War between Artabarus and Mnrbnd. 
a Valerius Maximus. 

M. Ellno Solioii:. d.imlnaiii al Rome. 
3 Pretorlan camp al Hume. 
■:> Pontius Pilate Governor of Judea. 
'l-.l! Tiberias retires to Capre. 
The Cruelll.'lon. according lo Euseblus. 

I-actanilus. Augusiuie. i.irlgen, and other 
authorities give A. D. 29 as the proper 

Agrlpplnn I. banished. 
;l Marco. Perfect of Pretorlans, upon full 

of Scjanus. 
;7 Accession of Caligula. Rome. 

Birth of Josephus (died 97). 
,0 Phllo Senior ambassador to Home. 

Birth of Plutarch— died 120. 
.1 Claudius Bmperor ol Roma. 
3 Claudius eonituers Mauretanla. 

Birth of Qultitlllan— died lis. 
! KifeOltioti of Claudius to Britain. 

Sue. esses "I Aulus I'lautlus. 

Birth of Martlnl-dicd 101. 

Lyclu becomes a Roman province. 
.1 Judea and Samaria directly Roman. 
7 London lounded bv the Romans. 

Birth of Juvenal— died 130 (7). 

Thrace directly Roman. 

The Frisians subdued by Rome. 
Defeat and capture ol Caruitarus; taken 
prisoner to Rome. 

Claudius marries Agdpplana II., and 
adopts Nero, 
il Saulh Hrltnln a Roman province. 
14 Agrlpplana poisons ClauOius and Nero 

becomes emperor. 
,5 Birth ol Tacitus, died 117 (?). 
'■ Corbulo In Porthln. 
>!) BrltannkUii poisoned hy Agdpplana. 

Agdpplana murdered by Nero. 


il at Mall 

> Britons under Boa- 

Victory of Suetonius Paullnus. 

Birth ol Paplnlus Slatlus. pool; died Si 

Birth of Pliny the Minor, died 105. 

G Jon hliui. gowrnor of Callilee. 
7 Nero at the Olympic games. 
3 Death of Nero. 

Galba l ies emperor. 

3 Civil war at Rome. 

Olbo Wills himself. 

Vllelllus killed, 
n Jerusalem lak.ii and destroyed by Titus. 

Clvllls leads a Bnlavlau revolt. 

Vospitslan emperor ut Rome. 
0-SO Colosseum al Rome built. 
I The gates of Janus closed. 

Triumph ot Vespasian and Titus. 

I'lill.i-oiihers expelled from Rome. 

Reform ol Treasury. Rome. 
1-75 The Stole philosophers expelled from 

Rome by Vespasian, 
s. Agrlcola commands In Britain. 

Titus becomes Roman emperor. 
9 Her. ulaniuui and Pompeii destroyed by 

an eruption ol Vesuvius. 
B Death of Pliny the Elder. 

The Laocoon group sculptured. 

Advance o( Agrlcola to the Toy. 
,\ni|dililnatr.- of Veronn built. 

1 I'oinltlali .•lil|...o-,..r of K. ■III'.- 
i Rome wars with Cliattl. 

3 Pads iPantomime) killed. 
II Agrlce 



__ el Ion of An 

Home rierserule- J. 
St. John banished 
Hemltlan killed. 

lyearp. Bishop of Sinyn 

> Plut 


(Graham's Dyke) 

Wall of l 


Coniiuesls ol Lolllus Prbl. ns In Brlluln. 
i Vallum Antonio In Britain. 

-tiii- and famine al Homo. 
2 Home wars with Parthla. 
,: 1' ol Christians, 
il Polvcarp sitlfers martyrdom. 
J-1S0 War wllh Ihe Marcomannl. Quadl. 

Greek philosophers patronlicd by Rome. 

Homo wages an unsuccessful war against 
Qnudl nnd Marcomannl 


ki and Christians. 

3 Patmos. 

i (died 

i hound- 

■9S Relief of laves and distribution 

Trajan emperor of Rome. 

Plutarch nourishes. 

Birth of Justin Martyr idled 1C6). 
-la: Subjugation of Dacla 

Illrlb of Herodes Attic 
(died ISO). 
-11? Trajan's expedition to the East. 

Hadrian i-mperor. 

He abandons the conquests of Trajun. 

The Euphrates made Ihe en 
ary of the empire. 

Hndrlnn visits Gaul and llrllaln. 

Statue ol Ann. noil- 1 1 lielrian's page). 

Birth of [reneus Bishop of Lyons died 

Birth of Luclnn. died 200. 

Hadrian 1 * walls bulli-Non , aslle lo Car- 
lish— Rhine to the Danube. 

Birth of Marcus Aur.dlus. died 150. 

Plrst apology lor the Christian- present- 
ed at Athens by Quadratus and Arls- 

Birth of Appuleius. 

Birth of Oalen. died 200. 

Hadrian rebuilds Jerusalem. 

Second Jewish War. 

Itiircliiicht'bns. leader of ihe Jews. 

Edlclnm perpetuum of Hadrian. 


I'.t-i In. i - . emperor of Rome, Is mu 
IHOlus Jiillanus r..ii)s Ihe empire, 
posed hy Pescennius Niger an 
tlmius Severus and killed. 
Mipllmlus Severus .lole emperor, 
Defeat and denih of Niger. 
Severus captures By " 

of three years. 
Temple of the Sun t 
Baitlu of Lyons. 
Death of Alblnus. 

"l named Augustus. 

-••'-in by Rome 
.' Christians 

t Buolbec. 

Defeat ot parthhu 
':•!': Persecution a" " 
201 rilrth ot i'lotiu,,.,. |,iiiios..pher (die 
209 Invasion of llrllaln |.v S.-ierus. His wall 
comnluteO. 220. 

211 Death of Severus at York. 
Caruculla and Geta emperors. 

Roman eitl/ctislilp eit.inled to Ihe whole 

212 Ceta murdered. 

1 ilii .llf.i, :,.|i. . ui L ,i r ,.r. 
211 Mean, or Clement ..r Alexandria. 
.14 hirst contact of Hie It. .mans with Ihe 
Alamannl German irlbes on the upper 
2U Mucrlnus emperor. 
211 IIHi.iguD.ilus emperor. 
221 Ale.tander Severus emperor. 
22o Sextus Emplrlcus. |>hllosophor, flour- 

22S Dissolution of the Parthian Empire and 
Foundation of the new Persian Kingdom 

Persian War bet 
Triumph Ol Sei 
Mniiimln murder 

(Jointly), anil Gonllani 

Gordlanus defeais Super, King o 
■ ut. Il.uiii . oniiilen il and suece 

Philip the Arabian. 
Declus emperor of Rome. 
Uveitis orders a persecution of th 

I'ir-ii invasion of ihe empire 

Gallui! einperor. 

Irruption of the Goths am 

about Ihls time. 

Valerian emperor, ills sor 

Galllenus us- 

Sapor ruvages Syria. 
Valerian taken prisoner. 

The Thirty Tyrants betwe 

Tb.-y destroy the Temple 

The Horull Invade Greece 
pulsed by Dexlppus. 

and arc re- 

Claudius dcfeals the Goths 

n Mosla. 

Victories over Ihe Goths 

and Ihe Alo- 

Expedition of Aureliun ti 

Capture of Palmyra und 

of queen 2c- 


Birth of Constantino Idled 3371. 

Tacitus emperor. 


Cams emperor. 

RevoR of Carauslus ... . 

Victory ol Carauslus over M,e-linlaii. 

Con a tan ClU 9 nnd Galerlus named Co- 

Division of t 

red by Conslanl 
ndrlii by Dloclcl 

Defeat of iVarse 
Persecullon nf l 

Abdication of Diocletian and Max In 

c.ri-ilaiitlu.s and Galerlus 
Beginning of monastl. l^ui in 
der St. Anthony. 

Revolt of : 

Six emperors. 

Elevation of Llcinlus. 

Home proclaims Chrlstlanlty. 

EOlet ol Nlcomeillu lo stop the perse, u- 

tlon of the Christians. 
Defeal and death of Maxentlus. 
Defeat and death or Maxliulnn. 
Edict ot Milan bv Constantino and l.l- 

clnlus, ror ceneral religious loleratl.m. 

War belw 

: Blrlh of S 

Co n si ant 1 1: 


, ,-1.11,1 

■ :U14I. 

, First Ccneral i ouu 

Athaaaslus Patriarch ot Alexandria. 

Controversy wllh Arlus. 

Death ol Arlus. 

Coaslantltie II. . Coiistans nnd Constan- 

tins II. Joint emperors. 
.N'ephllas Meso— Gothic gospels. 
Death or Euseblus, 
i Birth of St. Jerome — died 120. 
Synod ■■[ Sardlca. 

Cltllas lil.sli.ip .d (he Goilo idled "(KM. 
-■■.'I Re volt of Mngentlus. Defeated by 

Birth of St. Augustine Idled 430). 
Victory of Julian over Ihe Alamanni at 

Argentorotuni (Strasburg). 

Julian malls tin banished bishops, and 
proclaims general religious toleration. 

Persian War. 

Julian killed. 

Jovian emperor. 

Valeiillnlan and Valens Joint emperors. 

I'iiiat division of the empire, 

.■e.'i Tho.jilo.alus In hrltnln: al. 

ngnlnst Plcts nnd Scots. 

The Saxons land on the coast- 

Death nf Athunuslua. 

War with the Quadi. 

Gratlan emperor el the West 

i II. 



p Huns. 
; the Huns 

.._._ jf St. Patrick idled 4'-'.l-i 

ii.nsiaiiHn.iple tlirealencd hi Iht 

i The. "Junius the Greal, Emperor 


Second General Council held i 

Pagan rites prohibited. 
Alarle King' of Ibe Golhs. 
Revolt of Maximus In Brlialn. 
. Final suppression el Paganism. 

Iieaib of ilrennrN at Niulanius 
Hon.rlus'Eniper..r of Ihe West. master of ihe whole 
, Death or Theodoalus. 

■Vreadliis Eint-er..r -.f Hi- Fa: 1 ' 
The Huns Invade the eastern pro 

SCFPLEMi:.- T -V J L . 


Alanc in 
Stlll.ho a 

■ Bishop of Hippo idled 

A. I 

r Hoc 

395 Tho BHtous ask aid of Honorlus against 

the Plots and Scots. 
337 Deaths of Jlurlln al Tours and Ambrose 

ot Milan. 
39S Chrysostom Bishop of Constantinople 

(died 1071. 
1«> Alan, ravages Italy. 
1*1 Untile or Pnllentla. , 

Doleat ol Aliirlc 
4or. The Vandals, - 

409 Tho Honiaii legions recalled from Britain; 

final withdrawal about 1 1 A:. 

410 Sock ol Rome by Marie. 
Heath ol Alnrle. 

Peloglus begin* to preach abmit this time. 
412 Proclus i hi- i-til !'i--iHf .(i.-r born' idled 4S">j 
'" Marriage of AtnulphuB, King ol the 
daughter of Theo- 

I Suevl invade 


, Placid, 

uosius the Great. 
Persecution of the CI 

begins; lasts thirty years. 
Death of SI. Jerome. 
Oroslus, the Spanish prcsby 

423 Death of 1. 


nn of Etlus beglnt 

In Persia 
and hls- 


The Traveler's' Song published. 
N'c-t.Tlns. Palrlar. h ..( Ciin.slanlliiopb 

■ndnre. Illshop of Mopsues 
I Council held at Ephesui 

p Carthago. 
Ishop of Rome. 
een Valentlnlun i 

Meninges ■,! Hi.- Ilrlfms l..i Ellun lor air 

against ihr Sa.vms. 
Attlln ravages the Eastern Empire. 
Theadosfua concludes a treaty with At- 

The Robber-Council nf Ephcsus. 

Landing ..( Hi.- English in lirltnln. 

HenglBI and IR.rsu In Kent. 

Death of Theodoolus II. 

Invasion of Caul h\ Attlln. 

Victory of Etlus at Chalons. 

Fourth General Council held at Chalce- 

Monophyslte controversy begins. 
Invasion of Italy by Altllu. 
Venire founded 

Death of Attlln. Dissolution of his em- 
Si. I'alrlck fixes bis see al Armagh. 
Sack ol Homo by Gonserlo. 
Intercession of Leo. 

li.-nglsl ("ends th- Kincd.. in ..I Kent. 
i The epic poem of Beowulf (71. 

Si-venis nominal Emperor. 
-'72 C'>tiriiii-M« i.I I hi- Visigoths in Spain 

and Gaul. 
Great fire al Constantinople. 
' Mirth nt Uoethlus Idled 52(11. 

Id.niulns Auguslulus Emperor of th( 

West (banished 4761. 
<>!|"ii'-.--r .ai'l'ir.-i ami s.v ks Rome mid 

becomes Kins of Italy. 
Succession .if Western Emperors ends. 

Close af the period .if Ancient Hlstorv. 

Medieval History 

4TS Establishment of the Kingdom of the 

477 Second Saxon Invasion of Hritoln. 

IW IDrlh of St. Iletiedlct Idled 5431. 

451 Clovls I. (Merovingian! reigns In Belglc 

4Sj Proclus. philosopher, died. 

150 liatlte of Solssoos. 
Clovlus I, defeats the Gauls. 

(■-. < )■■ r r..^,-. .t}i -, invade Italv. 

151 Ella foundi- the Kingdom .if* 

■131 Theod.,rie establishes th.- usimgothp- 
Kingdom .•! Ital> . South Germany and 
Hungary, capital at Ravenna. 

■155 Third Suson Invasion ..I llrltaln. 

' '..r.lli fouii'll- III.' k'lng.hini ■ ■! Wi'i.i": 

tin; Clovls „f Frame embraces Christianity. 

"Jil Ijiivs ..t llijrunndv published. 

iJ)2 Chnrbodos. the Persian, ravages the 
Greek Empire. 

a03 Fergus lands in Scotland from Ireland. 

fjl5-'42 The famous King Arthur sold to reign 
In England, 

507 Clovls. having conquered the country 
from the Pyrenees lo the Loire, founds 
the Kingdom ol nil Franks. 

510 Clovls makes Paris the capital of the 


511 Salic established by Clavis In 

Division of the monarchy between Clovls' 

four sons. 
CU Vltallanus Hie Goth, besieges Constant '.- 

519 Cordlc founds the Kingdom ol Wcsse* 

:/:' Jusllnlaii I 1"- ..hum Emperor ,,f Koine 
Fourth Saxon Invasion of Britain. Essex 

:"i29 Justinian Code published. 

514 Rellsarlus conquer* Alr'ea. 

535 The Franks appear In Italy. 

KB Italy made sublect lo Hellsarlus. Goths 
ravage Milan. 

51t lilrth of Gregory of Tours (died 59111. 

545 The Turks enter Asia. 

'.17 Northumbrla founded In llrltaln. 

550 The Angles form the Heptarchy Angll.i, 
Delra Merclu. etc. 

552 Totlla. the Uutrugoili. defeated In Hob- 
by the imperial gom-rals Narxes and 

651 Varses overthr 

Ms I'lotulre solo l 

E60 Fergus Moor II ..i Si .Hand <?>. 

:■'-! Death of Ctotatn ill- four =. . -ji ■ divide 

GC2 St. Colomba land, in EtuDand. 

f.ip f.iiinlanl [!■- .1- .ir 1 hy lire. 

5«5 Death of Justlnlnn 1, Etbelbert becomes 
King of Kent. 

E»M Italy Invaded hy the Longobardi from 
Germany, who found the Kingdom of 
Lombnrdy. Xnrses governor of Ilaly. 

.',7.1 lilrth of Mohammed (died C32). 

577 Rattle .if Durham. WiM-Sa*ons defeat 
the Hrltons. 

TM Paris mostly destroyed by fire. 
Sclavonlnna ravage Thrace. 

581 Franks Invade Italy and are repelled. 
Tho Mayora of the palace the real rul- 
ers In France. 

r.Mi Kingdom .if Men lu loumled in llrltaiu. 

5ST FrankH i-xpelh'd from Spain by Recared I. 

590 Gregory I,, the Great, becomes Pope. 

595 The Lombnrii- iji-.|.-i;. Rome and overrun 

D'f7 St. Augutidm- arrive;. In England. 

MS Etbelbert. King nf Kent, embraces Chrln- 

OM Italy ravaged by 

c power In Italy. 

fill The Furs 

driven back. 

cuts In Syria. 

and besiege 


Mltod I 

fill Clotalre II. King ol France 

fill Jemsalvnt CmplUred hi Persians 

'■-J M>'<li;in)[Ili.'il ti.-r-r.-ll, i.-.r..-, Mr,.,, ul ,| ,. 

ters Medina. 
The licgira or Arab emigration— r 

™ ^Ulght ... ,,,iiii |, translated. 

'-•> Dug,, ben. th,. s. ,1,1111. m of the Frank': 
becomes King. 

- J publishes the Salic and F 

9- Mecca- installed a 

Parian Lav . 
630 Mohammed re-enlei 

prince and prophc. 
'•■12 Death of Mohammed. 

ills religion spreads thr..ugh Persia. 
i.:i1 The Ki.ran published. 
63S Syria occupied by Saracens. 

Clovls II., son of Dagobert. King ot 

tan Omar Institutes the new .Moslem Cnlen- 

640 Aluxanrtrlnn Library burnt. 

042 In Britain the Mercians defeat the Dernl- 

053 Rhodes taken bv the Saracens. 

6-W Clotalre III. be, ,.js King of France. 

b63 In Italy. Constans II.. Emperor of the 

East, Is defeated by Ibi- Lombards. 
MB Constantlnoide U.-r-j.-ee,! tn Saracens, 
b,^ Saracens driven from Spain. 
67Z-77 Wainba's "good reltrn" In Spain. 
ftiS Cadwallnder. I lie Ins-l king of the Itrltuiii 

Ilulgarlan^ occupy Hulgarla. in Northeni 

6S1 Mobroulii. last of the Merovingians as- 

6S7 SuaseK united to Wesscs. 

In Frame Pepin dnfi-ais Thierry. 

fi'll Keilt deiTl'-tate.] 1.. We,| 4 llwn , 

697 Anafesto becomes the first Doge ol Ven- 

709 The Saracens Invited Into Spain to over- 

throw King Roderick. 

711 Th.' Saraii-rc- i-mss fr«m Afrlni I,, Spain. 
The nmgarlans rnvngo ib.- Eastern Km 

pi re. 

712 The Gothic Klr) of SjuLn overthrown 

by (be Arabs. 
Establishment .if th,- Sarin en kingdom 
nf Cordova. 

714 Charles Mart el, mayor ol the palace and 

real ruler of France. 
71li Independent CoMile il . -n.i r,-li v founded In 
the Aaturlaa. 

715 Leon and Aalurlns formed Into a King- 

dom by Relay.-, who checks the con- 
quest* of the Saracens In Spain. 
720 The Saracens ar.- defeated at Constanll- 

Charles Maricl .rented Duke of Frane?. 

The Sara.ens Invude France. 

710 Pope Gregory e.vconiuiunlcott 


Ilaltle of Tours, i 

leat of the Sar. 

Charles Mattel e 

Slavic settlemcn 

Polllers. crushing de- 
ens liy the Franks. 

In Grecian Pelopon- 

717 I'-arlomun of France abdicates. 
752 Pepin, the Shori. son of Charles Marlel. 
becomes King of France. 

754 Pepin glv-s Ravenna to the Pope. 
'■" Insiirrei t|..n In Merclu. llrltaln, 

Abderahman 1 hcenmes King "f Cordova. 
736 Pepin annexes Ravenna to the See of 

Tmi Insurrection of Toledo. 

TfiS Death of Pepin, who Is succeeded by his 

two sons, fharlctiiiigne and Carloman 

who rule In France and Germany. 
771 Charlemagne rules alone. 
772-'S5 Charlemagne, aller a severe struggle, 

conquers the Saxons: they enibrai.- 

774 Charlemagne nnm-kr-* Italy after eon- 

nuerlng the Irtimhards. 
77X liaitle of Ronresvalles. 

Beginning of the age ot chivalry. 
Charlemagne unsuccessfully Invades 

755 Saxons, subdued by Charlemagne, be- 

come Christians. 
7S7 The Danes land In England. 
791. '9fi Charlvuiug stablblies (he Margra- 

Helgn of Allonso, (ho Clinate. In Spain; 
Independeni',- ..( ciiriMlam e..i,,'d 
799 The Avars subdued Dj i.hi.rleinagiic. 
AiM) Charlemagne crowned at Rome; be- 
comes Emperor of the West by Pope 

S02 Ru'rlc. the Norman, establishes the first 
L'gular government In Russia at ,\'ov- 
s grand duke, 
s and i'olyponneslan 

gorod. a lid b 
War between Slav 

Louis ].. Emperor, dethroned, but re- 
stored lo his dominions, 

(Francel. conquers 

Uyzantlue Empire 

founds i he Armorlan dynaaty. 
SL1 In England, Esse* land, two years later. 

Kent and Northumhrlio are ..iini-.e,! (.-, 

s:.*. The ," ■ op) lialmalla. 
S'JTI The Saxon lleniar, h. ends and Egbert, 

king ot Wessox. becomes king of all 

$10 Louis the Debonair Imprisoned In France. 
831- "40 Louis separates: Germany from 

840 Charles the Raid King of France. 

.Sit German princes assert their Independ- 

Sll Treaty of Verdun; Ihe sons ol Louis di- 
vide the empire, 
Spain ravaged by the Northmen, 
S46 The Saracens sack Rome. 

>ls lirlii.tiiv lie. ., Independent, 

X50 Hussion ni.' li> established by Rurlc, 

ViUt'l Scots and II, Is united under Roniicth 

X51 Northmen pillage France, 

>••"< Russians attn<-k Coiittaiitlnoplo. 

S67 Rassllllan Dynasty founded al Coustaliti- 

£49 Ecumenical Council of Constantinople. 

jf Mer- 

*7i Kingdom of No. 

nf England fo 

■rn Empire. 
Oxford, and 
_ ._ 's: organises 
■y; subdivides the 
atrveys of the Klng- 

N'j.'. Alfred's I rn oblations. 

K9fl Tho GeniMii'. on. lor Arnold, seize, Rome. 
Alfred el England inroioishes Ihe Danea. 

UOI Death of Alfred Ihe Great. 

901 Russia Invades Greek Empire under 

907 The Russians rceel.e tribute from Con- 

910 Asaer'B life of Alfred written. 

911 Death ol Louis the Child, last of the 

Gorman CarollnguinR. 

912 Rollu lite Northman becomes Robert, 

Duke of Normandy. 
918-'3t Henry I. the Fowler, reigns to Ger- 
many: conquers tbe llun-i, Danes. Van- 

! Otho Ihe Orcat In Germany. 

Athenian wins a greal iietory over the 
Danes, Siois. ii. . ,md beuomrs 
Ring of England, 
i Louis IV. of France subdues Hugh Ca- 
pet, Count ot Paris. 

Mal.olm I. in Scotland. 

Otho Invades Italy. 

Otho the Great lifum.-s Emperor of the 
West: Italy an,] German, united. 

Otho II. invades France, 

Assassination ,.f Edward, ihe Martyr, of 

|l[lll|e ',f ll.l.l.-llt.ll,. lilt,., IH .,( ,;,. r - 

matiy deleated by Greeks nn.l S.rj, ens 
HUKli Capei becomes King of France. 
Vladimir marries Annie, stsier of llasll 

" of RusEla. and embraces Christiani- 


i Hot 

| German Emperor 

Otho lit. makes I 

Paris made the Cap 
Death of St. AdelL. 

dueed Christianity into Prussia. 
Gerhert. Silvester II. Pope. 

Genoa. Ilaly, tv-i nines rich and p.,werful. 
Massacre of Danes ill England by Elhol- 

II. of Con- 

IDJi, .^nncho II. ol I 

dum of Castile. 
lll'l", Arragen be, omes a Klngdoi 

Is the King- 
under Ram- 

Danes driven from Sl 

Tin- >j,M,n, luriastv restored. Edward. 

the Conlessor. King of England. 
Compiest id il.ilienila bi Henry III, 
Russians defeaie.l t.ef.ire Consiimlnnple 
Rebellion of Godfrey In Kent. 
: War of Roderlgo. the Cld. with the 

Moors expelled from Italy. 

Maeb.-ih defeat.,] and slttln, 

.Maliolin 111. of Scotland. 

Philip I., the Fair. King ot France. 

Lambert of Hcrzfeld. 

Jerusalem captured by the Turks. 

William of Noi-iiiuiidi Iina. ]..-■; England. 

and wins ihe buttle of Hastings. 
Harold defeats ihe Norwejjians, and Is 

crowned King ol England. January 6. 

Death of Harold. 


I 1.. Ihe Noi 

The feudal 

Norman Kingdom of thi 

He reward In the Isle o. 

Hlldebrund made Pope Greg, 

tan, crowned King, 
ntroduced In Eng- 

f Ely. 


Gregory VII. 

erelgnly of the papa, y. and reforms 
abuses In the Church. 
I li'tir. VI ,,li ierrii.ins ilispiiir- hi.- tit!,- 
. Oderlcus Vltnlls. 
i Justice of the Pence appointed. 
' Henry IV submlis an.l does penance. 
. Italy invaded by the Germans. 
I Henry IV. lakes Rome. 

Tin- Pope tiles i,, Saleri,.., .,tn1 dies then' 

Hi 1055. 
Clement III. made Pope by Henry IV. 
Domesdnv Hook .nmiiOte,] m England. 

commenced In 1077. 
llurno founds Carthusians. 
William II. crowned King of England. 
I I'rban II. Pope, 
i Mantua taken by Henry IV. 

Tie- Siir,i.,-!i:. nf Spain Invite (lie Afrb-an 
Moors lo their aid In driving bach Ihe 
The J.t..'.it the i'lirl,u.Mi- ami s.'i/- 
the Saracen [.osscsslons 

■ purtiigat b. ie B a separate principal]!; 

under Henry of lU-snncaii. 
William ol Maliuesbitry. 
i First Crusade begun. 

Verse Edda compiled (31. 
; War between France and England, 
i Death of the Cld. 

Jerusalem captured by Godfrey de floull- 

, Crusaders capture Acre. 

Milan becomes a free republic. 

Henry I. defeats his brother Robert, and 
gains Normandy. 

Alexander I. Scotland. 
I Louis VI. le gros |the Lusty] King of 

i llenrv V. o( Germany Invades Italy. 

Ilenrv V. marries Matilda .,( England. 
; University ot Itologna founded. 
Euclid translated Into English. 
Flav of St. Caitierlne.ii Dunstable. 
Rise of (he I., unban! iltaD I cities. 
Shipwreck of Prince William. 
Treaty of Worms, belween the Emperor 

and Pope. 
David I. King of Scotland. 
Era of the glorv ot Venice. Victories 

over the Eastern Empire. 
Arnold of Brescia. 
Stephen becomes King 'if England. 

Henry's daughter. Maud, disputes the 

Louis VI. grants letters of Franchise to 

Empress Maud's parllL.ans dc'culed al 

the battle of tbe Slandard. Aug. 12. 
Porlugal becomes n kingdom. _ 

I Moors rebel in Spain. 

Alpb.uiwi .,1 I n defeats the Moors. 

Wars nf the Lombard cities. 
: .Second Crusade; Louis VII, ot France 
and Conrad III. of Germany are de- 
feated by Greek treachery. A. 1). 1141. 
Greece plundered l,i Roger of Sicily. 
Maud Is defeated by Stephen, and retires 

Arthurian Legends published, 

Frederic [larharossu liuide Emperor of 

Maud concludes a peace with Stephen. 
Malcolm IV. King of Scotland. 
Frederic llarbacs .a Invades Italy, 
llenrv II., King of England, the first, crowned December 19. 
Adrian IV. Pope. 
I -011*11111! Ions of Clarendon enacted In 


Margraviute. Austria, madi 
duchy by Frederic I. 

War ol Guolphs and Ghlbolllnes. destroys Milan. 
: Dorlln founded by n colony from t 

William the Lion. King of Scotland. 
: Assliea or Clarendon and Northamplt 

Frederic Harbarossa lakes Rome. 

The Lombard League formed against t 

Copyright, IS9o. 

makes great con- 
e Bnglls 

ustus) King of France. 
a digest of English law. 
ance establishes the fre 

Philip I 
1131 Glanvll rr 
11SJ Peace of 

cities ol _._. 
HSJ Provinces of Amiens and Val 

11S7 Saladln seize* Jerusalem. 
1159 Third Crusade by England. 

Terrible mass 

1190 Frederic I, (Rarbarnssai. drowned. 
Order of Teumnl. Knlghis established 
Henry V. Invades Italy. 
University of Ovfnrd founded. 

1191 Richard I. joins the Crusades. 

Jerusalem opened to pilgrim. 
Kingdom of Cyprus founded. 

119J Richard I., Coeur de Lion, made prisoner 
In Germany hy Henry IV.. tansoni'd 
(11941 for £400,000. 
Richard defeats Saladln. 

119S Innocent 111. Pope. 

1199 John beciim.s King ,,[ England, May 27. 

Yl<" l'nivcr:lty ..f Salamanca founded. 

Yl<ri Fourth Crusade: capture of Zora. 

1203 Corislautliiiiplc (i, cdcge.l and captured by 
the Crusaders. 

12(H Normandy Inst to England. 

Latins [ies..ess and dnhle Greece. 

l:o7 Albigi-n-lan Crusade. 

120S Otho crowned Emperor of- Germany at 

England Interdicted by the Pope. 

1209 French CriiHude against ihe Albegeolse. 
Inquisition established. 

1210 War between Venice and Genoa. 

1213 Rattle of Muroi: defeat of Alblg-n-es. 
Interdict ..f Entlanrl removed. 

1214 Alexander II. of Scotland. 

French defeat Germans at Roiivines. 

1215 Magna Charta signed at Runnvmcde, 

June 15; con tinned ond renewed 30 

1217 Fifth Crusade by Germans and Hun 

1220 Frederick II. becomes Emperor of Italy. 

122J Matthew Paris bom. 

TheTcutmii. Knmlils undertake the con- 
quest of Poland. 
1223 Tartars i:oni|uei a large part of Russia. 

Louis VIII. King of France. 

1221 l.ouls frees bis serfs. 

1226 St. Louis becomes King Louis IX. of 


1227 Gregory IX. Pope. 

1223 Sixth Crusade. Frederick U. al Acre. 

1229 The Inquisition begun. 

1229 Ten years' truce with the Sultan. 

Jerusalem restored lo Ihe Christians. 

Frederick croii-netl King af Jerusalem. 

Albigenscs deleated in France. 
12:11 University of Cambridge founded. 

1232 Fall of Hubert de llurgh. 

1233 Wars between Castile and .Moorit, ond Cordova. Seville. Toledo and 
olher cities hv Ferdinand III. 

Fjrir. The Mongolians Invade Russia. 

122fl War between the Emperor and the Lom- 
bard League. 

1237 The Grand "Duke Jurk I Russia) slain In 

12,'IS Moorish Kingdom or Grenada founded 
by Mohammed I. 

1239 Seventh Crusade, by Thlbaud. Count of 


1211 Proa? Edda. 

1212 Tartar* establish the empire of Kahn of 

1214 Jerusalem seDed b> th-- Carlsmlans. 

Dnnes invade Russia ami are defeated by 
Alexander Newskl. 

121.', The Halisi all, League far 1 

124fi Frederick II. ol Austria killed In battle 
With the Hungarians. 

1250 Louis defeats King Henry ol England. 

Louis captured by the Saracens; truce 

for ten years. 
Mamelukes rule Egypt. 

12",1 Rise of Meilhn lainllv In Duly. 

12.i2 Alexander Newskl Is made Grand Duke 
ol Russia, ami reigns a. Alexander I. 

12J1 Ottocar of Itohemla acquires the Aus- 
trian Provinces. 

1233 Kuhla Kahn builds Pekln. 

12tal Ot laear wars with Ihiocaiv over Styrla. 

IZflS-'SS Barons' War In England. 

1263 Ollocar Inherits Cnrlnthla. 

1265 The first regular Parliament of England 

lllrlh of Dante; died 1321. 
12«fi Naples ond Sicily conquered by Charles 

126S Ninth Crusade, by Louis IX, and Ed- 
ward. Prince of Wales. 

1270 Louis IX. dies at Carthago. 

Philip 111 mi. Hard, i King ol France. 

1271 The English quit Palestine. 

1272 Reign of Edward I. ot England; 

Ollocar declines" the Imperial Crown of 

1273 Randolph, Count of liapshurg, chosen 

Emperor of Germany; Otloear refuses 

1271 Navarro 



pass.". , 

p royal family t 

i nii,„ 

. , Corlnthia and Styrln 
Wars of Hubert Brine and John Hall.,1 
lor Ihe crown of Scotland. 
1276 House of llapsburg el Austria, founded. 
127" Hub- ,,f the Vii.-t.ntl, Milan. 
1273 Ottocar slain ,U tin- battle nf Mar. hfcld. 

1252 Sicilian Vespers, massacre of Sicilians 

Crusade against Aragon ; the French ox- 

1253 Wales subjected lo England. 

12S5 Philip IV. Ithe Fair) King of France. 

12-St; Kenlgsherg niatle tl oiial of Prussia. 

12K1 Jews banished from England. 

12SS Nicholas IV. Pope. 

12S9 Second Invasion of the Mongols. 

1291 Mamelukes lake Acre. 

Christian power In Syria deslroycd. 

IZ9G Scotland subdued by England. 

1297 Sir William Wallace flghis for the Inde.- 


a or S 

latlle of Falkirk.' Rn 
Jef.alid by Edward 1 

Osnian I. ectabllsl 

and Douglrui 
iiie Turkish Em- 
the capital of Russia. 


First c_.. 
Edward I. Invades Sco 

130G Robert Hruco crowned as King of Srot 

1307 Edward II. crowned. July 8. King o 

130J-'14 Philip suppresses the Knights Temp; 



der Will 

1309 The Swiss 
131(1 Henry VII. 

Austria, uttempts ( 
n fell. (!) 

.. juhduos the Lombards. 
. and Frederick of Austria cor 
lend for ih. German Empire, 
lilrth of Boccaccio; died 1375. 

1311 Battle of Lannockburn 

f English Ilnrons, 

der I 

under Edward. 
Louis IV. King of Germany. 
| Union of Franco a ' "" 

The Swiss totally defeat tj 

John I., a posthumous son ol Louis X.. 

Mng. die, al ihe ac- ,.f four days, 
hllip ll (ii, e l.,,iigi King of France. 

iiattle ..( \luehhlorf, Louis V. defeats 

Charles IV. King of France. 
Dlrth of John WIcklifTe. died 13S4. 

Herman -■ In vad.-il by Turks. 

Edward III crowned. Ian. 2j King of 

Indrp, ndi.-in e ol Seolland. 
L'l-vi.ivm M,.,,r. br.aiglK fr.mi Africa by the 

King of Grenada, 
(.'barbs th- Fair. ..( France, dies; Philip 

VI., of tho House ol Valols. rolgns. 

War between France and Flanders. 
Dlrth of Frolssnrt, died HOI, 
Firat Doge of Genoa appointed. 
Dlrth of Gerhard Groot; died 13*0. 
Rattle of Tarlfii In Spain; Moors !■ 
bly defeated by Alphonso XI.. of 


1346 Battle of Crc 
routed by I 


' Edwi 

the Dlac. _ .. 
Rattle of Durban. In Scotland. 
Battle of Neville's Cross. 
The English take Calais. 
Rlenil. last ef the Tribunes, establlsl: 

a democracy In Rome. 
University of Prague founded. 
Dauphlin imnr.u'il iu France. 
The black death in England. 
Order o' -'■- 

King ., 

ward and Ji 
Marino Fallen) at Venice, 
Turks enter Greece. 
Kei,.., slain at Rome. 
Daltle of Poitiers, September 19; 

English defeat 60,000 French. 

Black Prince takes John 11. captl 

London, when, he dies. 
Charles IV.. of Germany, signs 

Golden Bull, the basis of Ihe Ge 

Constitution until mm;. 
Insurrection of the Jncquerlo In Fr 
Peace of Breiigny, between Engl l»l 

Italy overrun by the Free Lances. 

The Engii 

. England. 

ill ,-:, lb. 

Empire .,( 



k-alnsp H 

Ii: led 

Thomas v 


n of the Dlble pub 


Watt Tyl 

r's Insur 

ruction in 


rtlst born 

' Legend . 

i;o,,.l Women." Eng 


The Tartars bum Mosc 

Death .il John Wyckltftc. 

John of Ghaunl In Spain. 

Battle of Lenip.ich defeat of the Aus- 

trians by the Swiss, and death of Duke 

German Empire divided. 
Fra Angelli.i. painter, born, died 144S. 
: Rattle of Chew Chase, or lltterburne. 

between Scots and English. 
Margaret of Norway. 

The Eastern Empire power in Asia. 
Robert III. King of Scotland. 
The Canterbury Talcs published. 
" "-u Eyck. jMiliile- ■" 

Ihe Cti| 


i;i92 The Port ,. 

1393 Tamerlane, the Tartar, Invade 
"'nkefleld and Townelcy r 

Union of Calmar. 

Henry IV. i r.nvneil Kim.- ,,i Eiiidnii'l. 

Death of C 

1 Wa! 

r and Fml- 

and t 

Pcreles defeat. _ 
Rattle of Angara. Tim-, or I hv Tartar de- 

fuats the Turks and captures linjaiel I. 
Mii^-.i. .lo. painter, horn. 
Prince James of Scut I and captured. 
Albany, regent, In Scotland. 
France Interdicted by ihe Pope. 
Council of Pi tii- Ale. and, -r V. made 

Pope by council of Pisa. 
Slglsmun.l .if Hungary b nc- Emperor 

of Germany. 
University of St. Andr-ws founded. 
Battle of llarlaw; the 

(he Highland Seels. 

rn Flllppo Llppl, 

m Inter 

Council of Constance; Pope 



HIE Ilaltle or Agincourt: 10,000 English, un- 
der Henry v.. defeat r.n.iMi French, 
John Hiioa and ] ,.[ Prague burned 
nt the slake betrayed b- Slglnmund. 

111G The partisans of Muss [oke up arms; 

1417 Cobhnm burnt. 

1419 The Hussites lake Prague. 

1120 Paris captured h. th.- English, Treaty 
ol Troycs. llenrv wins Ihe French 
crown; blrlh of John Wossel. 

1422 Henry VI. proclaimed King nf France 
and England. 
Ottoman Eiuttro reunited by Amuralh II. 

HZi James 1. reigns in Scotland. 

Hi. War b.ineeii Milan and Venice. 
The Pas ton Letters. 

1429 Joan of Arc raises siege of Orleans, de- 
feats the English at Patay. and drives 
thotn from all their conquests In 
France cseepl Calais. 
Charles VIII. King of France. 

H30 Henry VI. crowned al Paris, In Decem- 

Amurulh II, conquers Macedonia. 

Humphrey nuke of Gloucester. 

Tho Mcdlcl at Florence. 
1431 Joan of An: burned at Rouen. 
1*13 Lisbon the capital of Porlugal. 

Council of Rosle. 

Birth ol Thomas Malory. 
1435 Treaty of Arras, between France and 

Sicily and Naples united. 

End of Hussite wars. 

War of Turks with Venice. 
1136 Invention of Printing by Guttenbcrg. 



A. D. 

H37 lames I., of Scotland, murdered. 
James II. becomes King. 
Albert V.. link.' of .\us(rlu. obtains. Do- 
hernia and Hungary, and Is made Em- 
peror of Germany. 

rslly of Florence founded. 


Council of Florence. 

Title of Emperor limited lo tho Aus- 
Irlnn Ilapsburgs. 

Battle of Vnsng; Turks routed by Hun- 

Rattle ill Nlssa; Turks ;i|Min ilcl.'utt.d. 
Birth i.f Leonardo dti Vinel. 

Tin.' Arnblan Myitis limed (?|. 
Nicholas v, Pone, 
nuke of Gloucester murdered. 
The Cforzns nt Milan. 
Aliihoiisii V. nt Aragon, 
Peacock's "Repressor." 
Jiii k Cado'i; insurrection. 
Early English ballads. 

! Constant in.'plo .'.I'] . .1 I . l.ohammr-d 
II.; End of th. K..'-i rn Empire. 
End of th.' 1 rtii. li and English wars. 
Tin. Jlriinrln Htldo Issued. 
i-'7I War of Mi.' Roses, between H-nrv VI. 
and (lit- Duke ul York. afterwards- Ed- 
ward. IV. 
Buttle ef St. Allinns. 
. Battle of Belgrade; Turks repulsed hy 

Hun earl an s, 

■ Frcdorl, V III. divides Austria with his 

1 Piua II. Pope at Bonn.', 
i Birth ul SVKor. : died 162S. 

The Turks conquer Greece. 

Edward IV. deposes Henry VI. ot Eng- 

Lauls XI. King of France. 
1462 Ivan, the Great, of Rr™ 

modem Russian Emp 

HOI Turkish war with Vcnli 

Close of Austria's wo: 


;ta. founds the 

i Frederick 

"League of the Public Good." formed by 
the nobles. against Louis. 
f Birth ol Erasmus; died 1K16. 
i Tho Coventors' mysteries. 
l-'93 Lorenzo de Medici nourished. 
L League ot Italian cities against the 

William Canton establishes first English 

Battle of Tewkesbury. 

Warwick, kins-ulnkcr. 

Birth of Purer, painter; died 1S3S. 
I Birth of Copernicus. 

Dlrt.h of .Ml. hi.. ■! Aiic-lo, iirehitecl nnd 
sculptor; died 1SSG. 
I Dlrtli Di Arloslo. died 1533. 

Ferdinand II , of Arufiun, marries Isa- 


Birth of Sir John Fortcscuc. 

Battle of Murlen. 

Russhtn war with Tartars. ami Burgundy united lo France 

by .Ma.. I ml I linn's marriage. 
Birth ol Tit Inn. piilnlor; died I67G. 
fluke of Clarence murdered. 
Union ol Aragon and Cos tile, under 

Ferdinand and Isabella. 
Great Invasion of Russia by Tartars. 
M. median [imvrr in Russia destroyed. 
Mnhaniniod 11. taK.-s Olranto. 
[■■ri'l.-ri' V: IV.. id Vur.'iiin'!i:. puri.lia -.- 

Brandenburg from Siglsmund. 

Birth of Raphne 
Birth ot Stephet 

I ttlO I 

: the Ccar t 

, rainier; died ISM. 

Howes; died 1612. 

Edward V. n m de Kins "f England; April 

K murdered lu the Tower. 
Richard Mi. usurps (he throne, June 2i. 
Charles VIII. King of France. 
IlirMi of Luther: died 1516. 
Spain Invaded by Turks, first auto da 

to at Seville, 
[los worth Field. 
August 2!!. death ..[ 1-U'liar.l 
Henry "" 


I IV." 

Elizabeth, daughter i 

B. Diaz rounds Cape nf do. id Hope. 
HST The Court of the Star Chamber Infill- 
luted In EnRland. 

Provence Joined to France. 
HSS War between and Sweden, 

The Yeoman ol the Guard organized in 

H90 Leonardo da Vinci, palmer, flourliihed. 
H91 Charles VIII. ninrrles Anne of Brittany. 

Alexander VI. Pope. 

Sevnlgorod defeats and annihilates the 

1492 Columbus sails from Spain, August 3. 

and discovers America. October 12; 
discovers Culm, October 2i: Hayll. De- 
cember 6. 

Ferdinand conquers Grenada and de- 
stroys tile Moorish power In Spain. 

Cesar Burgla poisons Pope Alexander 

Henry sells tin* sovereignty of France, 

Warbcck'n inaurrcclloii. uuel|od in UBS. 

Siianlsh per.--, nth. f the .lews. 

1493 Treaty ot Barcelona, between France 

and Spain. 
League between Rtmsla and Denmark. 
Birth ol Curr.'gglo. |. Urit-r. died 1534. 
1434 Charles VII, Invades Italy and conquers 
Lollards por.:e..uied in England, 
HM Povnlngs' Act In Iro' — -' 
11H6 Naples 

of Philip I. with the heiress ot Ara- 
gon and Castile. 

1497 Cnbnl i|li:r,ivrr:< Labrador. June 26; and 

surveys Hudson's Bay. July 3. 

1498 Louts XII. King of France. 

141*9 The French uuito wllh Venice and seize 

Battle of I^panto; victory of the Turks. 
Mohammedans cvpolp-d from Spain. 
Swiss Cntif.der.i.v Indopt ndent. 
Peril In Wnrbcck executed. 
1600 Plnzon discovers Brazil, January 26. 

Cabra!. Hie Portuguese, lands In Brazil, 

o Charles. 


.May 3 

Join the SwIce 

nnd Schal 

Negro slaves Imported Into Hhipanloln. 
Spanish Jioors compelled to adopt Chris- 

. .-Mi 

i his f 
is Isles ■ 

jrth voyage a 



the Islandu; i]|n-i)vin nira names rur- 
lo Bello. November 2. 
1W3 Reign of Monteiuma In Mexico. 

Louis XII.. of France. Invndca SpalD. 

Portuguese In India. 

Birth or Wyalt; died 1642. 

Birth ot Mendoru. historian; died 1670. 
150-1 Death of IJueon Isabella of Spain. 

Brazil espli.reil l>v A rh us V.^piieluH. 

Columbus, worried by Hie miielilnnMeris 
of his enemies, returns lo Spain, No- 
vember 7. 

1605 Illilh of John Knox; died 167!. 

1606 Death ot Columbuji. May 20; ho was 

treated with I lit' t'.is. .i ingratitude l>> 

the SpunlBh Government. 
Buchanan burn; died 1682, 
Ilulo of diaries V., of Spain, In Hol- 

Blrth of Francis Xavlcr; died 1652. 
Yucatan discovered hy Sollu and Pinion. 
1608 Lcatrue of Cnmbray. between I»uli XII. 
nnd Mailmllllon, against Venice. 

I Henry VIII, King of England he mar- 
ries Catherine of Aragon. 

v "i stripped el Us I c . 1 1 1 1 ■ r ■ \i^.;i sl-ii;.. 

1 Hut- .hi .li.;. iin iii.-,li|. .1 h. Tartar-. 

F.M.-.-iillen of iiii.ll,., mid KuLpBon. 

OJed.i feiiud.-. San Sobnstlatt. 

Pope Jullu;, II. forms the lb. I. League 
with Ferdinand nnd Venice. 

V.-tai'.'inc.' liUlidnes Cuba. 
: Sell.n I. tmide King of Turkey by Janls- 

Ponce de Leon discovers the Florida 

Birth ,.r Vnsarl, painter; died 16T1. 

Birth ..[ TliiK.r.'ll... painter, died i.VJL 

iViivniTe iiiiiii-M .1 in Spain, 

lOtiKhmd Inva.l.-.. |-',-:,ii. ,-. 

Battle of llulni'Bale er Sjiurs; French 

Seotlmid Inviiilen England. 
Haiti,- of Flod.len Field: Scots ileleated. 
Bulbi.ia eriee;..-.-: the Isihiiuls .■( D.irhii, 
■ and dlscos*ers the Pacific ocean. 
Leo X., Pope, encourage:; literature and 

Welsey's power begins In England. 
Bntlle ot Wurlgtmno. 

Franels 1. delea^ He- Itnll.uu--.. Swlf. :nnl 

Alaxluillllan 1. 


I Emperor n 

Franel.- 1 becomes Franco. 
Firs! Fmrllsh prose hlstorv. 
Birth of St. Theresa; died 16S2. 

■ Iti.'.Uli ..f Kei-diiian.l. King of Spain. 
Huh- ,,| Cardinal XlntcnEs. 
Charles I. King of Spain. 

Aieisidnii of Mi.- II s.- ..[ Austria. 

Turk.; gain Egjpt. 

Fiiro|'",ins lir.-i ,. n a footing In China. 

St'lim I. ilefeals .Mamelukes and add- 

Egypt to the Ottoman Empire. 
Luiber begins the work o| relorniatlioi 

In Germany. 
Fernando de Cordova dl3coverE the Mex- 

Luther : and inildlslie., th.- Bible 

nnd Liturgy In German. 
Birth of Surrey, died F.iT 
: Grijnlva penet rules Into Yucatan, and 

names it New Spain, 
l-orte/. binds in Mexico. 
Charles I., of Spain, el 

Germany ns Charles \. 
' "Field of Hie Cloth ol Geld" meeting ..( 

Francis 1. with Henry VIII. 
Balboa jiaasea through [Magellen'i. 

Buttle of U.uau. I(u:-.:;|a defeais Poland 
Martin Luther e.'Jeeuiiiiiiiil.-ated at tie- 
Diet of Worms. 
Conquest of .MesbM by Cortez. 
Henry VIII st>lcd Mo- "Defender of the 

Faith" by the Pope. 
Frnnee ami Spain at wnr. 
' Corti.v made governor ot Mexico he 

Charles V. 
First Scotch invasion of England. 
The Louvre. Paris, commenced. 
Italian League ngalnst Francis I, 
Clement VII. pope at Home. 
Berner's Frolssarl. 

M..ii.Jurn.i i.-oieniered hy the Spaniards. 
VernazanFa discoveries in North Arner- 

Birth of Rousnrd; died loSfi. 

Settlement of Now France iCanadnl. 

Battle of Pnvla. 

Fmucls I. defeated and taken prisoner 
by Charles V. 

Peasants' War In Germany. 

Albert of Dramb-ntmrg embraces Luth- 
eraiiisin and becomes nuke of East 
Prussia and Fief of Poland. 

Ferdinand I. unites Bohemia and Hun- 
gary to Austria. 

Pl.-iirni discover,, the coast ot Quito. 

Sellm I. defeats the Hungarians. 

Mongol dynasty founded In India. 

Tyielal.-M new Testament published. 

Germans capture Rome. 

Insurrection of suppressed, in 
Death of Muehlnvelll. 

Constable Bourbon at Home. 

Juines V., of Scotland, reigns. 

Birth of I'. y.T.oi. -o. pilnter. died VM. 

rn. i at Splera, Gormany. 

Turku Invade Austria. 

Franco nnd Spain sign trout) el pt[i..-i: at 

Sir Thomas More, Chancellor. 
The Augsburg Confession published. 
Persecution of I'rotesianis begun in 

Fall and death of I'Mrdlnal Wolsey. 
lieforiiiiitloii makes great progress In 

Italy conquered by Cliarle.i V. 
Russia makes ponce wllh the Tartars. 
1..-.0.-IH- •■! Mil. ill-, lid (nrnn -1 1.1) I'r.oi ■ 

tnnt princes. 

First Korop.-:.!] e.'loiii in South Amer- 

San Vlncentii founded. 

Royal printing press established In 

Fillet's ■■Governor" Issued. 

Death of Zwlngle: born 1481. 

France aune.'es Brittany. 

Co initios! I of Peru begins. 

, Ivan I., Czar, noted for his cruelly, 
Henry divorces Catherine, mid marries 

Anne Boleyn. 
Birth of Montague; died 1632. 
Tho Hotel de Vllle, Paris, founded. 
The AnnbnpllBl war; they capture Mun- 

Henry VIII. Is styled "Head of the 
Church"; authority of the Pope of 
Rome abolished In Iho kingdom, 

Carller's expedition to tho Gulf of the 

Rebellion of Fltigersld in Ireland. 
Foundation of Jesuit order. 
Comegglo died; horn 1193. 
1635 Execution of Sir Thomas More, in Eng- 

Carller's socuiid voyage, enters and 
nnines the St. Lawrence, ascends the 
river ns far iin present idle ol Montreal. 

Meudoza founds Bin-uos Ayrcs, and con- 
quers adjacent country. 

Callfornbi siippe-iid to have been dlaciiv- 


. Seym 

Tho Portuguese granted \lucao, China. 

The Boulevards. Paris, commenced. 
1637 English suppression of the monasteries. 

Death ot Juno Seymour. 

Pilgrimage of Grace. 
16,19 Adoption of 11m all articles, England. 

First edition ..( Cr-mm-irs Bible pub- 

Cranmer's Anglican Lllurgy. 
lr.iO E'e.-utlon of Cromwell. 

Greece subjected to tho Ottoman Em- 

Great Tartar invasion of Russia rcpell 
T>o Soto discovers ihc Mississippi lllv 
I'.-Lihi-riio- M.iHiiid ,-.,.-, in,-,] 
Henry VIII. lakes [lie title of King 


■ the St. Law- 

t the age 

1543 Ivan IV.. tho Terrible, reigns, 
of fourteen. 
Henry Vlll. marries Cnllierlne Parr. 
Death of Copernicus: born 1173. 
1514 Grison League Joins Swiss Conledorncy, 
France at wnr with England and Spain. 
English Invasion ot Fr.ire ■ and.-r Unit) 

Birth of Tasso; died 163S. 
I'nkerslty ,,f Konlcuherg fonioleil i,.- 
Duke Albert. 
154.'; I van IV. crowned by the Patriarch, 

Pope Paul 111. erects Parma and Pla- 

eentla Into a Duchy. 
Aseham "Toxophllus." 
Council ot Trent. 
I54ti Dealh ot JInrlln Luther. 

Frnnee concludes peace Willi England. 
Assassination of Denton, regent ol Seot- 

1546-'62 Charles v.. o( Germany, makes wir 
on tho Proteslanis. who are assisted 
Infer by Henry II. 

1517 Earl of Surrey. England, executed. 

Dei .1 Victoria Colonna; born 140U. 

The Sniiibadlr war. 

Birth of Cervantes died H'.lll. 
IS-IS Hall's Chronicle Issued. 
IS4» Execution of Lord Seymour. England 

John Kno\"s Scotch reformation. 

Bdnl, eurllest English comedy. 

Ulrlh of Coke; died 1634. 

Wll; -Hi's Art of Itlieti.rli- pnblif.hi'd. 

Tin- Monk el Common I'rayer iiubll'ibed 

In England. 
Duke of Somerset beheaded. 
Mel,, sin i i-s-.liilli i|e[,--ioli.-d liv the Duke 

ot Guise. 

■ in Germany by 

Close of religious 
thu Peace of Pas: 

Mas.aore of Caian, Russia. 

Birth of Sir W.iltei Raleigh; died irtl -. 

■ Mary Tudor, .laughter of Catherine ..i 

Aragon. succeedi Bdward, July 6. 

Lady Jane Gray proclaimed Queen ol 
England, Jul) 10, but relinquishes i(o 

Rest. tcs Hie lioniaii Ci.tlinlli religion lr 

Trade belwi'-n England ,nel Russia be- 
gun by Hie ■■Ruislan Company." 
1 by Calvin. 


f Hot 

Birth of Spenser; died 1599. 

Lady Jane Gr.-ii nnd Lurd Guilford Dud 

ley beheaded. 
Mary marries Philip of Spain. 
Birth of Sir Philip Sydney; died 1W 
I'ersi-i-iiilun of Proii.-'taiits In England. 
Siberia discovered. 
Wynll's InsurreiMeii sup[iressed In Eng 

II idle 

Philip 11. rules in Holland. 

Religious pea.e ul Augshurg. * 

Bale's "King John" Issued. 
lf.56 Charles, of Spnln and Germany, retires 
to a monastery. 

Philip 11. King of Spain. 

Ferdinand, his brother, nucceeds In Ger- 

Reign of Akbnr. the greatest sovereign 

1557 Spain at wnr with France. 

Bntlle of St. Quentln; Philip gains a 

decisive victory. 
Alva lakes Rome. 
K.'iS Calais retaken bv the Frencll. 

.Mary, of Guise. In Scotland, marries tho 

Elizabeth accedes lo English throne, No- 
vember 17. 
fle-eslabllslies the Church of England. 

1559 Francis II. King of France. 

I r.-jlj ol;ui-Cji]ilireris slgro-i] 
William Cei II Seeretiiri In England. 

1560 Charles IX King of France; regency of 

Catherine do Medici. 
The Geneva Bible Issued. 
Birth of Southwell; died 1596. 
Persecution of Protestants begun in 

lSi'.l Birth of Bacon; died 16'JG. 

Mary Stuart reigns In Scotland. 

Religious wars In France. 
1662 Massacre of Protestants at Vassy. 

Huguenots defeated at Droux by Gulso. 

Russia and Sweden unlie ..gainst Poland. 

Port Royal, Carollnas, founded by Hu- 

1563 Gulso killed at the siege of Orleans, 

Temporary peace wllh the Huguenot;.. 
Tliu Eseurlal I'lilaee of Spain founded. 
Tusser's Bucolics issued. 
Birth of Drayton; died 1631. 

1561 Al n> lull II la n 11. King of Germany. 
Florida colonized by Huguenots. 
Blrlh of Shakespeare: died 1616; 
Blrtb of Galileo; died W40. 

Tho Tullerlos, Paris, begun. 
1565 Philip establishes the Inquisition In Hol- 

s Lord Darn- 

Mury ljueen r.f Scots n 

St. Augustine. Florida, founded by Mel- 

15(16 Confederacy of "Guenx" (beggars) 
against Philip's cruelty. 
Murder of Klz/lo, by linriiley, March 9. 
1567 Religious wars resumed In France. 
Huguenots at si. Denis. 
A Ivn enters tho Netherlands. 
Assnssliinthiii of liarniey, Feb. 10; Mary 

accused of connivance. 
Mary amrrles llmthwell, May 15; nbdl- 

cates In favor ot her son. 
James VI., Earl of Murray, regent. 
I5*JS Mary escapes from prison. Is defeated 
by Murray, at Langsldo. May 12. and 
scoks shelter In England. 
Dlshop-8 Bible Issued. 
IMS Huguenots defeated at Jurnnc and Mou- 


r Mm 



llungurv tlellnlteiy uniiexcil to Austria. 
Murray murdered; Lennox becomes 

1671 Birth of Kepler; died 163D. 

Spain allied with Venice nnd the Popn 

against tho Turks. 
Battle of Lopanto; Turkish power crlp- 

Mnncow. Russia, burned hy the Tartars. 

Lennox murdered; Mnr becomes regent, 

1572 Rebellion ol William of Orange against 

Philip's tyranny. 
Massacre ot St. Bartholomew. France. 

August 24. 
Honry of Navarre marries Marguerite. 

of Vulols. 
Birth of lnlgo 1 -a. died 1652. 

1674 Accession of Honry III., of France. Ihe 

last of tho Vnlols. 
Birth or Ben Jonson; died 1637. 

1675 Elizabeth, of England, declines the sov- 

ereignty of Holland. 
Blrlh of Guldo Kent, painter; died 1642. 
1576 Ghent pacified. 


Tho Holy Catholic League organised. 

Copyright, IMG, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co. 


Ill of Burton, died 1640. 
th ot Fletcher; died 1625. 
th of Rubens, painter, died 1 

League of lit 

Northern provinces ut Holland declare 

Ibelr Independence. 
FiUgoiMhl .i Irish rebellion suppressed 

Sir I- r.incls,- land;, in the M-ilili • .!■- 
Alva, of Spain, tontr tiers I'orlugal; the 



ted provlnt 


of Sterling: died 


Birth of Hugo Grotlus; dlCd 1645. 
William of Orange assassinated. 
Henry III. killed by Jruiino;. Clement. 

aii.sslmi of Henry IV. , of Naiarre, 

ilrst of llourhon line. 
Expedition of Amldns and Barlow to 

Southern provinces of Holland subdued 

by the Duke of Parma. 
Treaty of IVio-o between Holland and 

Failure of Raleigh's Roanoke Island sol- Strait discovered by Davis, 

Battle of Zutphen. 

Sir Philip Svdn.'y killed. 

Blrlh of Beaumont; died 1616. 

I'rlt Maurice heeotnes Stiidtloildcr of 

Execution ot Mary Queen of Seois nt 

Frotherlngay Castle. 

- Duke of C " 

his brother, by c 

■ King. 

..._' Spanish A 

the English const. 
1 Baltic of Ivry. 

Henry IV. defeats Ihe League. 
Biirneviildt, grand I'eiislonary ol Hol- 

Blrth of Ilerrlck; died 1674. 

siuiMiiiiixl. i.f (', in Sweden. 

Birth of Quarks, died 1644. 

Blrlh "i G.i- .-cioli . do .1 p.."".. 

Henry IV. adopts tlm iMihnlk (ailli. 

Blrlh of Shirley; died 1666. 
■ Shakespeare's poems Ilrst Issued. 

Capture of Cadi/ bv Essex. 

University i.f Il;irrelli.n,i Ponnl. .1. 

Birth of Descartes; died 1650, 

Bacon's essnys published. 
- Ji'-.iili id Philip 11.. of Spain. 

Philip 111. King: lie banishes ,W.«r.i 
Moors from Spain by A. D. 1610. 

The Netherlands rcilcl to Austria. 

Edict of In I, nor of Prolosianls. 
by Henry IV. 

Irish r.'l.i'lllon of il'Mel. or Tyrone; de- 
tent of the English at lllackivater. 

Henry IV, commissions De la Rochi 

The 1 

r Canada. 
* Rurl 

..l,l. I 

he falls. 

i for 700 y. ... . 
Bodleian founded. 
Api-en-el joins, ihe Swiss Cantons. 
Birth of Van, l,,k. painter; ,]|„,i [r,)i. 
Blrlh of Velnsiiue/. painter; died [ijil'i. 

Modern History. 

1600 Maurice, of Holland, Invades Flanders, 
The Dutch East India Company char- 
tered with a capital of J31W.000. 

— -"-j voyages to Tadoussac. 

Birth ot Claude Lorraine, palmer; dlcl 

Portuguese lulreduee tobacco Into Ill- 
601 Execution ot Ihe Earl of Essex. Febru- 

Alleged discovery ot Australia by Portu- 

! Siege ot Geneva, Switzerland: Charles 
or Savoy defeated. 
I'haiiiplalii's Ilrst expedition to Ihe St. 

Dentil of Queen Ellinlielh: accession of 
James IV.. of Scotland, lo Engllih 


f England a 

Port Royal. 

.t Fundv, foundeil 

Court Conference. 

Discovery of the Gunpowder Plot lo bl 

Great lire in Constantinople. 

Matins nt Moscow.- 

Domclrlus. n pretended son of Ivan, ill. 

many Poles massacred. 
Liberty of worship given to I'rol, slants 

In Austria, by pence of Vienna. 
Australia ..bscrvtd by ihe Hutch. 
Silk mid i.ther luaniifai lures Inltedu.e. 

of Jamestown. Vn., by Lord 
do la .f-r- 

: Quebec founded uj ^'■"molain. 

Inhii siglsoinii.l'.l l-;ieclor of Bran- 
denburg and Duke ot Prussia. 

I'l-iler setih-no-iits made lie ih-- l-lnglU-O. 

Birth of John .Milton; died n;74. 

Truce of Antwerp; Independence of 
united provinces of Holland. 


expelled Irani Spain by Philip 

s Hudson River. 

I'huioplain'.s ili-.-ovi. 
Virginia obtains a 
Hawkins at Mogul 
King James drives 

Henry IV. of France a: 
de Medici Regent. 

1011 The title of Bar i crealed by James I. 

Champlaln returns to America, founds 
Montreal, nnd Is In supreme command 
In Canada. 
Issue of the English Bible, "King James' 

Corr afterwards S ersel. favorite In 


1612 Mathlns becomes Emperor ot Germany. 
Li, ell: h fm l..rl.-s . . i., t,ll: h.d lii India. 
Virginia receives a Iblrd ehorlcr. 
Death ot Prince Henry. 

" "■ i Homnnoff Dynasty In 



i murder, Englat 


I ■- I it ■ th. ol England. io:irri.- . 

I r- V t 1-1. -inr of Palatine. 

lr i h 1. !i i- l',,|-li|gip-.-.:.. In Beniluiv. 

•.'. m \no-t. r.lttn, new New York, built 

Smith eyplores the New England coast. 
Duleb SeUlemenls In New Jersey. 
Nnnler'H Logarithms. 
Vllllcr's, Duke nf Bui klngliutn, favorite. 

' h0 . f, r l a ", ' TBln « Dynasty In China es- 
tablished by Mnntchou Tartars. 

f cittti r.f i and Shakespeare. 

, llar.ey ill sen vers ..Irenlatlon of blood., ot Poland, inarches on Mos- 

I'lnlniid ceded to Swedun 
■ rtie thirty years' war begins In Bohemia, 
between il bt , Froteslants, under the 
Elector Paliitlne. ami the Catholl,- II.,. 
varlun League. 

Sir Walter Raleigh executed 

-Manillas II.. „ f u<n^i,ry, nbdlcales; nc- 

' ' l"H "I l-elill,!,,,,,) | | 

Australian coast surveyed by Zeachcn 

Kepl.r's Laws fubllshed. 
' lv.c-1 utioii of Barneveldt, I-iidlond. 

The liiiteh India and catabllsh » 

no t-d Last India Company. 
B y_ l l?__ .' P"BUe; defeat of Hungarian 



R Plymouth. 

to Virginia company I 


i Ilrst 


^cnter James .... 
Navarre annexed to Prance. 
1621 Spain nnd Holland at Wnr 

l.'alllp IV. King „r -,,,,,, ■ 

Ihe Dutch West I n i-empnny formed. 

■ Jin. ~ .. V' 1 ""' Impeached and overthrown 

Seldon nnd 1>, ■„, imprisoned. 

Blrlh of Moliere. died 1073. 
16.3 New Hampshire first settled. 
,„, „i h n d ". l,,ri "' Sh "^-M'.. ir.'s works. 
H.-.1 Richelieu s refniuis, begins mill I lie 

,o- E n , Blnnu . declares rear with Spain. 
16... Prince Lrederlek Henry reigns in Hoi- 

Accession of Ferdinand III., of Hungary. 

A.-'fislol, "' "'I'": '■lia.les p. „( ]. : - r , L . 
land hi; marries Princess Hetirlotla 
Maria, of France. 
Huguenot uprising. 
!'.:■'. Death or Lord Bacon 

"■-'■ "-; r "' ""■ M nan succession. In Italy. 

Delaware settled by Swedes and Finn:-" 
Cardinal Richelieu's scheme for eolonk- 

Ing Canada. 
The company of one hundred associates 

S.'"V bt, , hv,> ''" England and France. 
Birth of Brossnol; died 1701. 
U.2S The Duke of Buckingham assassinated 
Rochelle surrenders after n i.- 

Polltlon of Right. England. 
Massa. hu setts Bav settled. 
Elliot sent to (he tower of London. 
,-..-, '"'!! ','' - 1 " 1 " 1 ll, "i>' | n; died BBS. 
16.^ English seize French possessions hi Can- 

Champlaln made prisoner and sent lo 

Charter granted to Massachusetts Bay 

Edict of Reslltullon. 
16D0 The city ol Boston founded. 

Gustavus AdDlphus. King of Sweden. In- 
vades Gormanv. 
1631 Treaty of Chernsc... between Lnuls of 
I c and \lcior Am. el, os I. .,( s.,. 

Blrlh of Dryden; died 1700. 
163:: Charier of Maryland grained in Lord 
Baltimore, and seltled bv Irish Cath- 

Canada restored to the French by treaty 
ot SI. Germain. 

The Cavalier Poets. 

Birth uf Loch; died 1701. 
1633 Cbamrlaln returns to Canada with new 

Battle ot Lutzen; victory and death cf 
Gustavus Adalphus. 
1631 French Academy established by Rlche- 

hlch Is In- 

Assassination of Wullensteln. 

Ship money levied in England. 
1635 ConneeMciil settlements at Hartford, 
Windsor and Weathersfleld. 

Rogers William; ilrhcn from Massachu- 
setts, settles In Rhode Islaad. 

Death of Champlaln. 

The 'Tulip mania" prevails In Holland. 
163i. I'nlversltv of Utrecht founded. 

Clalus - play of Trent inn. 
lislT Peiiuod Indian war 111 Connecticut. 

Gov, De Montmaglly arrives In Cainida, 

The Island of .Monlreal settled. 

Hampden's trial In England respecting 
"ship money.-" 

Prynne fined by Star Chamber. 

Harvard College founded. 

First settlement at Brooklyn, Long 

163S New Haven colony founded. 

First peace between the Iroquois and 

Turks defeat lv chins, and lake Bagdad. 
Solemn League and Covenant between 

England and Scotland, 
IWtt Van Tromp. ot Holland, captures two 

Spanish fleets. 
Pacification of Dunse. 
Withdrawal of English army from Scot- 
First printing press In America. 
Blrlh of Racine; died 1699. 
1610 John ot Rraganza drives Spaniards from 

Portugal wins Its Independence. 
Beginning of Ihe Long Parliament. 
First American book Issued. 
I6J1 Earl of Stafford beheaded. 

Judgment again;! ilainpilen annulled. 
Ulster rebellion in Ireland; massacre of 

Fort St. George liullt m Madras. 
1C-12 Death of Galileo and Richelieu. 

Charles I. attempts to soke members In 

tho House. 
Civil war In England. 
Battle of Edfrohlll, Oct. 23. 
Tasman coasts. South Australia and Van 

Dlemans Land explored. 
Hobb's Leviathan published. 
Birth of rs'cwlon; died 1737. 
First ferry between New York and 

Brooklyn established. 
1643 Accession of Louis XIV., the Great. In 


■ ■f Ann. 

d ascend- 

Battlc of Cliiilgrove, June IK. nnd New- 
bury. Sept. 30. 
Coven nut approved \i\ I'arllamont. 
Turrcno on the Rhino. 
Torrkelll's Barometer. 
1614 Battle of Mnrston Moor; victory ot 

Second battle of Newbury. Oct. H. 

Charier granted to Rhode Inland. 

Indian massacre In Virginia. 

Self-denying ordlnan.e. England. 

Birth of YVMIIniu [Villi, died 1718. 

Baltic . 
feat ot royalists. 

Batfle of I'hillphaiik.-h, Montrose defeat- 
ed by Cromwell. 

Alexis, called the Father of Ills country. of Russia. 

Royal Society of England founded. 

1616 Charles I. seeks refuge In Scotland, and 

Is surrendei.d in the I'nrlliiraant. 

Mirth id Lelhiilin: died 171.;. 
1SI7 Conversion of Indians In Canada to Chris- 
16JS Treaty of Westphalia. 

Switzerland's Independence acknowl- 

Hollund. given up by Spain, becomes a 

End ot tho thirty years' war between 

Catholics and Protestants. 

J'omi-raiiln. and other territory, annexed 

. Prus 

Civil ' 

i of tho Froude. 



104S Canadians n 

Confession of Fnltli. 
i Marquis of Montrose beheaded In Scot- 
Leopold I. made King of Hungary. 

Charles U. irriniitil nl Sr , .Scotland. 

Jan. 1. 
Bailie cif Worcester, Sept, 3, and defeat 

"Bare bone." Parliament. 
Birth i.r I ■ ■ . . ■ i ..i i:i- 
English MavHaU i I 

lt.r.J England ,il nllh Holland. 

The Duiili. under Van trump, "sweep 
tho Channel. 1 ' 

Do Ruyter defeated by [Hake. 
1053 Negro liiiiurri''-i|i.>ii slipprcssed In Alcs- 

Penco between t^nginnd and Holland, 
Death of Vnn Tromp. 
Long Parliament dl.-...oh id l>y Cromwell, 
April -'.'. lie tii-i ■.■mi-.: Lord l'r"t. oi,,r. 
Dec. 16. 
ltk r .t Jesuit themselves among (bo 
Onondttga, Iroquois. 
Russian victories In Poland. 
p.",:. S[..iiti {.ml England at- war. which lasts 

165G Russian Truce of Nlcmelx, or Wlliui. 
with Poland. 
Prussia declared Independent of Poland. 
Frederic William, the Great Elector. 
Jamaica conquered. 
I'.m !',.|]i, 1 1 M ■ • n glv. < r., ninth power Id ap- 
point Ills siii.ccs.Hjr. 
Death of Admiral Blake. 
16oS Accession of Leopold 1, In Germany, 

Death of Oliver Cromwell; Richard 
Cromwell, bis son. succeeds hltu. 
1659 Auto do fa. of the 1r.i|u,t>ltlon. Mexico. 
Richard Cromwell resigns title of Lord 

Peace of the Pyrenees. 
1C60 The restoration. 

England; the mon. 

rchy n 

is;- i 

I; died 1734. 
1661 Death of Muzarln. 

Colbert, Mlnlsicr of Fin. mm. la France. 
Execution of the Marquis of Arg>le. In 

Dlrth ol Do Foe: died 1731. 
The Bojnl Palace at Versailles com- 
menced, court upeued Hurt- In Itii-- 
16C2 Terrible earthquake in Peklil: 300.000 

Act of Uniformity. Mny 19. 

The Chui.h ..( England restored. 

Charles mam, ' atliennc ol Dragnnr.a. 
May 20 
16&3 Cunnda becomes a royal government un- 
der Louis XIV. 

Earthquake In Canada. 

Birth of Cutton Mather, died 172$. 
1C01 h'TLiii. v- begins war Willi Holland. 

New Jersey sold to Lord Berkeley; set- 
i l..'d at I-; M,;oO>>t iit.nvn . 

The English tal e New Amsterdam and 
name It New York. 

North Carollnu settled. 

Do Council, •■ governor in Canada. 

War with the Mohawks. 
lu,-, Semnd iniich war with England. 

Death of Philip II.. regency of Anne. 

Thu Great Plague In Leiidon. 

Western Australia named New Holland, 
by Dutch. 

Canada granted to French West India 


1666 lie Kuylt-r doteaicd by .Monk. 

Mohawk villages destroyed by ilie 

Great Are In London. 

The French Ai-ndrnn ol Sciences round- 
1CC7 Perpetual edict abolishes olllce of stadt- 
holdcr In Holland. 
First Russian vessel built. 
Blrih of Swift, died 1745. 
New York City, 3S1 houses. 
1CGS Triple Allium e, England, Holland and 
Sweden united against France. 
Treaty or Lisbon. 
Spain recognizes Portugal's Independ- 


tubal.-- ador 

t la Frar 

167* France and Sw 
Alliance, and d 

ot English ill South 

Champs Klyseea, Paris, planted. 

1671 Birth of Steel.-, died 17."' 

1672 Coude ami liii-.ntic overrun Holland. 
Perpetual edlcl ol Itir.iJ revoked. 
William .it (jraiiEo. tiadlholdor. 

The De Witts assassinated In Holland. 
The Holland dikes utcned, and French 

driven out. 
The French a'.|iiiro Fondkherry, India. 
Count de Frontenne. (kivernor o( Con- 

Parle Academy o( Music founded. 
Birth ol Addison; died 1719. 

1673 Virginia granted to Arlington and Cul- 

icoverles ol Marquette and Jollet In 
the northwest. 
1574 Death of tho poet John Milton. 

Discovery of the Mississippi. 
1675 King Philip's in -Now England. 

Birth of Clarke; died 17». 
1677 Wllllaio of Urante ii.arrlea Mary. 

••Paradlti; Lost" llrst published. 
1578 Russia begins war with the Turku. 
Peace ot Nlnieguen. France. 
England alarmed by Tims Oatcs. stories 

of a (also "'Popish plot." 
Sir Edward Kerry Godfrey found mur- 
Expedition ol La Salle. 
Bunyan's "Pilgrim Progress" published, 
Ulrthof Uollnbrokc; died 1751. 
1679 Habeas Corpur- A. t passes parllomenl. 

Archbishop sharpo murdered by cove- 
nnnters. who defeat Cloverhuuso at 
London Hill, but are routed at Boih- 

1(150 East India Company begins trading In 

Execution ol Lord Stafford. Dec. 29. 

Mississippi river explored b> Hennepin. 

Charleston. South Carolina, lounded. 

Tho Exclusion BUI, England. 

Origin of the Whig and Tory. 

Mnhralta power begins In India. 
ICal La Salle sails down the Mississippi, and 

De Fronlenno remind from Canada. 
Reign of Ivan and Peter I., tho Oreat. 

Murder of La Salle. In Louisiana, 
The Cossacks subdued by Russia. 

1652 William 1'eiin Kettles In Pennsylvania. 
Delaware granted to Pcnn. 

1653 Soblcskl, of Poland, raises the alegc uf 

Discovery of Rye House plot, to secure 

succession lor Imkc of Monmouth 
Execution of I.Td liun^cll, July 21, end 

Algernon Sydney, Dec. 7. 
Canada renews w;ir with the Iroquois. 
Mnhomet 1- b.-slcRea Vienna, hut falls. 
1C31 Greece Invaded by tho Venetians. 

Birth of Berkeley; died 17G3. 
1ES5 Revocation of Edict of Nantea; terrlbl" 

persecutions of French and Protestants 

Duko n 
Charles ll.. inniia at Lyme. June '1; 
proclaimed king at Taunlon, June 2.1. 

, July ti. defeat and 

It*". Battle 

Texas ciloiii.-.-i]' b. Si..nii-ir,| 
Rlrth of Handel; died 17U9. 
Birth or Bach; died 1750. 
IGSrt William Dumpier lands In Auslnilia 
Loula niarrl,:; Mdddnie ,!,■ Mninn-non 
Alliance between Russia „i,j Poland 

against the Turks. 
Blllh of Allan Ratuaay 


Trial ami acquitlal af the seven blidiep i. 

June 20. 
Abdlcalioo and flight ol James II.. Dec. 

Prince ot Ora 


. . . Feb. 13. 
James II. lands In Ireland. 

Pi'Pi the Great. ■.,,!..> nicTelgn In Kii: sin. 
flu. rliousc'H rebellion In Scotland Mip- 

Klng Wlillaiu's war. 

French and Indians rnvaisc N'-w Fnglnnil 

("'iiniidl.iii e'l edition falls. 

The Toleration Act pushes I'aillnnpiit 

Iroquub lay waste the Island ot Mon- 



c again made G>}\ 

r of C 

llh England. 

lllrdi of .Moiii.-.iiiuliii. .lied 
i French and Indians .leslr,,.- f 
New York. 

Jlasiiicre of Salmon Falls. 

Sloee of Londonderry. 

British colonics in America resolve to 
Invade Canada, 

c'lisueccasful attack made on Quebec bv 
the British lleet. 

Spain Jr.ins the Grand Alliance" against 

William 111. lands in Ireland. June 10. 

Haiti.- i,( the iRiyne. July 1; James de- 

French Invasion ot Spain. 

Aragoti and Catalonia ravaged. 

Treaty of Limerick deprives James of 
power In Ireland, and grants amnesty 

Beginning of the English national debt, 
In.-'iiirrti tlon in the City of Mexico. 
Massacre of Glencoe. 
Ilatllcs in Stelnklrk and Lnnden. 
Birth ol Bradley; died IW1. 
Battle of Mar-a^Ma. the I>uke of Sacoy 
defeated Ijv tin- !■>> in li under Catlnat. 
Bank of England established. 
Mary. Queen of England, dies. 
[>!■ M'.marv ,,( Frern-Ii A. adiMnv Issued. 
University of Halle founded. 
Birth of Hi -J..-I . Butler, died 17.',.' 
Birth .if Voltaire; died 177'. 

ot Chi 


I 1773. 

i Turks again itiviide Hungiirv. 
Bayle'ti Dictionary published. 
Abolition of censorship of the English 

Nnmur' falls. 
', Trlnltv Church, New Vork, founded. 
r Peace of Ryswlck. 

Treaty between England, France. Spain 

and Holland. 
Peter. Cznr ol Russia, visits Holland and 

England, and learns useful Irades. 
Peter suppresses the conspiracy of the 

SlrcliU. and punishes Its mcinluT:. with 

barbarous cruelly. 
End of King William's war. 
Birth of Hogarth, painter: died 177-1. 
i Death of Fronlenac. 

First treaty, regulates Spanish 

succession, and cedes territory to 

The Harlen expedition sails. 
^c,"nd Eai.t India Company formed. 
Birth of Savage; died 1713. 
Birth of Warburton; died 1779. 
i Peace of Carlo will, between Turks and 

the Allies. 
The Morea ceded to Venice. 
Further evpli.ralinns ,,f tli.v Mississippi. 
Fenelon's "Telemaque" issued. 
i Tho French In Canada make peace with 

the Ir-'UHoi', 
■*'.-■ .'nil Partition H'-arv lii Spain, declares 

the Arch Duke Charles nest In sue- 

CharlM II. of Spain, the last of the 
House of Austria, dies, and Is suc- 
ceeded by Philip V.. of the House of 

War of the Spanish sue. i salon begins In 
Italy and continues until 1713. 

Death of James II.. In exile, at St. Ger- 
main, Sept. 16. 

Spain allied with France and Mantua, 
■i found Dc 


_ecognized by Leopc 

of Germany. 
Russia at war with Sweden. 
Total defeat nf Peter at the battle ol 

Narva, by Charles XII. 
Census of New York gave fi.000 Inhabtt- 

17"J Death of Wlllhi 
Anne succeeds 

March 3. 
Beginning of "ll' 

III. i 

Anne's War." 
tnki s lliii'lilera from the Duti li. 
Holland, Auatrla and England declare 

Treaty of l-'r. m h with the Flvo Nations. 
Massachusetts frontier ravaged by ln- 

1701 Peter fuunds St. Pelershurgh. und makes 
It the capital of the empire. 

Portugal J.cii.' alll.iri,,. aiialti.-t Spain and 

Irish parliament petitions tor union. 
Birth of I., Haitian IM.varda- died 17G?. 
Birth ol John Wesley; died 1794. 
1701 Bailie of Blenheim, English nnd 
allies, under Marlborough. 

Peter abolishes the SttelltT. or royal 

body guard, 
England passes the Irish "Popery Act." 
Battle of Donanwcrlh. 
1705 Charles acknowledged Ring of Spain nl 

Joseph I. becomes Emperor of Germany. 
1700 Defeat of the French at Ramlllcs. 
Battle of Turin. 
The i-'ieii, li ral:o' Ho- Me,.,. ,in, I mi render 

Naples and Lombard)'. 
Mirth of Hen Franklin: died 1790. 
1707 Unlan ot England and Scotland us Ihe 

Kingdom ot Great Britain. 
Nucnburg seized and [,i eklenburg pur- 
chased by Frederick I. 
Holland. Germany and England at war 

against France. 
First expedition agalnsl Port Royal, 

Nova Scotia, falls. 
Defeat of the allies at Alninuie. 
Death of Aurungzobe. 
Birth of Fielding; died 1751. 
Birth of Button; died 17SS. 
170S Mantua ceded lo Joseph I., of Austria. 

Tho French squadron routed by the 

English, under Admiral Byng. 
Discovery of llcrculaneum. 
1709 England determines upon the eonquont 

or Canada. 
Battle of Puhowa: Peter totally defeats 

Charles XII., ot Sweden, who flics to 

11. '»«' SwetlHIi prisoners sent by Peter to 

.■ Siberia. 

Battle ol Mnlplnquet: Marlborough again 

defeats the French. 
Birth of Samuel Johnson; died 17SL 
Capture ot Port Itoyal. Nova Scotia b> 

the English, and name changed to An- 

battle -. .. 

Sa. Iieverell's riots m Great Britain, tils 
semiiic. n],-,'tliii- lion-,.---, destroyed 

Tho ■■Tattler" first published. 

Alta.k and repulse ,,f English Heel ol 

Russia at war with Turkey. 

Accession of Charles VI., of German.. 

A slave market opened In Wall Street 

Peine of; end CI the .var 

In Switzerland. 
Accession of Charles as Emperor of 



"or Rosseau; died 1779. 

between the great 

: Treaty or Ul 

powers, and terminate* tin 

Xc.ifo midland 

Italy divided; n part or the Duchy of 

.Milan clven to (),,. Emperor ,,( Austria. 
Hai,, P.ii.i, Spain, besieged. 

". becomes King at 

f Rug- 
Birth or Sterne; died 17CS. 
, Death of Queen Anno. 

George I. becomes King of England. 

i Scotia ceded i 

Treaty of llastndl. Austria acquire 

"lirth of Whltefluld; died 1' 
; died 1787. 

■ Earl ef 

Birth or Gl 

1715 Itcbelllun In S, otl.i 

Buttles lit Preston ami Sherllfniulr and 

defeat of the rebels. 
Landing of the Chevlller at Peterhead, 

Dee ember 22. 
Louis XV., King ot France, with the 

Duko of Orleans Regent. 
Austria aiuulro, \';.,,les, Milan, etc. 
Russia adds Ksthonla, l.cvonla. and a 

large part of Finland to Ihe Empire. 
Peler visits Germany, Holland and 

Occupation or the Morea by Turkey. 
Rule ol Cardinal Alheronl In Spain, 
Prussia and Sweden at war. 
Death or Louis the Great; accession of 

Louis XV., his grandson. 

1716 Great era or speculation. 
George Law's financial schemes. 

Tho village charter of Brooklyn Best 

The Septennial Bill passed in England. 
Birth of Garrkk. n.-ter; died 17711. 

1717 New Orleans tot.ndetl. 
Belgrade abandoned bv Turkey. 

171S Tho Duke ot Savoy becomes King of 

Peace ot Pnasavowlt/. 
Austria gain., additional territory. 
Russia expelH the Jesuits. 
Turkey re -est all I lilies supremacy In 

Arch of St. I Is. Pari;;, completed. 

1713 Until, of lilciitdilel. 

Ostend Fa-i India t.'ampanv founded. 
Mohammed Shah ascends the throne ot 

Robinson Crusoe published, 
17:20 Sardinia Is made a kingdom. 

Law's Mississippi South Sen Bubble, and 

other schemes, collapse. 
Widespread financial distress. 
1721 Birth of Smollel; died 1771. 

Birth of Foote. actor, died 1777. 
17J2 Tho Pragmatic Sam-tlnn settles the Im- 
perial Crown of Germany on Marli 
Death of the Duke of Marlborough, 
17.'1 1 I.. I, niir- !■■ p. .II,-, I fr.'in China. 

Birth of Reynolds, painter, died 17M. 
Birth of Vd.-im Smith . died 1790. 

Birth of lili.. I»t Jurist . died 17*" 

1721 Philip V.. ol Spain, abdicates, but re- 
sumes power upon the death ot Loult. 

"Wood's half-pence." 

Great excitement In Ireland. 

Modern History at iHP.rd University. 

Guy's Hospital founded. 
1725 Death of Pe.t-:r the Great. 

C.itherlne I. been rues Empress of Russia. 

Tho New York Gazelle rounded. 

Academy id Sclemcs. St. Petersburg, es- 
172S PruEsin concludes a league with Ger- 

Blrth ot Hutlon; died 1797. 
1727 Death of George I., and accession ot 
George IE, In England. June ll 

Death of Sir Isaac Newton. 
172ft Birth of Goldsmith; died 1771. 
1729 A city library rounded In New 

Birth ot Letting; died 1781. 

illrtli nf J, Wall, died 1819. 
Illrth of Cavendish-, died 1<V>. 
"" It of Cowper.dlcd 1S00. 
i of George 

gin settled - 

lilrtli of Wi.daud; died It]:-:. 
1734 "Letlres l"'|,hl,iues" burnt by the 
Birth of Priestly; died ism. 

1736 Charles, the son ol I'lilllp V., conquers 

Naples and crowned king of the two 

Birth ot John Adams, died 1S2H. 
17M Marriage of Maria Theresa to Francis I., 
Duke of Lorraine. 
War bc1v.i en Spain and Portugal. 
Birth ot musician, died 1792. 

1737 Hungary again at war with IP., Turks. 
Blrih of Gibbon. lilst.,tlau; died 1731. 

17US Birth of Benjamin West, palmer; died 

Dlrth ot Sir Wllllnm Herschel. died 1S22. 

1739 England iiguln deelarei war with Spain. 

Treaty ot Belgrade between Russia. Au«- 

trla and Turkey. , 

Russia renounces tier rights on the B!n<:k 

Invasion of India by Persia. 

Delhi sacked by Nadir Shah. 

Methodism l„ wins in England. 

Prohibition ot the publication of De- 
bate! In England. 
1710 Death of the Eiiipercr. < ti. tries VI.. of 
Germany, last of the male line ot the 
House ot Harsburg. 

Maria Theresa, his daughter, becomes 
Queen of Hungur> and Empress o( Gor- 

Frcdorl'ck the Great, King ol Prussia. 
Prussia advanced to the rank. of a first- 
Ivan VI.. on Infant, emperor of Russia. 
New York >'ni'lety Library founded. 
Swodenborg nourishes. 

1741 Prussia, Bavaria. Saxony ond France 

make war ur-n Maria Theresa, who 

rccelven supporl from Great Britain. 
Prussian victory at Molwlli. 
Breslau ceded lo Prussia. 
Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great. 

Imprisons Ivan VI. for life and reigns 

In his stead. 
Russia at war with Sweden. 

1742 The Elector of Bavaria elected Emperor 

of Germany as Charles VII. 
1713 Tho French defeated a! Dettlngn by the 
Birth of Thomas Jefferson; died 1826. 

Frlesland annexed to Prussia. 

■ Capture of Loulsburg by Man.'... huscUs 

militia, under Porperell. 
Frnnils I., linker:! Lorraine ,oi|,;i,rt «f 

-Maria Theresa, elected Emperor of Gcr- 

The young pretender lands at Mnldart. 

Defeat of the Royalist* at Preston Pans 
Jan. 17. and in.asp.n id England. 

Birth ef Hannah Mure, died . 

Birth of John Jay; died 1S29. 
Birth of Benjamin Hush; illod 1S13. 
i Royalists again defeated at Falkirk, Jan. 

Total dt-fcat ut the Pretender, ut Cullo- 

Vklorles ol Marshal Sa\e. 

[illusion el Shirley Nnva Seotln. 
French and lr,»;li:di Mtugglo [or pos- 
session ot India. ' 
Capture ot Madras by the French. 
r Ihe French Invade Flanders. 

■iladth.dderelilp ri-clM.l In U, i||. mil 
K>c utlon of Lunl Ijivttt In England 

Kl'.'i' 'lii. U-- ll.-...;;i,ili ItiMled 

Illrth of David, painter, died 1>:."j 
I The Peate of Alx la Chapelle. 

The House ..t Austria eonllriued In the 
possession of Milan. 

France takes a part of Flanders. 
I De La Jooipillle ncc.iuea governor of 

French encroach u;„,n N'm-a Scotia. 

Birth of Goethe; died 1S32. 

Birth nl Laplace; died 1S27. 

Birth of Playfalr. died . 

I Treaty ol Madrid. Ijctwi-ea England and 

The first theater in New York opened. 

Discovery of Pompeii. 

PooII'h Corslcan revolt. 1S19. 

Lord Cllve takes Arcot, India. 

Diderot and li Ale ert French Euev- 


Birth of Sheridan; died 1S17. 

Birth of James Madlaon; died 1S3G. 
: Tin- Mar. nils ihi. mesne i.o.eritor ot Can- 
ada; he prepares tor war with Ureal 
Britain and her colonies. 

The French dPipute the . lultn of Vlrglnli 
to the valley of the Ohio. 

New civic of year Introduced into Eng- 
land; Sept. ;i counted us Sept. 14. 

The Journals ordered to be printed bv 
the British Parliament. 

ilcMiim.-:. p.-.giti in the American clo- 
nics: French .de ll.ij Com- 
paii.c- iradlin; [-,■ t- . i,e,,r^.- Wat.hir.g- 
ton sent to St. Pierre. 

Charles III. King of Spain. 

Keiituel.j settled by Daniel Boone. 

Peace between France and England ai 

Fart Necessity built at Great Meadows 
Washington surrenders it to De VII- 
llere with honors or war. 

Kings, now Columbia. College, New- 
York, chartered. 

brad.].,, k and his nrmv defeated by the 
French and Indians. 

Defeat ,.f Dle.5k.iu at Lake George. 

Fren, li A.adlai,, from tlieir ie-s 

Frontier settle nl: In New York nnd 

I'eiin-i l.aula har.H'jcd by the Fr'cic li 
and Indians. 

Niagara expedition fails. 

Lisbon destroyed by an eartht|uake. 

Birth of Dr. llabiieuiunn . died 1813. 

Birth of Mrs. Slddnns, actrc-is. died 1*31. 

War declared between France and Eng- 

a and France allied against 

Saxon army. 
Montcalm scut to Canada and selies Os- 

The conquest of India begun by Great 

Admiral Byng executed. March 14. 
Dow tab. Viceroy of Helical, (apturcs Cal- 
cutta after a hcroi, defense hi II dwell. 
The ill.ieh Hole liiiKedv June 20. 
t Fort William Henry, on Lake QcorgO, 

captured by Montcalm. 
Lord dive's victories In India; lakes 

Calcutta, January 2; Chandaruasore. 

March 23. 
Battle ol Plnsscy. June L'.'l.,- 

English power In India. 
Battle of the Prague. Mnv fi. victory of 

Frederick defeated In the battle ot K:i- 

lln. May IS. 
Defeat ut Prussians at Battle of Breslau. 
.Austria i, include-; treat. >Mth Frame [or 

division of Prussia. 
Victory ot Frederick in the battles of 

Itosbneh, Nov. S. nnd Llssa, Dee. B. 
Attempted assassination ol King Louis 

of France by Duodena. 
Birth ot Jonathan 1 r unit, nil. died 1SI)I. 
Birth of Ale. Tide r 1 1 ami I t.oi; died l.vJI. 
Birth of J. P. Keuiblo. actor; died is:;!. 
Birth at Canova. sculptor; died 1SJ2. 
: Loulsburg captured by the English, un- 

t.'oi"' Breton Island and Prince Edward's 

Island captured. 
Alicrcrouible defeated by Montcalm, at 

Fort Fronlenac capitulates lo Ilradstreet; 

Fort George built. 
General Inirhcs captures Fort iiipiuesne 

from the French. 
Prussians defeated at the Battle of Hech- 

■ Forts St. Davl 

■ British, 

17511 Fort Niagara captured by 
July 23. 

Tin- French abandon TI. onderog.i and 
Crown Point. 

Death ol the French and English Com- 
manders, .lliinlealin ami Wolfe, Sept. It. 

Quebec surrenders to the English. 

Charles III.. King of the two Sicilies, 
becomes King of Spain. 

The Pru.'siaie, defeated in the battles of 
■.Under. . i 'iiac'-d'Tt and Maxell 

The French driven back In India. 

England obtains much territory from 
Subndhar. of Deccan. 

Birth of Hohert Bums; died 1796. 

Birth of Schiller; died !>ir.. 
I "fid (JUebe, attacked In the French under 

De Levi. 
Montreal lapturcd by (he English. 
Surrender of Canada to Great Britain. 
Death nl George 11 . of England, and suc- 

cesalau of George HI.. Oct. 25. 
Berlin captured by thu Austrlans nnd 

Battle ot Toman ; defeat ol the Auslrlans. 
Thurot's Invasion of Ireland. 
Cooto retakes Arcot, India. 

1761 George III. marries Charlotte- Sophia, of 

Meeklcnburg, Strellti. 
The Fren. h surrender I'ondlchorry. In 

1762 Revolution at St. Petersburg. 

Peter III. murdered, and Catherine II. . 
called the Great, becomes Einprei.i "f 


1763 Peace of Paris. 

Canada ceded lo Great Brltoln. 
I'ondlchorry restored to France. 
Governor Murrni appointed governor of 
Canada, and first Introduces English 

171-1 Cb,s,, ,;,f ((,,. Seven Years 1 War. 

Treaty of Huuei isbuig; Sticsia added to 
Treaty ot Madrid restores peace bo- 
i L"",,,* 1111 - F'Ttugal and England. 
John Wilkes arrest. ■.[ foe sedition. 
Explorations of Wilms and Cnrtorct In 

Great defeat _. .. 

ot Huxor. India. Oct, 23. 
Pontlne's war; Indians capture Englli 


c. PrlL._ ... 
Birth ot .1. P,.ul Kiehiei; ,|led 1S26. 
1764 Murder of Ivan VI., by order of tho Em- 

Indians sue for penee. 
End of Pontlne's war. 
British parliament derrees heavy dutltsi 

Modern History. 


! Reception of the English Embassy at 
: Edict against Christianity because uf 

Failure ol Lord Arohert's Embassy. 
: Kingdom of Korea established. 

Opium trade prohibited. 
■ Opium seized, causing trouble wllh 

Chines.? outrages In Canton. 

Hong Kong captured. 

Naval buttles. 

Trade with England forbidden by tho 

Canton nnd c 
War ends In 

t lib. 


Treaty uivIng England Hong Kong and 
!R,O0v,MK>, repudiated by Emperor. 
f peaceful Nankin, with Eng- 

'' a pays Ji/I.tH 

Treaty ratified P.. (jut-en Victoria and 
ilo- Emperor Taou-Kwang. 

Hong Kong charter Issued, April 5. 

Rebellion In Quang-SI successful. 

Xatiiin and Slnngjiae taken by rebels. 

Renewal of war owing to Chinese out- 
rages on Europeans. 

'--- Elliott. U. S. N., destroya fleet. 
Blockade of Canton. 
Capture of Canton by English 


Treaty of Lord Elgin. 

Chinese pirates deslroyed. 
1SS9 Commercial treaty with United Slates. 

English Envoy an ii led b> Chinese, 
1Mb England and France at war with China. 

European Allies victorious. 

Treat.- of pea,-., c-lgro.d i> tuber 21. 

Surrender ol Pekln, Oct. 12. 

Ratification of treaty wllh Russia. 

China lor, el to, pa\ Indemnity and to 

Former treaty ratified. 
1S61 Allies restore Canton to the Chinese. 

Rebels defeated by French and English 

ISQI Suicide of Tlen-wang, the rebel emperor. 
ISCj Prince Kung becomes regent during 

minority of emperor. 
1S6H Burllngamo Embassy visit United Slates 

nnd sign treaty. 
15«i Burllngaiue. Chinese Embassy, received 

1570 French consul and many prlesls mas- 

sacred at Tlen-tsln. 

1571 Chinese apologise and give Indemnities. 
Marriage of Emperor. 

1S73 Kl-Talans o( age, becomes Emperor as 

Tung-ehl, Jan. 22. 
1S75 Death ot the Emperor. Pung-Chl, Jan. 
22; accession of Tsui-Tien, born 1H7I, 
son of Prince Chnn. 
First Chinese r.illwaj Iroin Shanghac lo 
Wiiusuiig opened. 
1S77 Terrible famine iliron^boul the Empire. 

Edlet forbidding opium .-.making. 
lSKu Serious troubles with Rutsla. 

1SS1 Treaty of p,-a lod.-.l «lth Russia. 

ISM Sacking of European .|uart.-r In Canton. 
1SS1 Treaty of peace with France, May 11. 

The Imperial Go.ernmcnt sanction the 

Introdip'tton of railways, June 20. 
The Chinese t;o\ ernm-nl declare war 

against France, Aug. 15. 
French destroy Kinp.l Forts ut Foo- 

chow, Aug. 38. 
Repulso ot the French at Tamsul. 
French admiral declarer, all the For- 
mosan ports to be blockaded, 
tctlon In Korea. 


, Korea, captured liy the Chinese, 

Peace concluded with France, April r.: 
signed at Tlen-tsln. Juno 9. 

18SS Ailirilrally Board created, Dec. IB. 

ISM Marriage ...f the Emperor. Feb. 25. 

1630 British Consulate at Ching-Kung-Foj 
wrecked. Feb. 6. 

IWd Flood! and famine In the Northern Dis- 
tricts, April. 

ISSl-BTVnr with Japan and .-"tillnued defeats 
of the Chinese armies and navies. 

lS9.i Peace concluded with Japan. China pay- 
ing a large Indemnlly and relinquish. 
Eng her clslroB on Carca. 
Massacre of missionaries In the interior. 


of Oudh l 


East India Company made receiver ( 

Bengal, Bahar and Orlssa. 
: Treaty with Nliaui of the Deccan. 

Alliance of NUam and Hydcr All; wh 

attack tho British and are defeated e 

Hydcr All, a Mu9sclman adventure! 

marches on Madras and compels Eng 

llsh to form alliance. 
Terrible famine in Bengal. 
Th.. Malirattas eater Delhi. 
Warren Hastings becomes governor o 

Omco of Governor General created. 

Ilohllla army defeated. 

Benares ceded to the East India Com 

pnny: Charges of bribery against War 

ran Hastings. 

, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co. 

sitti,i-:mfnt xv. 


17T8 Pondicherti ..-ipiuicl In. the Hrillah. 

1750 Arcot taken by Myder All. 

Hastings rJof.-ntii llyihr All's Invasion of 
Carnal lo. 

1751 Defeat of On- irlplo alliance of tho 

Nliam. rtii- Mahratias and liydor All. 
Rattle of Novo Porto, July 1. 
Treaty of Chunur. between Hastings and 
the Subiidhar of Ondb. 
17-' ri|.|...o Salt;. .-■■!. ..[ liny.].-* AM. si-.-nr- ■ 
tho osslstnnce nt the French against 
this English. 
Trlncomleo losl by the British, 
liydor All su. -. . ■ . -tJ • ■ 1 1 bv rlppoo Salb. 
I7S3 French troops under Hussy arrive. 

Tippoo Salb captures Bodmurc. 
17SI Treaty of pence concluded with Tippoo 

ernl of India. 

He-fur in .'f Id- Company's Civil Service. 
• Dc In rjitury Ari passes parliament. 

Trial of Won. n Ilii-stln^s begins In West- 
minster Ilalk Burke opens. Fob. l."»-l?> l 
Sheridan presents li'ir^-J In relation 
to Iho Begums. June 3-13. 
i Tlpj.oo S«ll> attacks Travntienro. Dee. J4, 

Olid Is defeated. 
1 Trnvatieoro captured and plundered by 
Tl[ipoo Salb. 
Treaty with M nitrating concluded, 
I Lord Cornwnllls takes Bcngnlore. 

Tlppnn routed ol the batik "f Arlkera. 
Slay H; Hustings begins his admirable 

! Peace concluded with Tlppao Salb. 
i Renewal of charter of East India Com- 
pany for twenty years. 
p..ndkherrv taken hy the British. 
, Warren Hastings acquitted. 
: Marquis of Welksloy appointed Governor 

i krltP-ti lake Scrlncnpatalu. 
ri(.[ Salb hilled. May i. 
Resr.. ration of I tie Mvsore lo the right- 
ful Hindoo sovereign. 
Rajah nl Tangorc surrenders his power 

I Surrender of Siirnt to the British. 

Nk.uru cedes Mysore lo British. 

[■ Ilchcrry given to France at tho 

treaty of Amiens. 

The British receive further . . . in . . ■ - 1 - . n .-- . 
, Trcjiiv of Bosscin. bol ween (he En«t In- 
dia Cnmpuuv mid the ['.■!:- Ivwi. . hrcahs 
Up the Mahrnttu confederacy. 

The third Mahralta war: the British, 
under General Lake French and 
Mnhratlas at the battle ol Delhi. Sopt. 

Battle of Assavo; Martinis of Well. --ley. 
with 4.500 men. defeats so.iwu natives. 
Sept. 23. 

General Dike lakes Agra. Oct. 17. of peace with Sclntlltt. Dec. 30. 

ilolkur lay:, siege to Delhi. 

Gen. Frazor defeat* liolkar .it buttle el 
Deeg. Nov. 13. 

Treaty ol ponce with llolkar who redes 
Rundelcuiid. and other territory. 

Mutlnv among Sepoys 

Lord Mint "- 


r General. 

Travanrore subdued; mutiny at Scrlnga- 

R, el, slustlcal establishment formed. 
India trade thrown open lo any British 

Marnuk .if ll«-=Hngs. Governor General. 
Mahralta confederacy dissolved. 
Ahmcdnuggur ceded to English. 
Defeat of liolkar at Mchudpore. 
I'mdarrle war. 
~ " o[ Plndarrie war; pence with Hol- 

Hrltleh take Ran- 


The IVIShwi 

Oudh becomes Indep 
l,..rd Amherst, Cove 
Iturnicse war begins 

Pen en declared Feb. 24; Hurmnh rays 

SI.iiii.oihi u nd cedes largo territory. 
I'm,-: ah tale llhurtporc. 
1S2S I-ord lienllnek, Governor General. 
1SU The northwest provinces made a separate 

ad mini stmt Ion. 
]• l', i, mi . onnriunlcailoii Introduced Inl'i 

IS.* Sla.crv nbi.kihod lo the East. 
]*> AUh.iti war ile. lured. Cabul captured 

bv the British, Au S . 7. 
IS II' i-ord Ell. h boron eli Covernor-aencral. 
Im:; Am.ers ..f Solnd defeated by Sir 

Charles Napier. Feb. 17. 
1814 Lnril Hardlngo Govern 
1S15 Danish possession ' 

by England. 
Fngland at war with SIMis . 

Moodkee. Sepl. fl. 
1S1G nrlllsh victory over Slklis a 


• - i.i- . 

Lord Dnihousle Governor- Genera I. 

Second Slki. war begun. [Unmuns'ir 
taken bv General Gough; again de- 
feated ni Vyseorabad. 

■ The .Sikh War ended with battle of Goo- 

Jerat. Feb. 2L 
Sir Charles Xapler becomes Co nun and.' r- 

Anriesallon of the Rajah to British dti- 

■ Mutiny of native Infantry In Bengal. 
H. ■tinning ol the Burmese war. 

i'.'i-u ., r, i .1 i.s KrlU.'.ti Kinnln- 

,■1 .... ,.( Flu " 
Burnish ilep 

First Indian railway and telegraph 

opened, Bombay to Tannah. 
Renewal, for tho lost 

Company's charter. 
Il-neal put un.l.-r a IJ.-un ii.ini -i;..vrinn-. 
Indian Civil si rvhe ihrcwn open to com- 

Ganges Canal opened, 

I :,.|, in r,. llrillw b. ,■ |- 

Annexation of Oudh. 

l»rd Canning rip pointed ilm.-riior-Cen- 

Mutlny auioiifi native regiments at Ilar- 
raclipore. Knrhiiniiiore and l.ui know 
May The gre^t K.-poi ret., lie. n i;oin- 
nienccd at Meerut, May 10. Delhi 
seized by 10, nW rebels and the King 
proclaimed Emperor; mutinies ot 
Cawnporo and AHahobnd. 

I'liwnporc d tj the Brltlali lo 
Nana Slablb. Juno £S. 

Siege of i. in know, begin* iuly 1, Gen- 
eral Havelock cnten fawn pore. July 

i, of East India 


: Nar 

t Bit- 


I from the rebels, Sopl. 
relieved by llaveloek. 

Battle of Cawnpo: 

Sir Colin 
. Mar. h 3L; 
July M: at 

lteboln routed 

Dee. C. 
Battle of FuttCKhur, Jan. 1 

Campbell capture* Lueknoi 

HcbelB defeated at Kolaro, 

other points Bubduen the r< . 
An Aet for this hotter Government nt 

India received rnyiil nssenl Aug. 2. 
fioverniuenl lakea c.ntro] of 1 1. .] b .< Ir 

Iho Earn India r..inpaTiy. Sept. 1. 
lx>rd Canning made first Viceroy ol In- 


Iving day In India for pea 

The Piinlaiih la made a presidency, 
re mention of nude annoiineed, Jan. Si. 
[>ird Elgin appointed Viceroy of India, 
i Heal li of Lord Elgin. 

Bengal visited b> u severe futulnu. 
~-' "I Mayo becomes Viceroy of Indln. 
Calcutta and Bombay 

intlnulng nearly 


E«rl el \ 


Prince of 

Lord Ly 

i terrible cyclone c 


Queen Vkt.irhi prer/lnimeil Empress ol 
India, at Delhi, and other great eltlen, 

i Massacres at Cubul, 

Marijiils of K I i'oii made Oovenier-lleiieral 
of India. 
! Riot Hindoos and Mohammed- 
ans In the nrrsl'lem:> of Madras. 

Int.-rrialloiuil exhibition nt Calcutta 
opened. Doe. -1. 

Death or Jin J Gen Frnri.-is Mordnll. 
■ Death of Ki-.'liut Cliuiider Sen. bead ol 
tho reformed theliih Mot of lMml.ios. 
'in. S. 

Madras. March :■:■: I' 

• Vlce- 

councll. Calcutta, Jan. 23. 

Earl of Dufferln nominated 
royalty of India. Sept. 10. 

Lord licay appointed of Bom- 
bay. Dec. 13. 

Indian Parcel Pnst innuguraled July 7. 

Burmese cvpedltion. frum Calcutta, for 
Itnngoon. Nov. I. 

Hust ill lies against Burmese begun by 
Lieut. Gen Prendergnst, N'ov. 16. 

King of liuiumli uie .■ndlr|..nally surren- 
ders. Nov. M. 

Indln gives prompt aid to England dur- 
ing Afguan war. 

India lender* iipsl.ilanee In England dur- 
ing Russian controversy. 

Maniuls ..[ appointed Gov- 
ernor-General, Dec. 11. 

Massacre of lintlve troops and Ellgllih 
officers at .Manlfur. March 27. 

Defeat of the Munlfurans by the Kng- 
llsh. May 5. 

Mink, elosed n: to free silver by order of 
the Indian Council. 



SI Conquest of the Crimea. 

went or Poland. 

I.. j 

Prince Potcmkln becomes prime mln 

17R0 Armv neutrnllty. 

Ii 'is.- in. Sv. .'den and Denmark deehir 
that "free slilp;. make Iree goods." 
17S1 Acquisition of the Crimea. 
17ST War with Turkey renewed. 
17si e War with Sweden. 

Treaty of WareloW. 
173.1 Second partition of Poland. 

Alliance with England. 
17S5 Pinal partition ef Poland between Ru: 

The partition of Poland completed. 
17.H-. Death „f Caiherlne the Great. 

1S0O Ineanlly of the Kmi 
IS0| Me Is assassinated. 

Alexander I. become 

peace with Englai 

. iiipernr 

Uassla p. Ins the . ...alltlon against Franco . 


Battle of Austerlkf. Napoleon defeat- 
the allies. Dec. 2. 

Treaty ol Tilsit; peace with France, 
i The Turks defeat the Russians near 

: War with France. 

Napoleon Invades Russia, 

Battle or Smoleiisko, Aug. 17; Russians 

Battle of the Borodino. Sept. 7; Russians 

Burning el Moscow by the kiissiani 
Sept. H. 

Retreat of the French. 
. Battle of Leipzig,, and defeat of Na- 

Downfall of Napoleon. 

The Emperor Alexander enters Paris, 
with tin- allies. In triumph. 

The Emperor .Vieiauder organizes the 
"Holy Alliance," between Ruislo, Aus- 
tria and Prussia. 

\k-»aiiilrl.i [.i-... i.iiiiini king of I'. .land. 

The Grand Duke Constantino renounces 
Ilia right to the throne. 

Death of the Emperor Alexander. 

The Empp.-ror Nh.holns crowned nt Moe- 

War with Persjn. 

Pe.iee with Persia. 
War with Turkey. Russian 
victorious, begins April 20. 

!■.■.. I -Ndrliin-pli' wBh Turk.-.. 

polish war of independence begins, 

V taken bv the Ru e.l.ins ni 

-ushed, Sept.. Oct. 

: The emperor decrees that Polntid 

henceforth form all Integral part 

Russian Empire. 

Failure of the Klilvan Eipeditloii. 

Treaty of London signed hv 



with Clrcaaslans. 
i aids 

esslng I 

Hungarian [tcrolut 

Itusshi ilemiinds iliat P.illHh and Hun- 
garian exiles he expelled from Turkey. 

Conspiracy ngnlnut the life of the em- 
peror detected. 

Harhnr or Sobastopol completed. 

|.;.vlh-i io-iii to Knulsh, Aula Minor. 

Visit of the emperor to Vienna. 

Commeniemeni of the iiunrrel with Tur- 
key about the "Holy Place*." 

Army sent to Turkish frontier. 

Conference of the great powers. 

War declared bv Turkey. Oct. 5. 

English and kronen Meets enter the Bos- 
pnorn*, Nov. 2. 

Allies enter the Blaek Sen. 

Battle of Citato, Jan. B; Russians do 

Ultimatum ol France and England un- 
answered by P.uKsln, 

Treaty between England. Franco and 

of Odessa. April 22. 

Capture of f)iimnr*und, Aug. 10. 
P.unsla evacuates tho principalities. 
Rattlo of the AJniu, Sep!. 20, victory i 

Siege of Sehastopol begins, Ont. 17. 

Hank ,,f Balakla.a ( i- I j", 

Battle of Inhcrmann, Nov. 5. 

Death of the Emperor Nicholas. March 2. 

Alexander If. Emperor. 
. Sortie of MahikofT mw March Si. 

Russians evacuate Anapa, Juno G. 

Knrs invested. July 16. 

Capture of Miilakofl lower b. lie- Fr<'lt<jh 
Sept. B. 

Death or Lord Raglan, 

The Russians evaeiinte Sebiistopol and 
retire to (lielr works on the north si,].- 
of the harbor: destrucilon ..I Hie Rus- 
sian fleet, Sept. 

Russian assault on Ears falls. 

Batlle ..I the lug -. defeat ol kus.'.iaii.- 

by Turks. N'ov. 6. 

karii sunendere.] t,, Russians, Nov. SO. 

Council or war at Paris, Jan. 11. grained lo Poles, May 27. to 
political offenders, Sept. 7. 

Suspension of hestiliiles In tin- Crimea. 
Fob. 29. 

Treaty o( peace m Paris. March 30. 

Sept. 2. 
Partial emancipation ..( 

Imperial domains. 
Meeting of Ihc Emper 

i Common lal ire,it> "Hh China. 
. Insurrection In Poland begins. 

The Emperor issue-.- a decree providing 
lor Iho lotnl eman.lpatlon ef the serfs 
throughout Hie empire In twn years 
23,000,000 serfs freed. 

Students' rlofs throughout the empire. 
. The insurrection in Poland become; gen- 
eral. II is i|ue||ed with great severltv 

Trial by Jury granted. 

Increased privileges granted to the Jews, 

Sitrfdum In the empire ended. 

War Willi Asiatic nations. 

The wnr In the Caucasus ended. 
i Death of Ihe C/.nrnwIloli Nlelnihis, at 
Nice, April 2i. 

New province of Turkestan In Central 
Asln created. 

Attempt by Rarakesoft lo assassinate ihe 
Ciur, Sepl. 15. 

Diplomatic iiunrrel with Rome. 

Marriage of Prince Alexander. 

Russian Aliierlea. Alaska, sold lo the 
Untied Slates for *7, 000,000. 

Attempted Assassination u( Hie, In 
Paris, hy a Pole. 

Auiiu-sty grunted for political offeosoi. 

['iiliiml disappears from map or empire. 

Soelallsf.h- conspiracies among Prussia.! 

Neutrality In i-'ranvo- Prussian war di- 

ijortscliakofl reinnllnles treaty of 18SH, 

as regards the Black Sea. 
Conference of the powers, at l,ondon. 

abrogates the Ulack Sen clauses. 
Many socialists imprisoned through. oil 

iho empire. 
E.tpcdillcui against Khlvn. which surren- 

■r.. |U1 


Visit of the Emperor of Germany 

,. im. - 

Visit of Ihe Shall of I 

e Khai 

Marriage of Hie Emperor's daughter 

ttie Duke of Edinburgh. 
Visit of the Emperor to Germany hi 


['lie Island ..I Siig-tiaHeii ..-.led to Hu-s 

by Japan. 
Japan cedes Iho Kurllo isles to Russia. 
War wllh Kholand, 
Ilalllc provinces Incorporated Into ll 

Capture of Khokai 
Conquest of Khlvi 
Russia declares 


I J.i. 

c Insurgents 

and s 

i Bay- 

i defeated at Bateuiu, May i. 

Mellkoff storms Arduban. May 17. 

I.i.esinient ol Kars. June 3. 

Passage ^1 the Danube by the Grand 
Duke Nicholas. June 22-27. 

rajiiure of Tlmnvu, July a, 

Plevna oieupled. July 11. retaken by 
Purls ink ;lo : dehal of Rus- 
sians by Mukhtar Pasha. 

I lie . aplure "I Nlcopolls by the Uusslans. 
July 15. 

The Russians oi eupy the Shlpko Pass 
July 19. 

Severe lightltig in the Shlpka Pass, July 

:. 31. 
Russian attack o 

lul Sepl. 7-11. 
Great Russian victory at Alndja Dagli. 
Capture uf Kara by the Russians, wi 

great alnughler, Nov. 18. 
Capllire of Etropal by the Russians 
Capture of Ph-vna anil ".man 

army, by tho Russh 


i Plevna parlly s 

o St. Petersburg. Dei 

Invested. Dec. 24. 

, ihe Balkans, Dee. 

iv?.i Ruasiont np> Solla, Jan. 4. 

Servians defeated. Jan. 7. 
Car lure ol Lie- stilphr. Pass, by the Rus- 
sians, Jan. S, 3. 
Itatoutii attacked without success by the 

Uiikshins occupy Phllippnlls. Jan. 10. 

n oi eiipatlon of Adrlanople, Jan. 


llect enters Ihe Dardanelles, J 
■iieuotod by the Tin 


Treaty oi peaee signed „i San Stefnuo. 
Skobelelt and Hadet>li> eapliire Turkish 

army In Asia Minor. 
Conference of powers- at Berlin. June 13, 
Treaty of Berlin signed. July 13. 
1879 rinul treaty with Turkey, signed Feb. S, 
SolovlelT attempts to assassinate the 

Cxar. April 11. 
Nihilists i.t klefl mid Odessa convicted. 
Attempt on the Cur's life by mining 

rallwuy, Dec. 1. 
Discovery of plot lo blow up the Winter 

Palace. Dec. 12, 
1SS0 Explosion under dtntngroom of Wlntlr 

Several nolillcrs killed and wounded, 
Feb. 17. 

Assassination of Alaiandor II.. hy bombs 
thrown at his carriage, March 1.1; one 
iissiissln killed by explosion, anolher 

> Chili 

Treaty of peace . .... 
Resignation of Gen. Mellkoff, May 1. 
Manifesto of Oen. Ignollcff. May St, 
Counter manifesto ol Nihilists. 
Now Nihilist plot discovered. Novemhe 
Retirement of Prince Gortfichaknff. 
AnH-.lewlsh rlols. 

Pan-Slnvlnt npeech or Gen. Skoboleff. i 

. July I 

Cul. Souderkin, chief of Police assas- 
sinated by Nlhlllsls, Dec. 28, 

coronation ..f Alexander 111. C/ar of all 
the Rusnlas, Aug. 27. 

'ting In the death 

K Ik n both 

Attack of 




an> penons. June 

fire in Moscow, Oct. 2!i. 

ge of Duke Serglus to Prince 

Afghnn positions 
from tho Asiatic 

Prince Korsakoff, an emir 
died. April 2S. 

" r III- Czar of all Russia, died 
s huceceded hy Nicholas II. 

ipkls t'liinn in pro.urliig nioliei 

war loilemnHy to Jar an anil so- 

nslder.ible advaningos on Ihe 

Pacific c 


J Rebellion of All 

1 Abdul Hnmfd bee 
1 Crimea ceded lo 
J War with Russia 

the Turks. 
i Sol In 
I The ... 


i Buttle „f Atiouklr; 
1 The English aid til 

forced to retreat. 
I Insurrection of Mamelulits ai Cairo. 
. M.-liem.-t All te-(.inies f-'.islm In Egvpl. 
I War with Englond and llUBala. 

Hrlli . Ii ll. . t pi:-.'i the Dardanelles. 
Muitaphn [V.. Sultan. 
i Mahmoud II- Sultan. 
I Massacre of Mamelukes, Mchoraet Be- 
comes supreme. 
! Treaty of Bucharest; Pruth made fron- 
tier of Turkey and Russia. 
i Discoveries of Belr.onln. In Egypt. 

liiHiirrei-llon In Moldavia and Wallai.'likt 
Independence of Greece secured. 
; Tuiks d. -foaled at llltylene, 
J Battle of Navarlno: Turkish fleol de- 
I War with Russia; surrender at Anapa, 
June 23. 
Bnjaiol taken. Sept. 9. 
Varna occupied by Russians, Oct. 11. 

Russians take Erzrruum and enter Adrl- 
anople. treaty of peace. Sept. 14, 
1 Revolt of Mehemel All. 

Battle of Konleh; Egypdans defeat 

Egypt Invades Syria. 
: Battle of konleh; disastrous delent of 

Russians enter Cotisianllnoplo; offenslvn 
and defensive treaty with Russia. 

Treaty of Kutnyah. 

Rebellion In Egypt suppressed, 
i Abdul Medjhl heroines Sultun. 

,\ : .i;, mill rev.-.R of Mel.e I All 

Rattle of Ni,-i|p. Ibrahim Melieuiel, Al"s 
son. defeats the Turks. 

' Engl I, Russia. Austria, and Pruss'a 

aid Turkey. 

Batlb- of Bi'vr.iiil . Egvfiinris ib.|,.-.ii.-.1. 

Trenly with Egypt. 

Meiiemei All made Viceroy, but ileprlnil 
of Syria. 

New system or education Introduued. 

Turkey refuses to surrender Polish rei • 
iigecs; refusal sinaalneit In England. 

Rebellion of Croatia. 

Trcaly with Frame regarding the "Holy 

A large Russian army crosses the Prulti 

Turkey declares war. approved by Ihe 
great powers, F.nglanii. France, Aus- 
tria and Prussia. 

Crimean war. allied fleets cnler Iho 
Black Sea, Jan. 1. 

Russia refuses Intervention. March 10. 

Treaty with England and France. 

The allied powers guarantee Turkish In 

Allied Heels bombard Odessa, and block- 
ade the Danube. 

Allies overcome Russians ai Clurgero. 

Turks defeated at Baya.-.ld. sec Ru-eda. 

Battle at Kar-. 1 : n. ; -li. r.-- del. ali'd ; Turks. 
under Omar Pasha, win a great victory 
at tho Ingour. Nov. 6; allies lake Kars, 

ISaii Suspension of 


a waiting ticgo- 

Tho Crimea evacuated. July B. 

Itole idem e of Turkey, guaranteed. 

; Conflict with Montenegrins. 
Christians mass.aered at Jedda. 
Montenegrin boundaries determined. 
Suei Canal begun by Do Lesseps. 
Great lire ot Constantinople. 
Conspiracy agaRm 

■ Wn 

of Christians at Damascus. 
Convention of Great Powers. 
1SS1 Abdul-Aili Sultan. 


ISli: Omar Pasha Invades Moiiluncgru. 

Servians ilcinand tlo-lr Independence. 

ISG;i Dioith ol Sabl Pasha; Ismail Pasha be- 
comes Viceroy of Egypt. 

ISfil Arabian rebellion suppressed by Egypt. 

ISiTi sues Canat opened In part. 

1SGB Revolt In Candln. 

Cretan Greeks revolt ..gainst iho Turks. 

1SC7 The Khedive of Egypt, Viceroy, vlslkt 
France and England. 

18C.1 Suez Canal Inuugurnled, 

1570 Sir Samuel linker sent lo suppress slave 

1K72 llaker returns, after considerable sue 

1S73 Hy Ihe Sultan's lirman the Khedive of 
Egypt homines Independent In mont 

1571 Circular letter to the Powers, pretesting 

against treaties with Turkish irlbu- 

1S7S litsiirrecllon In Herzegovina and Bosnia. 
Reunions victorious al the battle of 

Unsuccessful Abv-..lniari expedition. 
IlrRlsh government purchases Suez 
Canal stork. 
1S7'1 War with Abyssinia, the Egyptian debt 
Rattle of Treblngc. indecisive, 
Germany, Austria and Russia demand 
reform In Turkish tributaries. 

Bulgaria r.volis a.; st Turkish rulo. 

Sui.lik- or murder of S n Abdul- A»l.'.. 

Treaty of ponce with Abvsslnla, mi 

Col. Gordon. 
Turkey rejects proposals of the 

Mldhut Pnaba banfshed. 
War wllh Russia declared. 
Hostilities with Montenegro. 
Russians cross the Danube. Jut 

Nlcopolls surrendered lo Russia; 

Turkish success li 

'b. ml ?d. July i 

2S; torrlllc battles 
August i'l-is 1 Hi 
Plevna, sept ; ii 

b) Cliefkci !■',-!. , 
Sept. i>.|, i, , 


storm. No- 


* Er/eroutu evacuated. Sepl. 17- complete 

"I-'"'' 1 "' in-l-o, ,. r ,ll r, c 

of ]ieaee signed. M„n |, :i ' 

' I'-loal treaty with \u,';,u, signed, Feb "s 
Russians ivi„„„i, rurkej 
i-.nglan.l dciu,,„,k reforms in Turkey 
Nul.or I'ledn, resigns. * 

Tiie Khedive deposed by the Sultan. 

His t 

s hi IE 

, 1'iutiBiujia ill lip; 

...t.... ,.,.., 1 1 demonstration. 
' ei-ion of Dulclgno, Nov. 2(i. 
Conference of the Powers at Constantlno- 

Mldhat 1'iishn, ntid others, tried for niur. 
dor of Abdul-Ail/.; and condemned i„ 
death, their sentence commuted to 

Dei ree of abolition of slavery In Egypi 

The 1'i.rte dc- lines lo enter j .inference of 
lowers regarding Egypt, but subse- 
quently yields. 

Remun.iraics win, England for intended 

b.iuliarilui.Tit of Alesundrla. 
D.rusl, kiclu, sen, ;,, envoy to Egypt, 

I lirlM.-, lb I III]. , I.i :;. ,,,| I,-, ,..,,,. ,,, |." !..,■,,, 

but. after Ihe bombardment, e'.uis..|in' 
Arabl P f i:.lir, scnieiic-cd I., ban Ishioeu I to 

Ceylon for lire, Dec. 3. 
Prayers offered In Mos.pie. „f Ciilro for 

the Queen d kngland a-, the "Mirror 

of Justice," Dec. 13. 
Arabl Paih.ii. kgyj.ttau Minister of War 

lieuds opposition to the Khedive. 
Alleged . on.jpirai.-y against Arabl Pasha, 

Minister ol War, leads In 

i omjdlciiilons. 
English and French Heels appear at 

AI ridrla. May. 

On Jur- " 


a riot breaks 
natives kill 

■ (in' Ku- 

T Kh«5?* BrM callBd "'' " i0 a)l1 " ie 

Arubl erects fortlllcatlons, and threalons 

to blow up the Sunt Canal. 
Admiral Seymour takes command of 

Kngllsh force,, and orders Arabl to 

eoasc fortifying; he refuses. 
Benib irdiiout i[ Mex.indrlnii forls. July 

'-■ "hey are destroyed by iho Engllsfi 

Arabl I'osha retreats Into the country 

under cover of a IIbr of truce. 
The khe.ike declares him a rebel. 
Ceo. Sir darner W.iklev arrives nl Alei- 

undrla. Aug. 15. with Kngllsli tror.p,. 
Raiol. Ii fortllled. 
Skirmlsli ln?iwi-i.|i kgypiiiins and the 

Tho joint licet sails to Ahouklr under 

sealed orders, then proceeds lo Port 

Said: reached Ismallla. 
The kuglisli .i. . ui'J llie Suez Canal. 
Arabs attack the British al Ku'sassk! 
c repulsed with heavy loss. 


I, Sepv. 

Zngaitie occupied. 

Knfr-ol-Dwnr surrenders. 

Cairo opens lis gates. 

Arabl Pasha and I'mmo troops surrender 

End of the war, Sept. 16. 
1SSJ Total de6triieil.ui of Hicks Pasha and 

his army in the -oidan. Nov, 3. 
1SSI Resignation ol Egyptian ministry of 

Sharif Pasha. Jan. 7. 
Gen. C. G. Cordon leaves England for 

Egypt en route i"f kartouin. Jan. IS. 
Defeat of Baker Pasha near Tokar. 


Gen. Gordon arriv 

Surrender of Tok; 

(ismaii Dlgi 

i, Feb. IS. 

Feb. : 

, by Get 

Defeat of the rebels 

ham, Feb. 20. 
Tokar relieved by Cen krahatu, March-'. 
Osman Pa-lin defeaied by Gen. Graham 

at Tamnsl, March 13. 
Egyptian troops meet with reverse at 

Karloiini. March Hi. 
Third conference of the Great Powers 

upon Egyptian limin. ts, Aug. 2. 
1SJG General Slcwurfs f./r.-es reach C.akdul, 

Egypt, Jan. 12. 
Battle of Abu Kka. vhiory of British 

forces. Jan. 17. 
Ilrlllsh victory near Ab inmnieh. 
Gen. Stewart wnundeil .Ian. 19. 
Fall or Kartoum. Jan. 26. 
Death of Gen. Gordon. Jan. 36. produ "cj 

Intense excitement In London. 
The Italian Hag hoisted, wllh ihnl of 

Egypt, at Massowah. Feb. s. 
Urltlsh vletorv near Dulka Island, dta'.n 

of Gen. Karl. Feb. 10. 
The Milder of Dongola decorated by 

Lord Wolseley. 
Torrlllc lighting near Sual.lm, March 21. 
Death of Malidl Mohammed Aihmed. 

1 Ihe Hosier n 1 

my routed. Aug. 3 
y Crelo. Aug. 30. 
Ertogroul founder, 
i Sept. 19. 

Change In the Ministry. 


id Siill.ii rebellion. 
iy the French. 

elup.inncsus gained 


1S2J National Congress nt At 

Death of Marro flomarli 
1S21 Death of Lord Byron it 

Ipsnra destro - J " 
IN;.! Siege nf Mill 

1SI7 Turkish army lakes Athens, 

Interference of foreign powers rrjeclcd 

by Turkey. 
Battle of Navarlno: the allied Ilrlllsh. 

--■T-jT-I cMFNT XVI. 


trench and Hussion fleets defeat tl 
_ Turks and Egyptians. 


y nf lladrlunopk. 

. President IPIstrla assassinated 

I Accession of Otho I. 

! Insurrection In Athens; National As- 
sembly; lien constitution adopted 
I'lreus hl-.M kn.lcd by a Drlllsh fleet. 
England demands indemnity r..r Injury 

to Drlllsh subjects. 
Trench Intervention nought. 
Greeeo forced ti> yield. 
Rovoll of Albunlnus. „nd I r. in li ...... U[>> lireceo. 

Neutrality In Ilusso-Turklnh war de- 
Greece evacuated by the French and En- 

ed Kins. 

I-: II Kill Fill refuses !,i allow Ills Fin .-Sinn 

Prince William. ...I n..„ rfc. elected 

King, Mar. li Is. and becomes King 
Ccnr.-o [.. Nov. 2. 1S63; new Constltu-- 

Klug Ci-orge I. mnrrled to Princess Olca. 

IToutdc wiiii i In' brigands, who hill many 

V. im.ility observed In Hcnogovlnlan In- 

t tile 

Thfssaly coded to Greece. 
■ Serious fire at royal palneo, Athens. 
Aug. 5. 
ITlTII C-S Sophie of Russia and (IIP ITl.Wll 

Prlnco married. October 37. 

Greek Ministry resign* October 35. 

Prof. Wiildstein discovers rare Jewels In 
the ruins of Erolrla. March. 

Ministry resigned May to, and suc- 
ceeded by a new Cabinet, with M. 
Trlcoupls as premier, Nov. 11, 

Stvvwr and Nice ceded to France by Snr 

Dc. dares himself Dictator' L 

■ N ,'' i ,'! , ", ll ''; l '" i ""'"" sllll -< '" ""■ t-iUl.'s 
of and Mela™, luly -u 

Me Invades Naples with his Utile army. 

nnil defeats the IVpal troops. S,.|,l IS 
and Kikes Ancona, Sept. 29. 
The Sardinian iiriuy. under ihe King 
enters tlir Neapolitan territory, de- 
feats the Neapolitans, at Isernla, Oct. 

<iarihal,!| defeats Iho Neapolitans at the 

Volluma. Oct. 1. 
Meets Victor EuimanueJ o< t. m and 
.salutes him as -King of Italy." ' 

Sicily ami ,Vi[.|.s m|» |,-, r annc.ntlon t.i 

Sardinia. Oct. 21. 
V'Kiiir Emmanuel enters Naples an King. 
Carlo itdl reslgm. (he Dictate 
— -o Caprera. 

hip a: 

! assembler 


1861 The ... 
Feb. IS, 
Parliament decrees Victor Emmanuel 

King of Italy," Feb. 26. 
The new kingdom recognized hv Eng- 
land. March 31. 
The Pope protests against the now king- 
dom, April 15. 
Death of Cavour, Juno U 
Unsuccessful revolt in Calabria, by Jose 
, c - „"" r K" 3 Hi tlm intere-,1 of Francis 11. 
]v,_'i lonns 'i ueiv ministry. 

Naples declared In a slate ..f siege. 
Rataiil-s mlnisir, overthrown and « pew 
ono formed by Farina. 

(.arll.jLi.Il .■ru!,-.ivi.r> In nr.-.l ir ■ fri.'ii 

the Pope. 
He Is made prisoner at Aspromonto by 

the Itol in urine 

173B ■ 

again with England. 
1(97 Battle of Cape .si Vincent, defeat of the 

Spanish fleot, Feb. h. 
I von Spain cedes Parma (., France. 
Im.'I Treaty with Portugal at [ladalos. 

Treaty of Madrid with France 
P«2 Treaty with England at Amiens. 
1S01 Renewed war with England 
1">.. fi.iitle ,,j Trafalgar ii. i -i ( „n,i .p.foai 
of Fren.b ami Spanish lleets l.v Eng- 
Hslt. under Nelson. 
1W7 Invasion of Spain bv the French 

Treaty of Fountalncbleau. 
Iv>.s Territory demanded by France, 
Spanish fortress soiled. 
The French take Madrid. 
Charles IV. abdicate! in favor of Na- 
poleon, .May 1. 
Massacre ol ;cn French in Madrid, May 2. 
Napoleon assembles Ihe notables at Bay- 

Ferdlnund VII* abdicates. 

Napoleon I, gives crown to his brother 

Joseph Bonaparte, who enters Madrid 

July 12. but la driven out. Julv 29. 
The Frem h defcaicil at Vlmlera Auk 

21, by the English. 
Battle of l.ogrono; defeat of the patriots 
Haiti.- ,,| lHjr.lllge; the t'r.ii, I, v|el„rioii;. 
The French retake Madrid, am] restore 

King Joseph Bonaparte. Dec, 2. 

Nap. leou enters Madrid. Dee I. 

ISOTi Battle ol Corunua and death of Moore 

-Ian. IB. 

ider or Saragossn. 

entered by Sir Arthur Wcllesley. 


Defeat of the Fn 


I Atsorga seined by 

Capture of Cludad-Kodrlgn by .Marsh 
Nov Julv in 


i Italy. 

5 Death or Pope Clemi 

lion of Plo VI. 
|'.-'1'7 Bonaparte's first 
7 Treaty of Cnmpo Foi 

France and Austria divide the Voiioitin 

The C|s. Alpine reputdi,- founded 
! Second Invasion of the French. 

I opt Pius \ I. deposed by llonnpnrle. 
I Dcleat of the French at Trebla. bv the 

Hits.. I. ins. under Suivarrow. 
) Death of Plo VI.; Pio VII. Pope, 
Bonaparte crosses the Alps. 
Battle of Marengo. June j.( ■ tolal defeat 
of Austrlnns. 
' The Cls-Alplno republii remedied as the 
Italian republic: Bonaparte President 

■|--..ii . King ,,f iinii iiiiv ■■., 
Eugene Beauharnols made Viceroy of 

■ The Treaty of presbure deprives Austria 

of her Italian possessions 
I Downfall or Napoleon. 

Overthrow ..| (he Klngdol f Italy. 

i Establishment of the Lombard. .-Veie- 
tlim Kingdom for Austria. 
Hvie.j added k, ibe Sardinian crown, 
: Heath of Pope plo VII.; Leo XII. Ic 

| Death of Loo XII. j Plo VIII. becomes 

Death of Pope Plo VIII., and elevation or 

OregorJo XVI. 
Death of Carlo Felly, and etlingulshmeni 

or Ihe direct male line of the House 

The ' ' 


Italians cross the Mlnclo. June 23. 
Haiti,- of r*usio;'.i. .lime -( ami delcat el 
nal'i'ie'of'i'l's '" """ Arc, " ll "' e Albrecht. 
Defeat of the Ballon fleet, July "0 

Peace or Prague ,\ U g. :::. h; ;l ,=iern I. - 

tardy untl Venetla added to the King- 
Treat., ,,f Nicholsburg, Aug. 26; close of 
Cession of Venetla to the Italian klllg- 
Klng" Vlclor Em 

■■ Code. 

Di-alb of Pope , 

The King nf Sardinia grants a Constltu- 
llon and openlj espouses the cause of 
Italian repenera'ion analuti Austria. 

Insurrection In Lombardy and Venl-e 
against Austrian power; revolt Is sup- 
ported by the King of Sardinia. 

The p,.pe supports (he movement (or 
Kalian Independence, June. 

War between Sardinia and Austria. 

!.omt..|rd. ariri.-,e,1 i.. Sardinia, June 2!>. 
t Rome: flight of the Pope to 

The Sardinians, after repealed 

are totally defeated by " 

, March 23. 


inuel outers Venlc 
Papal States. 

1867 Insurrection 

Garibaldi pli 

The French emor Home 

Garibaldi defeated at Montana 
1-M Railway over Mont Cenls upem-i 

Crown Prln, , Humbert marries Prlne.i. 
ISW Ei unii-nleal Council held at (tome 

Severe earth. pinko „| Florence 

1570 Dogma of Infallibility proclaimed by the 
Arrest of Mazzlnl at Palermo. 

The Papal stale: . morod bv the Italian 
arm,-, and Bom.- o. ,-ii[.|.-d Sept. Ji 

it i . St n' e8 " p " rI of the K,n K dom «' 

Pope Plus IX. issues bull or excommuni- 
cation against rile g<'.ileni[TlCI]t, Nov. 1. 
tome eia. uated bi the French, Aug. II. 

Revolution In 11 e i.nminent. 

The Pope takes rerun.' In (he ensile of 
St. Angelo. 

Home annesort to Holy, and made Ihe 
Capital of the kingdom by royal decree, 

The Italian Duke of Acosta elected King 

1571 The government transferred from Flor- 
"" Cenls Tunnel, 

Ncy, July 10. 

\VclMni;|..|i deleats the Frond 

ten d'Onoro. " 

May 1C. 
Tnrracora taken by Suchet. 
King Joseph returns to Madrid 

Spaiil.h rleleaf.-.J bi Souk ,a Lor. a 
Wellington i i.h.riinis at C.'ludnd-l(odrlg>>. 

Pailajo; and carried April G 
,J cst °' lile Preneh ot Salnman.a, July 

English. under Wellington, occupy 

English M 

Domingo: tjuecn Isabella refuses 
Christina returns to Spain 
i Peace with Peru, whirl ■ !■: r„uioe||eil io 
pay a heavy ludenmlty. 
(Jucen Isabella orders the sale of Ihe 
crown lauds, and gives three-fourths to 

Spain relinquishes St. Domingo. 

ijuarr.-l nith ciuii. |.,||oived by war 

Kingdom of Ital.i i.-.„,.nl;..ed ' m Spain 

Itisurrerilon. le a.|..-.| b, Uenera'l Prim 

■ General Prim lays doan his arms m.l 

in; urgent:, enter Portugal. 

ivh, a,,,,. II resigns, and \arvaez forms a 

The Cortes dismissed by the Queen 
Spain formally re, ,:,gi,l/,.B and form, i 
treaty with I he retuiblli.s ,,( i; U at, mala 
dor. Costa lllca and 


lKti7 Revolt In Catalonlt 

Queen grants general amnesty. 


Death of No 

Murrlllo becomes prime minister 

Hevolullon led by Prim and Serrano. 

faept. 17; revolution successful, and 

mliilsiri resigns. 
Queen Isabella takes refuge In France 

and Is deposed. 
Provisional government organized at 

(j f? ( I ■ y '' r ""' Sprrnno al "l Oloinga, 

t CoslellH, April 1 

i tbem Into Fraiu.e 

1820 Revolution under Nunez del Riego begin- 
In January. 
Ferdinand swears Io the constitution of 
the Cortes, 

ISLM The Cortes remove the kins to Seville 
and thence t< 


i of France in behnlr of t 
h army enters Spain, April 7. 

Opening of the* 
Death of Mottinl. 
Great eruption or Mount Vest 
rlous luund.-Lllom- thnuighoi 

Close of the war, and recovery of Loin- 

Carlo Alberto abdicates in favor ot his 
: on ci, i.,r Kniiieiiinei 1 1. liar, li '.';; 
dies July 28. 

The Roman republic formed. 

Heme captured by ihe French army, un- 
der Marshal Oudlnol. 

The republic overthrown, and the Pope 

I Fcelesla.. Ilea! Jurisdictions abolished In 
Arrest or the Archbishop or Turin. 
Count Cavour Minister of Foreign At- 
tn Ira. 
; Revolt in Milan subdued. - 
. Sardinia Joins the alliance of France. 
Kngland nnr] Turkey agulnst RtiKt-.i, 
and tokos part In ihe Crimean war. 
: Unsuccessful revolt In Sicily. 

lUpPiiriatlc rupture bet n'c.-n Sardinia and 

1S73 Suppression or the convents at Homo 

. Funil.l. r i, suits from li.ilv. 

1V74 (Jen era] assembly of free Chrisialn 
churches In Italv. 
Brigands cause great trouble, 
The_ Rovernment suppresses (he Camor- 

IS7i Visit of the Emperors of Austria and 
Germany to the King of Italy 
Garibaldi takes imth of allegiance to the 

of the C'liatiilirr ot llopiilles 
Rallilcatlon of a trea(\ of i-ommerce with 

Great Orlluln. 
Si>; new cardinals appointed. 

Dentil of Pope Plus IX.. 
I.e.. XIII eleeled Pope, 
Flections favorable to t 

Cadiz invested. June 

Battle or the Trocadero. Aug. 31. 
Rebels derented and (he revolution 

The king again restored. 
Execution of Rlego and the patriot learl- 

IS2S The French evacuate Cadi/ 

1S29 Cadiz proclaimed a free port 

ISM The Snlinu- law abolished. 

1K3j Death ol Ferdinand VII.. his ipioon ai ■- 
suidcs Ihe gevemno'iH as Regent .lur- 
ing the minority or her daughter. Ira- 
Don Carlos claims the ihronc. 

1K4 The Quadruple Treaty or France Eng- 
land, Spain and Portugal guar.uiie.V 
the right of Queen Isabella (o Iho 

''■■■I Carl,,; elil, r- <!■ on, I , l.i.ii,. Mo 

Beginning ot (ho Carllst war. 
IS!"'. Defeat ot Carllsts at battle ■>[ Bllhno 
isri? Dissolution at luonaslerles. 

'■• :■' •'!,■, ■ -is oi (.I,,-, goieriiineni lor, c ■ 

Don Carles takes reluco In England. 
tVIII Espartero, i-oiumandor ol the royol 
Torces. bocomes ihe real ruler m Spain 
The Queen Recent Christina abdicates 

and leaves Spain. 
Espartero expels (he Popal N'unclo. 
IRtl Espartero declared, by (he Cortes. Re- 
gent during the voung iMr.-n's minori- 
Insurre. (Ion in favor ol Christina ,|iu-lle.l. 
1S4J Insurrection at Barcelona against Es- 
partero; lie bombards the city, Dec. It. 
and receives lis: surrender. Dec. i. 
I'.|': 1 j.rl: I nt iv.-aln:.i Imparl en. „t liar, elotia 
Coruuna, Seville and other points 
Rombardment o( Seville. July 21. 
Defeat ol Fsjiarteni. 

I'l"' i I'.nlo. assictis Ills ■ lanti his son. 

Isabella li., 13 years old. Is declared, by 

__ ...e provfi.. , 

I*','. I. n.rts to I. ml a king tor Spain. 

Serrano elected Hcgenl. Juno IC. 

Prim beenm. ; iirline minister. 
Outbreaks or the Carllsts and republicans 

IS7" Espartero decline* the Spanish crown. 
Isabella nteli, ate, in (.nor uf her son Al- 
fonso; R is ollered to Prince Leopold 
of Germany, who refuses It. 
Amadous, ion ol Hie King el [tali, el.-, a- 

ed king hv (bo t..r(es. Nov. 18. 
Amadous lands at Cartbagena. Dec. 30. 
Marshal Prim assassinated. Dee. 2», 
IS7J Amadeuh enters Madrid, Jan. 2. 

Serrano forms a new ministry, Jan. 5. 
The Cortes dissolved. Nov. 2.1. 
Insurrection In Cuba. 
IS72 Resignation of the ministry. 
Carllst wur bcglnc. 
Serrano outers Navarro: detents the Car- 

lisls a( Oruqultti. 
Ati'inpt I,, .,■■......:,.. I. tl,, |,ii, t and 

IN73 Abdlcalion of King Amadous, 

Republic proclaimed. 

IJeleol ol the Carllst: in iarluus poin(s. 

Don Carina ondr.s Spain, luly 13. 

Cadiz surrenders to him. July 31. 

Csstclnr President ..: the Cortes. 

The "Virginias" aftalr. 
1S74 Coup d'Etnt. 

Jlurslial Serrano I'resldeiil and Com- 
mander of (he army. 

Overthrow ol the republic. 

Alfonso Xlll. proclaimed king by troops, 

1769 5,? 5, !: utll ° n ot the Dsatlle, July u. 

The £j Klnnl "« "' ll1 " l'rein;h revolution. 
The k ng and <„ice„ , ..impelled p, n m„p 

_. nt V. 1 '" es. 1" g" Io Paris, OcL 6. 

Ihe National Assembly meets at Paris. 

The National Assembly change the royal 
tit q o King id iho French. ' Oct. 16. 

Clerical property conPscated. 

The division ..r Frame mi,, IQ depart- 
monis. Deo. ;j 
1730 Kltig Louis accepts the work ot Iho rev- 


■■el). I. 

Confederation of the Cbninps do Mbts- 
(lie King take-; ihe oaili t.. He- , ..iiall- 
tutlon. July 14. 

P 'lan!. ' : 'i""' '"" B H " d ' ,,,CCn '""" Furl " 1 
Inipro ,.nnient_of t_ho king and quqe 


Tuilcrles: they 


u . (he National Assembly, 
Sept, 25. 

17K First eealltion against Franco. 
Common, .-tiient of the great wars 
War wlili \iisirlo .p., -lured April ;o 
Batlle or \ aim v. the Iriunlaus d.'dale.l 

and Frame saved from luvaslrm S.-,e' 

tipeiiing of the National Convention, 

Sept. 17. 
The Convention abolishes royally. Sept. 

Narvner° r a 

. to be 

Ironclad Italia s 

f Garibaldi as Deputy. 

ivi? [doctoral law passed. 

Death of Garibaldi June '.' 
JSS3 Discovery of site nf iho celebrated An- 

i to ti. r 

i oi i 


dlnia, , ISSI The ehol 

The Austrlnns .res."" the Tlclao. April ^7. 

The Fron.-h nfiiii reaches C.enoa. Ma> ;l. 

Battles of Montehollo, Ma> :f|, Palestro. 

.May 30. 31. Magenta lone -I. Males - 

Total defeat of Austrlana. 

Kevoluilons in Tuscany, Burma. Mn.lemi. 
Bologna. Ferrnru, etc. 

Peace of Vlllefrunca, July 11. 

Western l.omt.arrh nni. .■.,,] p. Sardinia. 

Protest ..I I I . :il.. in. 4. . In I I. I..T , 

United KlnRdom. 

The Incited to anus In (inrll'Lildl. 

The I'ope appeal;, to Europe agnlnsi Iho 
Ring ut Sardinia. July li. 

Tho Italian tun libs der lure in fovor of 
annexation (o Sardinia. 

New constitution tor Sardinia. 

Alliance be(».'on Tuscany. Modena. Par- 
ma and the I!.. magna foiined, Oct. 10, 

Pea... of Zurich. Nov. P.; i art of -he 
Punul Stales and tile 1'U. hies of Parma 

and Mod. ma ceded to Sardinia. 
The Emperor Napoleon nd vises the I'ope 

to Klve up bis revolted smles. Dec ;-.!. 
"" e Pope refuses ihe Emperor's proposrl 

1SS9 Slatue of 7 

( Rome, June 

of Queen Christina, h 
r of (he army. 

Isabella to her cousin, 

Don Fran. l;.o d' Assl;-, Duke of Ca.ll,: 
Murrlago of Ihe Infanta to Ihe Duke df 
Montpenslir. .son of (he King or Franco- 
Protest of England ngiilnst these mnr. 

1MT Attempt by La UIvh to assassluute (ho 
Espartero restored to power. 

18-1S The British Emm ordered to oult Mad- 
rid within -IS hours. 

IS-it tllrth of the Queen's first child; It dies 
Attempt of Lope/, io wrest Cuba from 

ISSI Opening ol the Madrid- Aranjuez railway. 

1SS- Merino, a Franoiacj nk attempts to 

kilt tho Queen and slightly wounds her 
Willi a dagger. 

1853 Narvae* exiled to Vienna. 

IB5I Espartero organises a military Insurrec- 
tion nt and succeeds In mail- 
ing himself prime nilnlsUr. 
The qucen-moiher inifiiM.heil and com 
polled to quit Spain. 

IK7f. Kin 

Dec. : 

I85S Death 

IS".., Insurrcctii... _. 
Espartero reslgi 


f Cabinet formed, headed b; 
In Madrid iiuellrd 

iow ministry formed by Cav 

. Jan, 

1S5I Crlspl Re.Hltn: tl,,- Pr.nilorshlp nnd Ru* 

dlnl appointed, Feb. 9. 
Baron Favu. Minister to (he I'nlted 

SlalcB. recalled. Maroh 30. 
IMi.1 Pope Leo XIII. celebrates his Kid hlrlh- 

Klng Humbert and Queen Murgnrot cole- 


1775 War with Portugal resumed. 
1717 War with Enghind renewed. 

France ale! Spain besiege (Rbrallur. 
17s;l England . flalsarle Isles to Spain a 

peace of Versailles. 
17!»I French Invade Spain. 

rjuelleil by O'Donnoll 
li'Donnell forced to icmgn. 
Navoer. Is made prime minister. 
Birth of the prlnee roynl. 
| Wnr with Morocco. 

O'Donnoll i iitnmands Ihe army in Atrlca. 
Moors ilcleateil at Teluau and Guadolrns 
Treaty ol pe.oe signed. .March 36. 
I'nsuc. essrul ell'irts of Ortega (o over- 

(hrow the Queen an. I make the Cooni 

do Monte Iln klrig. as Charles VI. 

Ortega shot. April 19. 

The Emperor Napoleon III. propose* to 

recognise Spain as a flrst-ck" 

■wing to the re 
f St. Domingo to Spain 

Don Juan do Bourbon renounces 

rlglK to the throne. 
O'Donnoll resigns the premiership. 
Intnrre. lion In St. Domingo. 

S| .,|, .jiiarrel. Willi P. Ml 

General Prim exiled for consplracv. 

ISTi; Surrender of Bllboo. 

Defeat of Carllsts a( Durnngo. and sur- 

- Pamplona, Feb. SO. 

Hoes to France. 

i Madrid. 
...j United 

General amnesty (o Carllsts. 
Queen Isabella visits Spain. 
Marriage ol King Alfonso (o Mercedes 
daughter or the Due do Montponsloi 

1S7H Inundation.'; In Seville. Cranada und else- 
Alfonso marries tin Archduchess Maria 

Christina, of Austria, Nov. S3. 
Attempted assassination of (ting and 

1880 Law for gradual abolition ol slavery hi 
Cuba. Feb. IS, 
Execution of the assaisin Ulero, April 11. 
ISSI Expulsion of Don Pari. is from Franco, 

Julv 17. 
!>->: Frai Spaiu-li . omnn.-r. lal I real i ap- 
proved by the Cortes. April 23. 
Introduction of n bill to abolish slavery 

In Cuba, June 10. 
Hub. vv -snow storm it Madrid, Dec. 10. 
1SS3 Marriage of Infanta della Pai to Prince 
Louis, of Bavaria, April I'. 
King Alfonso visits Frankfurt Io witness 
German military maneuvers. Sept. 20. 
King ARonso appointed commander of 
Iho Schlciilt-llol, loin I 1 !, Ian regiment 
by Gorman l-.mi otor, Sept. 2H. 
Return of Alfonso to Madrid. Oct. 2. 
Resignation of Spanish mlnii-try, Ot I. 11- 

lierver.l bColll..- I'rime .Mllll.let. 

Terrible ravages of cholera in Valencia 
and olher points. 

Spain groallv ev It.-.l ..Ncr 'll -upotloii 

of (he Caroline Islands bv Cermony. 

AnnoumomeiiT lla.l ol :.1.."'P. persons al- 
(acked by cholera 82,619 had died. Aug. 

ARonso Xlll. King, with .Maria Christina 

as Regent. May 17. 
I(p. ipror My between Cuba and Hie I'nlted 

Riotous demonstrations or Republicans 
suppressed by the police. 

Cargo of dvnamllc c.plo.les a( SaiUan- 
dor, killing an 1 wonudlnt several hun- 
dreds of people. 

Cuban palrlola rise again In arms to free 
'" 'il Campos 

the Legislative Assembly. 

r.V, Louis XVI beheaded, Jan. 21. 

War again: i England. Sj.aln and Hol- 
land, declared Feb. 1. 

Insurrection In La Von. Ice begins, March, 

Proscription or the Girondists. 

Robespierre becomes Dictator March 2a. 

Beginning of tin- Itclgn of Terror, May 31. 

Char tot le Contm assassinates Marat, 
July IX 

Eseculb f Marie Antoinette, Oct, IS. 

Siege, of Toulon, first victory of Bona- 

The Duke of Orleans. Phlllipe Egnlllc. 

beheaded. Nov. B, 
Mudomo Roland executed, Nov. S, 
Vendee revolt suppressed, Dec. 12. 
17fM Itanton and guillotined. April li. 
Klliabelh. sister of Louis XVI,. executed. Tro be o mc.' president, June. 
Fall of nobesplerre. July S7. 

The Directory esiubllsbcd Nov. 1. 
17SC Ilonaparte wins (he vlc(orles of Montc- 
noite. April 1_' Mondlvl. April 2.', and 
Lodl, May 10. Attehklreheii, June I. 
Ilndsladt. July .--,. in Italy. 

Tie ;or ... ■, ..f ..i.ppr. .- -.-.J 

1797 Plchegru's conspiracy falls. 

Return ..[ Napoleon Into Paris. 
Bonaparte's Egyptian expedition om- 

Batllo of the Pyramid. Julv 13-21. 
Destruction ol (he French Heel, near 
Alexandria, by Nelson, Aug. 1. 
17M Kngland. Germany. Russia. Turkey. Por> 
lugal and Naples coalesce against Xii- 

Bonapnrlo nlunis from Ei:yp(; deposes 
the Council of Five Hundred, Nov. 10, 
and Napoleon Is declared First Consul 


r the A 

i large 

■ the 


marries Marie Antoinette, 

I7iffl Beginning ol 

1770 The Dauphin 

of Austria. 

1771 Death or Louis XV.; accession of Louis 

lTJfl Dismissal of Turgot from offleu. 

1777 X'ccker be. oniea Minister el Flnanco. 
1781 Neckor resigns as Mlnller f.| Flniim c 

Tho torlure abolished In legal procced- 


1783 Treaty ..( I'ersalllcs, pom e with Eng- 
land and Spain. 
1785 "Diamond necklace an*air" occasions In- 

.1 Muy Ti. 

the Consul by means or 

1801 Treaty wlih C.ermany.' 

The Rhine mnile Hi.- Fieneh boundary. 
Peace with Russia, Oct. S, and With Tur- 

1S0; DeJeiu of the' French at Aboukin. March 

Peace with England, Spain and Holland 

signed nt Amiens. March 27. 
Legion of Honor instituted. 
Bonaparte made "Consul for Life." 

1801 Bank ai France established. 

Wur with England declared May 22. 
1S01 Conspiracy (if Moreuu and Plchegru 
against Bonaparte tails. 
Execution ■■! ' li ■ I nils.. d'Enghi-n Mat. 'i 

bv Nelson ai Ho latlb ol Trafalgar." ' 
Battle of AuMerlii.' 
Austria totally defeated. Dee. 2. 
Treaty ot Preshurg, Dee. 2fi. 

t; Confederation of the Rhine ratified at 

Paris. July 12. 

Fourth coalition or the Great Powers 
against Franco: Prussia declares war, 
Oct. 8. 

Defeat of (he Prussians at Jena. Oct. II. 

Capture o( Erfun by the French, Oct. IS. 
7 Russlam. defeated nt battle ol Eylau, 
Feb. B. 

Alevander an. I Napoleon moo! at Tllsll, 
June 20. 

Treaty of peace signed. Julv 7. 

The Milan decree published. Dec. IT. 
'■ is'ew noblllly ol Frunco created. 

The beginning of Hie Iviilusulur war. 

Abdication of Charles IV. ol Spain. 

N ai .o I is ei defeated at Aspom and Essllng. 

Victorious ot Wagrnm. 

Entry of Napoleon Into Vienna, May, 

Treaty of Vienna, Oc(. 11, 

Divorce of th. Empress Inscphlne. Dec. 

Napoleon marries Marin Louise ot Aus- 
tria. April I. 

Union of Holland with Frame. 

him, of (he King of Home, afterward 



War d.. lore, I nidi Russia. 
Najolcoii invades Russia. 

Croat vleiori ■■( Hie French el lioro.llno 
Sept. 7. 

.Moscow, October. 
The Concordat treati with the Pope. 
Alliance of Austria. Russia and Prussia 

o (he Island of Elba. May 


Charter esta 

ISIS Napoleon loaves Elba and lands i 
Cannes. March 1 and proceeds to Pari 
where he Is Joined by all Iho army 
Louis XVIII. leaves Paris; restoratlo 

of the empire. 
The Allies forma league for his dostrtn 




Napoleon abolishes (he sla 

,. „«.. 

Leaves Paris for tno army. 

II.' invaJiM Hclgluro. June 11. 

! battle of 

Napoleon reaches Curls. .Imn 


_. of hie _. . 
II.' rwi'ln-'! ituchefort, whore In.' Intends 

to embark for America, July 3. 
Euirs <>l L-nils XVIII. in).- Paris. July 3. 
N'apolcn co-n "ii bonrd iliu "lie-Nero- 

phon" anil ■ Julius the "hospitality" ot 

England. July IS. 
I'[.ni r.-Tt..h brie England In- Is Irrinift-rreii 

to the "'Northumberland,*' an.l sent <i 

prisoner I" St. Id I. ■nil. Aug. 8. whore 

ha arrives Oct. 15. 
Execution of Marshal Nov, Dec. 7. 
Slfi The liirnllv ol Napoh forever excluded 

from Iho llirnnc ot Prance. 
v-. i- Hi. 1 1 1- i, ,-:' tin I Uii.i ,!,■ [i.. n i K.'b 


821 Heath or L 

I. 16. 

March 15. 


National Guard disbanded. 
War with Algiers. 
Serines riots In Paris. 
Seventy-six new peers created. 
The l-ollgna. riiliiiini-.i r.iilnii orii'inl/ed. 
S30 Chamber"..! Deputies illss.ilvcd. Maj 1'J. 
Capture of Algiers by the Trench, July 5. 
Revolution nil barrl. ado of streets In 

Paris. July 27. 
Flight mid alrJkutlnii ot Charles X.. Jul> 

Unpopular or 

Jul/ -IK. 
Duke of Orli 

Phllllpe l. 

becomes King Louis 

of Charles X. 
?nlenced i.. perpetual Imprisonment. 
1S31 Great riots In Paris. Feb. 14 and 15. 

The hercdlt.irv [;.- abolished. 
ISX' Insurrection In Paris suppressed. 

Death ot Nuroleon II.. Duke of Relch- 

stadt. July 22. 
Attempted ;iss ncsiiiatn.n of (ho King, 
Dec. 27. 
1831 Death of Lafayette, May 20. 
IS.;.-. l--..-:,hi attempts, with an Infernal ma- 
chine, to kill lb" Ivlng. July 28, and !s 
executed. Feb.. G, 1S35. 
1S36 Louis Allbaud llres ot the king. June 23; 

|5 eillllotlll-ll. Jllli 11. 

Death of Charles X.. Nov. G. 

Prlnco Louis N.iju.l. attempts an In- 
surrection nt Strasbourg, Oct. 30: U 
[milslo.-i to America. Nov. 13. 

The ministers ..I Charles X. net at liberty 

Mounler attempts I,. [.ill the klng- 
ISJfi heath of Tally rand, May H. 

War with Mexico. 
IWi Insurrections: In Paris. 
1S10 M. Thiers becomes Prime .Minister. 

Prin(r I....'jl? N'.i[:...l. "ii. ("it-inTil M.iotlvo. 

on, and othcis. attempt an Insurrection 

at Boulogne. Aug. 6- 

Prlnce Louis Napoleon sentenced to im- 

""- and confined In the 

1S53 Dealh of F. Arago. the astronomer. Oct. 

Attempt to n.ssasslnule the Kmpcror. 

1V.I UoRltinlnit ..r the Crimean war. 

Treaty of f'ou.-.tantliioplo. March 12, 
War declare. 1 nil I, Russia. March 27. 

1SS5 Emporor and Empress visit England, 

Industrial exhibition opened ot Paris, 
May IS. 

Planorl attempt. 1 ; i<> assassinate the Em- 
peror, April 28. 

Itellemarre otlcmpu to assassinate the 
Emperor. Sept. 8. 

Queen Victoria and Prince Alherl visit 
France. August. 
IV.-; fllrlh of the Prince [mrerl 





of Mai 

at tempts 

Oct. G. 

the king. 


1S42 The Duke ot 


the heir to the 
effect of a fall. 
July 13. 
1811 Queen Vk-t'.Mii. of England, visits the 
roval fundi, at th.- Chateau d' Eu. 
Extradition treaty with England. 
1S1G Lccnmptc attempts to assassinate the 
king at Contain .■l.i) April 1G. 
Louis Napoleon escapes trom Ham, May 

Joseph Henri attempts to kill ibe king, 
July 29. 

Is47 It- r'.ii..' l!i..mi[ :irio rnn: 

after an exile of thirty-. »u irai.. 
Death nl th.' rs-Einprets Marie Louise 
Surrender of Abd-el-Kadcr to the French, 
ISIS "Reform b.iniiuot" prohibited. 

Revolution of February 22, and barricade 

of the alreels of Paris. 
Flight and abdication of the King, Feb. 

fr.r ...... .in] r.[||.- in-.-..- Mimed, Feb. 25. 

The provisional government succeeded by 

,in .' i-i ii Im mission, named by 

Outbreak ot the Hod Republicans In 
Paris, June 23. 

Severe lighting In Purls. June 2J to 26;'Hi persona killed. Inciudlm; 'lie 
Archbishop of Purls. 

Surrender of the Imurgents. June 2G. 

(leu. t'a.algtiai ai tl><- head of the gov- 
ernment. June 28. 

In the 

Louis Napoleon takes I 
Assembly. Sept. 2G. 

. . ..iBlltutlon of the republic solemn- 
ly proclaimed, Nov. 12. 
Louis Napoleon elected president of the 

French Republic, Dec. 11. 
He takes the oath ot oluee, Dee. 20. 
1650 Death of Louis Philippe, at Claremont, 
in England. Aug. 26. 
Freedom of the press curtailed. 
1S51 Electric telegraph between England and 
France opened. 
The Coup d'Ktat. 

Napoleon dissolves the Assembly and 
-■-' — b universal suffrage 



in, el,- 

lion of President for ten 



ares PariM In o stale of siege. 

st of the prime minister. Thiers, and 
members of the Assembly. 
President crushes the opposition, 
h treat lo^s of life. Dee. 3, 4. 

Coup d'Ktat sustained by the people 
the polls, and I^iuls Napoleon re- 

:: „riin.,.'.ii-..- ■.■■■'. : 47 ; hi. ni.^.niv.'. 
18TJ2 President Louis Napoleon occupies the 
Tullerles. Jan. 1. 

The new c'..iihiUiii|..hi inLllahcd, Jan. H. 

Banishment of S3 m^mbera of Iho As- 
sembly, and transpiirtnllon of nearly 
COO persons lor resisting coup dVlat. 

The pror-erty of the Orlenns family con. 
A seated, 

The birthday of Napoleon I., Aug. 15, 
declared itie only national holiday. 

Organisation of the Legislative Chnni- 
bcr», the Senate nod Carps Legislate, 

The President visits SiranlHiurg. 

M. Thiers and the Mllea permitted to re- 
turn to France. Aug. 8. 

The Senate petltlnnn the President for 
"the re-eMaldltil. mem of ill" hereditary 
:■..-, verelun I-.V..T I-. Hie lli.iinparl.- fam- 
ily," Sept. 13. 

The President vlslt.i (he Southern and 
Western D^purtnieutn. September and 
October; at Borilcaux utlors tiln fa- 
mous expression, "The Empire Is 

The President releases Alwl-el-Kader, 

Ocl. 10. 
Measures for the rc-establlshmcnt or the 

empire Inaugurated, October and Nn- 

The empire rc-estntillsln-d liv the ropu- 
lar vote, Nov. 21; yms. 7,WU.ra:*; naif. 
251.601. Ill- ITesldeni d- lured Kniper 
ii the title of Napoleon 

III., Dee. 2. 


tarries Eugenie do Monllgo. 


Countess of Teba, .... 

The Emperor telcases 4,312 political of- 
fenders, Feb. 2. 

Urea"! riots In Paris, and other cities. 

treaty of Paris, March 30. 
Terrible Inundations In Hi-- Southern De- 
1S57 The Archbishop of Paris tSlbourl an- 
— -sinated by n priest named Merger, 


Conspiracy to assassinate the Emperor 

detected, July 11. 
Visit of the Emperor and Empress to 


Death of Gen. Ciivnlgnac, Oct. 28. 

The Emperor Napoleon meets the Em- 

l ■ r..r ol lio.,l,i ;,i stur.ii.iirl. s.-pr. 2." 

1S5S Orslnl and i.ther- attempt to kill the 

Emperor b> Qm oxploalon ot three 

shells, two persons killed and several 

Passage ,.f the Publi. Safely Bill. 
Trial of the Cunt d» Moiitalembort. 
The Empire divided Into five military de- 
Republican outbreak at Chalons crushed. 
Orslnl and Pletrl executed tor attempt- 
ing to usfiiMilnalo the ICniperor, 
Visit of the Queen of Entil-md to Cher- 
Conference, at PurlB. respecting the con. 
dltlun of tlie liainiiil.iii principalities. 
1853 France declares war against Auslrls, 
■not ....Tot. n. arm. lo (I,, aid ..I li.ih . 
The Empress declared Regent. 
The Emperor takes i ..iiiriiimd of the ar- 
my In Italy. Arrives at Genoa. May 12, 
Battles of Monlebollo, May 20; Palestro. 
May 30. 31; Magenta. Juno 4; Malcg- 
nano, June S. and Solferlno. June 21; 
the allies victorious In each. 
Armistice arranged, July li. 
Meeting of the ftinperors <-( France and 
Austria, at Villa Franca, July 11. Pre- 
liminary peace effected. July 12. 
The Emperor Napoleon returns lo 

France. July IT. 
Peace Conference meets at Zurich, for 
arraiifienioiil of treaty l.i..i uoon l-' ■ 
and Sardinia and Austria. Peace 

lSis.t Frame adopts a tree trade policy- 
Commercial tr.-.iu ivitli England slcncl 

Jan. 2.1. 
Annc\ntl"ii ..f Snv,. v and Mee to France. 
Meeting of the Emperor with the Ger- 
man sovereigns at Uaden, June 15-1". 
Visit ot Iho Empcri.r and Empress to 

Savoy. Corsica, and Algiers. 
The public levying of Peter's pence for- 
bidden, and restrictions placed upon 
the Issuing of pastoral loiters. 
Napoleon inolies i om esalons lu the 
Chambers lu favor of freedom of 
The Pope advised by the Emperor to give 
up Ilia temporal possessions. 
IS01 Iho prim i|. .illt.- of M<. mice purchased for 
4,000.000 francs by France. 
Troubles with the church about the 

Romnn question. 
Sardinian Boundary treaty. March 7. 

The i 

lib Italy. Prussia and Mc 

1SGS Treaties .... 

lenburg signed, 

1m.h Sermtia el-. Hon rlola In Paris. 

Great radical successes In the elections, 
The Emperor makes new concessions lu 


ot the 

Celebration ot the one hundredth birth- 
day of Napoleon the Great. 
Death of Lainartlne. Feb. 2S. 
Reslgnatl if ministry. lo.. ;7. 

1570 Victor Noli- shot by Prlnee Pierre Bona- 

fiirto. Jan. 10. 
Great riots In Paris, Feb. S. 9. 
Discovery of plots against the Emperor's 

Trlii! and acquittal of Prince Pierre Bon- 

The Pleblscllum on change of Constitu- 
tion: amrmath" vote secured for Ple- 
biscite, May 8. 

Nomination of Prlnee Leopold for Span- 
ish throne cre.iies warlike ieellng. 

Prince Leopold withdraws. 

Refusal of Prussia to give guarantees to 

War with Prussia declared, July 15. 

English mediation refused. July 20. 

Prussians blow up bridge of Kehl. 

The Emperor lakes command of the ar- 

Scvurfl ami undecisive engagement til 

Saurhuck. Aug. 2-1. 
Defeat of the Fren. ti at Wocrth and For- 

bach. Aug. «. 
StruKlmrg Invested, Aug. 10, 
Batllo ot Courcelles. Aug, H. 
Decisive vlcturj at Gravelotte, Aug. IS. 
Baznino's arm. sbnl ii|i lu Meti. Aug. £4. 
Repulse of Germans at Verdun. Aug. 25. 
Great victory of Prussians at battle of 

Sedan, Sept. 1. 
The Emperor Napolron and lhn French 

army made pilinnirs of war. Sept. 2. 
Revolution In Paris, and fall of the 

Empire. Flight of the Empress Eu- 
genie. Sept. 7. 
The Republic ; r... latined in Paris, and 

Ihe Provisional tl.o. in: t urbanized 

Sept. 7. 
Paris In vested bv the Prussians, Sept. 19. 
Strasburg surrendered. Sept. 27. 
Met! and French iirmv, under lta/aln. . 

surrender. Ocl. 27. 
Defeat of the From h army of the North. 

Dot;. S3. 

1571 Rocroy eapHulates, Jan. E, 

Alencon surrendered. Jan. 17. 

Paris In iho Prussians. 

King William ol Prussia pi", laliued Em- 
peror of Germany, at Versailles. Jan 

The nrmlstl. . and peace signed, Feb. 27. 

France agrees to give up Alsace, u flflh 
or Lorraine, with Hoi/ mid Thlonvlile, 
and lo pay live milliards of francs. 

Mooting of Ihe Assembly nl Bordeaux. 

Formation of n provisional government. 

Peaco with Gcrmnny. 

Revolt of the t omnium- March IS. 

The second sli^.v and capture of Paris, 


ding priests to iiicddlo lu politics. 
April 11. 
Commercial with Holglum ratified. 
Neutrality declared In the American con- 
France recognises ihe kingdom ot Italy. 

Meeting" of Ihe Emperor and King of 
Prussia, at Complegne, Ocl. 6. 

Convention between Franco, 
Britain and Spain concerning interven- 
tion In Mexico. 

Embarrassment In the Government 

Achille Foil] mud. minister of finance. 
1SiJ2 The expedition begun. 

The French conquer the province of 
Bietthon, In Annam. 

Six provinces lu Co. tiin China conquered 
and ceded to France. 

The British ami Spanish forces withdraw 
from the Mexican expedition. 

War de. lared ngnlti:;! Mexico. 

Peace effected with An noil). 

Now commercial treaty with Prussia, 

Great 'dial 
tricls in 

In the United States. 
1BG3 Commercial treat; with Italy. 

Convention with Spain for the rectifica- 
tion of Ihe frontier. 

* 'ho .. 

jughout the country 

Knglaml d". lines to Join Ihe proposed 
Conference, Nov. 25. Tin- Fromli ar- 
my conquer Mexico and occupy the 


'"' Ii [vu 

with Italy re !•!-•■.■ ting the 
evacuation of Rome, Sept. 15. 

Establishment of the .Mesh an empire, 
with .Maximilian, ol Austria, as Em- 
Death of Marshal Peltssler, Duke of 
1S05 The clergy pi..lilblt. d from reading the 
Popo'B Encyclical In the churches. 

Treaty with Swrdcn signed. 

The plan of Minister Huruy, for compul- 
sory education, i..Je. led by the Assem- 

Death of the Duke do Morny. 

Visit ot the Knipcror lo Algeria. 

The English licet visits Cherbourg uid 

1 lie Frelleli lleiT vll US Port; m-iilHi. 

The Queen of Siialn visits the Emperor 
nt Rlurrlti. 

Students' riot In Paris. 

Napoleon eipi.-sses lil. ilolostallon of Ihe 
treaties of 1S1G, Mny C. 

Proposed peaco con fere net 1 In conjunc- 
tion with England and Itussla for the 
settlement of the troubles bolwcen 
Pritsslu, Italy and Austria. Austria re- 
fuses lo Join In It. 

Franco de-Jar. s a "Wat. hfitl Neutrality" 
,i.. to rlie (lerni.iti -Uallan « or. 

Napoleon demands ot Prussia n cession 
of a part of Urn Rhine provinces. 

Ills demand Is refused. 

Austria cedes Vcnetln to France, who 
im-.r-ru it lo Italy. 

h occupation of Rome termln- 

, Dec 


Congress at Paris on Roumanian affairs. 
lKf.T Settlement of the Luxemburg quesllon 
bv the London Conference. 
Tito great international exposition at 
Paris opened April 1. Visit of many 
crowned heads. 
Attemplerl usiiiisslniitlon of the of 
Russia. June C. 
1S68 Rlols In DordMUX and Paris, In March 
and June, 


Murch iS. 

elected President of the Third Re- 

1S72 Reorganization of the government In 

A large part of the war Indemnity paid. 

Death of the Mukc do Perslgny. Jan. 12. 
Commercial ireaty with Belgium and 
England abrogated. Feb. 2. 
IS7.1 Death of Napoleon 111., at Cbisclhurst. 

Engh.nd. .Ian. 9, 
New i rmi > of evacuation signed with 

Germany, March 15. 
M. Tlilcr* tcsigns the presidency, May 24. 
Marshal Mm Million chosen President .( 

the Republic, Mav ;;. 
War paid In full. Sort- 5. 
Germans avaruate Verdun. Sept. 15. 
Presldenllut term fixed at seven years. 
Bazalno sentenced to twenty years Im- 
prisonment Pt surrender of Met/.. Dec. 

S74 Execution of communists. 

Escape of General lla;alile, Aug. 11. 
I'll! men t of tlie Gen nun deb I . Sept em tier. 
The legislative b"dv reorganized, and 

two Chambers created. 
Passage ol a bill for I ho construction "f 

a tunnel under the English channel. 
Meeting of the new Chambers, March 7. 

New mlnlsir. foi-nied by Juice Simon. 

Death of M. Thiers. Sept. S. 

Mai Million dissolves Chamber of Depu- 

Itesk-nailon ot President MacMiihon. 

Jan. 2. 
M. Jules Grevi -■Iceled Pr. sld.-nt Ia tlie 

Senate. Jan. 30. 
G.imbethi liecomcs President ot the 

\V.ii|ilim--i..ii forms u new ministry. 

I'. .lull tt MOIiOStJ lilll pa.--.-J. K.I.. 21. 

Hill lo abolish Jesuit lollegcs introduced 

by M. Ferry. 
Prlnee I. mils Vni oh.ui kllleil in 

Africa. June I. 
M. De Freyelnet forms new inlulslry, 

to succeed Wii'ldinKtori's. Dec. 21. 
Rejection of educational bills ot M. Fer- 
ry, March 9. 
Jesuit, and other orders, dissolved by 

national decree. 
General annn ti bill passed, luly ;l. 
New mlnlslrv formed by Jules Ferry. 

',epl. ■'■' 

France Invades Tunis, ami treaty with 
Bey signed. May 12, by which the 

republic calm, vlrlmil .Suzerainty. 
Ratification by Senate, May 23. excitement produced In Italy. 
C.imb.ita ciiihiislaslleally received ot 

Cahors, May 25. 
li..j... in .o ■ i ■ ■ rutin ,|e list.- Mas '' 
Gamhelta premier on resignation ot Fer- 

ry "i 


Resignation o 

ministry. Jar 

Freyelnet Prime Minister, resigns. July 

Rejection of vote of credit lo protect 
Suez Canal. 

l'l-:e-lL.oi II I- III I'l-.-im-i. Ml. ' 

Duclerc inn'oei.-ihi In foiinlng a new mlli- 

Arreat of Prince Napoleon .-barged with 

sedition. Jon. Ifi; released. Feb. 9. 
Hesitation of the DueliTc ministry. 
M. Kiilllb-rei. Prime .Minister. Jan. 21'. 
Death of Gustavo I lore, nerd 5il. Jan. 2-1. 
Passage of tbe evpuh.lon bill, Feb. 1. 
Jules Ferry forms a new ministry. Feb. 

t'ommonci.iuenl of Infinities with Mada- 
gafi ;ir In. ml. . mlllo -nt of M.ijillic.i M.l> 
HI; bombardment of Tamutove, Moda- 
Kaaear, June 13. 

Blockade of Tonnuln by French licet, 

Apology on", r. d by ITesblenl Grcvy lo 
King Alfonso Sept. 30, 

lion. Thlhuiiilln reslgun ollb o ..I Minls"u 
of War, Oct. 6. 

Treaty between Fran." ami China Mined 
May II. 

France comm-in es lo.'d llltlen by bom- 
bardment and capture ot Kelung, Aug. 

Serious outbreak of cholera tit Toulon. 
. l.anguon. China, eaplured by the French. 

Ireaty signed of Tlor 

ISSu Dealh of Victor Hugo, uged S3. March 22. 

IM7 Hurnlng of the Theatre ComltlUO lea 

Uvea lost, May 2a. 

Fall of President Grevy, Dec. 2. 

M. Sndi Ciirio.t .1., red ['resident Dec. 3. 

SSS Roninlns of Napoleon III. and ihe Print" 

imperial removed lo Fnrmsboruugh. 
ssi Centennial of French revolution cele- 
brated. May 5. 
Paris Exposition opened. May 6. 
.Kill Cabinet, with M. de Freyelnet, March IS. 

ISfll Russia bcsiovs d< . ..rati n Prea. Car- 

not, March. 
Panama ''anal frauds el posed, many 

pi oin incut me u I in prisoned. 
i.'oviri of Caseation ipiasli.-rl the sentenee 
of tlie P. mama Canal ;u mdl.-rs. and all 
released from Jail, except Clias. de 
Frame gives Slam an ultlmatuni. which 

was accepted. June 29. 
Marshal Mi Mahon. ex-pre-ident, died, 

Oct. 17. 

iv»i President Sadl Carnot i 
Lyons by an anarchist 

lalcd . 

Caslmlr-Perier elected president, but re- 
signed shortly after and was succeeded 
by Felix Fnure. 
1895 French army succeeds In capturing 


of Ncerwlnden mid Quesnoy. 
The Au.5trln.iis defeated nt ihe hat 

Disastrous detents sustained ti| 

IJonnparte at Monlenolte, Ludl. 

Treaty of Campo 
The Emperor sit 

Napoleon, and c 
Addltb.nnl defcati; 
Defeat of Auslrlans ti 

the battles of Engen 

hello, June " ' 


iders Lombnrdy lo 
Ins Venice. 
Zurich and [lergen. 
hv the French at 
.lay 3: Monlc- 
__ . June 14; Hoch- 
sladt. June pt; Ilohenlliiden, Dec. 3: 

and Mlncio . 

Treaty of Lunevllle, loss of more Aus- 

Frani'ls II. ..f Germany be. -runes Francis 

I. of Austria. 
War with France declared by Francis. 
General Ncv defeats Austrlans at El- 

ehlngcn and Ulm. 
Capture of Vienna by Napoleon. 
Daltle of Auslerllt/. 
Complete defeat ol Austrlans and Rus- 

Trealy of Presburg. 

Austria siiri.nd.-r-- the Tyro] and \ enlcc. 
The French "va.uate Vienna. 
Tlie Geruiaiile Coii(cd"rati..u dissolved. 
The \ustn m Kllit al do ales 

poleon I., April 1. 
Downfall of Napoleon. 
Congress of Sovereigns al Vienna, 
Trentv of Vienna. 
Austria regains her Italian provl 

with additions. 
Tbe LumtMi.l. "Venetian kingdom ■ 

llsll " 

Ferdinand I. erov 

Insurre, lion at \ 

Fllchi of Prime Metternlch. Manh II. 

Insurrections In Italy, whl. ii are < rushed- 

Another insurrection at Vienna. 

The ilo.-s to Insjiruck. May 15- 

The Archdul" Llin uppolnied Vli ir-tien- 
oral of Ihe Empire. May 20. 

A Const It iitloinil Assembly meets at 
Vienna, July 22. 

Third Insurrection in Vienna. 

Count Labour murdered, Oct. c. 

War with Sardinia. « 

Revolution in Hungary. 

lull". rial troops eaplure n.nili and d.-fear 
Hungarians, al s.-lkls.-.. and Mohr. 

Tbe Knipcror Fcrillnaiii] ab.llentes in fa- 
vor "I Ills nopliew, Francis Joseph. 

Sardinia forced to make peace. 

Constitution granted. 

1 1 unitary dia lures hid. .pen den re. April 14. 

I Ii pr,,- I. illli. J 11. e, el ]OT. 

il.-ti .ii ..| I [miearlaii:. ,ii .s.-.i-i;.-leii. 
Hungary suppressed. 

after u see. -re strugxle. 
Count llnthviiny esccuted 
..-,.1 Convention ..I tlitnutz. 

sr.l Tbe |.-ai|..-T..r revokes thi- 
ol 1819. 
S52 Trial bv Jury abolish. -d in t 


Anmei.i. ciaoted lo lb" 11 am-ariao pi.- 
Illlcal offenders of 1818. '13. by the Em- 

CJuarrei with Sardinia, and diplomatic 

relations suspended. 
The Uriuiibliiii provluees evacuated. 
Visit of tlie Emperor and Empress to 

War With France anil Sardinia. 
Auslrlans cross the Tlclno and enter 

Austrlans ijefeiilcd ill Mont. .boll... May 

20- Palestro, May 30, 31. 
\'apob-,ni III. J.-. -lares war Willi Austria. 

May 31. 
□attics of Magenta, June 4; Mclegnano. 

Juno 8. and Soil, rln,,, June 21. In all of 

which Austria suffers defeat. 
Dealh ol Prince Metternlch. 
Armistice, hot ween the Austrlans and the 

allies ngreed upon, July «. 
Mectlnc. of lb" Emperors of Franco and 


I 11. 


Further troubles In llungury; fears of 

n revolution, 
Tbe Emperor grants Increased privilege." 

to tho Protestants. 
Treaty of Zurich, Nov. in, permanent 

peace with France and Sardinia. 
■ Tho Emperor removes the disabilities of 

tho Jews. 
The meeting "f the HcbJisratb. the great 

Imperial council or diet, Mas 31. 
Austria prot.Mis ugainsl tlie aiineMiib.ii 

i duchies by t 

i King of 

Ibe liberty of Ihe press furlher re- 
tained; renewed troubles in Hungary. 

The Reichsratli granted legislative pow- 
ers, the control of the finances, etc. 

Amnesty granted for political offences 
lu Hungary. Croatia, etc. 

Great dliiiii'.-. tli.n throughout tho Em- 
pire caused by the reactionary j olley 
ot the court. 

The new Constitution for the Austrian 
monarchy published. 

Civil and political rights cranted to 

1&C1 No doputhn present from Hungary Crc- 
ntla. Transylvania, Venice, or Istrlu 
at meeting of the Kel.-lisiath, April 29. 

The [(unitarians .l.-uiard i lie restoration 
of the Constitution of ISIS. 

Tho new 111. oral Constitution for Ihe em- 
pire falls t„ san.r, Hungary. 

Military levy ta»os in Hungary. 

Entire Independence refused Hungary by 

The Diet of Hungary pn. tests, Aug. 20, 

and is dissolved, Aug. 21, 


1 Peal 

.Military government established In I 

gary. In December. 
1S62 Amnesty granted to Hungarian revolu- 

Lion Is ta. 
Cessation ot prosecutions. Nov. 19. 
.Ministry of Marine created. 
Tbe prill, ltd.- of rcs[.onslbllll v 

adopted In the Imperial government. 
Great reduction ol the army. 
A personal liberty (a kind of habeas 

corpus! bill passed. 
Sorlous Inundations throughout Ihe em- 

13G3 Unsuccessful Insurrection in Poland. 

Transylvania accepts the constitution 
and sends deputies to the Kelehsratb. 

Qcrman sovereigns meet al Frankfort. 

Federal i'..iistllutb.ii reformed. 
1801 Gallctu and Cracow declared In a stale 

War with Denmark, nboul Schleswlg- 
Holsleln; meeting of ibe Emperor with 
King of Prussia, June 22; petite with 
Denmark, Oct, 30. 

Austria supports the German Confedera- 
tion In the dispute respecting tho 

is.,", Great Inl ditli. ultli ■. in i . 

reforms resolved upon. 

Concessions made io Hungary, and a 
more liberal maimer of governing the 
empire Introduced. 

Convention of Gasieln wlih Prussia Tor 
the disposal of Ibe Danish duchleu. 

Austria receives tin. temporary govern- 

lOOOl Of Hnlrtelll .HOI III" promise ,,[ luitil.b dollars from Prussia. 

Rescript of tin- Emperor suppressing the 
Constitution for lb" purpose ..f Brant-, 
i n*. 1 1 j • J ■ i -icl.-ii. . I., iliintar. . 

The Emperor visits I'eslh. Hungary. 

Dissatisfaction In (lie rest ••[ the empire. 
1E6S Quarrel with Prussia, p.av.irla. Ilesse- 
Casael, Siisony, Hanover. Wurteuiburg, 
Hcsse-Dariiistadt on (In- ilnlstoin nuta- 

Nassau and Frankfort allied with Aus- 

Thc Italians defeated by the Ariliduke 
Albrecht, June 21, al buttle of Cualova. 

The Prussians -in i upy .Smony and in- 
vade Bohemia. 

Defeat of the Austrlans at battle of 
Nachos, June 27. 

Rattle of ShnlilJ".; decisive defeat of the 

down. July i. 

Vetietla ceded to France, July 4. and In- 
tervention requested. 

Great victory by the Austrian licet over 
the Italian ileet, at Lissu, July 20. 

An artuisil igreed upon between Aus- 
tria and Prussia, July 22; peace of 

Klcholsburg, Aug, 30. 

Hanover. Ilesse-Cussel. Nassau and 
Frankfort gained by Prussia. 

Austria retires from the Germon Con- 

liar.. u Von Iicust. made prime minister. 
The Emperor mains great con. colons 

to Gallcia. 
A new and very liberal Constitution for 

the empire adopted. 
Hungary constituted an independent 

Andrassy elected President ot Hungarian 

iS'is The 

introl of secular 
ilmalia ogainst 

the Roman I'atholl. 
io.j.Ii- auieljable 1" til" el. II lass 

Civil roorrlngt 
The State 
1809 Serious outbreaks in 

Hitler contest between n 
eral runies. 
1S71 Further reforms In the 

Ausirla recognises new German Conf 

Old Catholic movement at Vienna, 
Rivalry between Slavonian eonscrvati 

...row of Ucusl. 
Andrassy appointed Minister of Foreign 

1572 Change in the Electoral Low. 
Meeting of Hi" Emperors at Berlin. 

1573 Visit of ibe Emperor of Germuny and 

King of Italy lo Vienna. 
International i-.xhibltlon nt Vienna, 

opened Mny 1. 
The federalists defeated In the elections. 

''lor .,1 the Emperor n, Kus- I... 

Ecclesiastical laws of Austria condemned 
by the Pope. 

Death of Ferdinand—. ex-Emperor. 
1ST". Visit of tlie Emperor to Italy. 

Groat financial crisis. 

Change In the bed of ihe Danube. 
\\-<; Men marrl-iK" law proclaimed. 

Austria takes u leading part In the east- 
ern question. 

Neutrality declared in Servian w 


1 in Ihe Turkish 

i- Prln- 

1S7K Andrassy represents Austria In the Be 

Occupation of liosnlu and llerzegovln 
and war with the former. 

is;t> ..I Count Andra 

1SS1 Tlie Ardnlul.e Rudolph in. in 
cess Stephanie, Belgium. 

1SS3 [lanb, lluiigarv inundated by the rising 
of the Dannie; mans 11 '''-■ lost, Jan. 9. 

1SS1 [turning of the Sladl Thetilre, Vienna. 
May 10. 

1SS5 Meeting of the Emperor and Ciar of 
Russia at Kri-mMer. Aug. 2',. 
Meeting of tin- Emperor with the Em- 
peror of German.- al tiast.-ln. Aug. e 

1S30 The Itotlischllds protest im-alnst the per- 
secution of the Jews, May 11. 

ISM new .omoierclul treaty. 
April 2. 


Most of Norwoy was united under Har- 
old Haar.agor about tho end of 'he 

ninth century. 
1305 Albert of Mecklenburg beeamo king of 

1385 Margaret, the Semlrnmls of Ihe Narlh. 

bernnie Queen of Denmark. Thla great 

princess died In 1412. 

' Geo. A. Ogle & Co. 

ri-i 1 rMi'M win. 


' Norway mid Denmark became confed- 
erate kingdoms, under one ruler mid 
remained so until ISM, 

1 By Uie Treat> of Calniar. swej. „ Joined 
the confederacy or Scandinavian klng- 

: Christian I. ut Oldenburg became king 
and added S'liloswlg am] Holst..ln to 
the kingdom. 
Sweden revolted from tin- foreign ■■■ ■ • I- ■ ■ 
and under Guslnvus \'n:in, her futon- 
king, became Independent In 1623. 
Gustavus Van a died In 1560. 
Lutheran religion established 111 Don- 
Cut iinllelstn suppressed nnd church 

lands annexed to the crown. 
Gustavus Adnlphus. The I. Ion King nf 
the North ami Itulwarh o( Proleslanl- 
Ism In Germany. In. Mine king uf Swc- 
don. lie was mi Important rue tar In 
the Thirty Years' War and s-iis killed 
al the battle of Lulien In 1632. 
Chnrlcs XII. became king of Sweden, 
after engaging in sin :,■> -.■■: Mil ivar with 
Russia he wn:i defeated hy Peter the 
Great nt Pultowa In 1709 and became 

; delhro 
Charles XIII. succeeded li 


i log 

dutto. prince of Polite Corvo. one of 
Napoleon's marshals, was elected 
crown prince of Sweden. 
, Norway taken from Denmark and Riven 
to Sweden as ImioninNv lor del liases 
In Finland by the allies, find Lnurei- 
borg was given to Denmark In ex- 

Ilernadoite ascended the throne of Swe- 
den and Norway, wheru his descend- 
ants are still seated. 

Insurrection in Sehleswlg-Holstnln and 
Laurenberg. assisted hy Prussia and 
Austria, resulted In the loss of these 
provinces to Denmark. 

riiriptliin 1\ cmivni'il King of Denmark 

ii.:, ir [I. ;iv,.n.|..| Hi. ii, r, ii, ,.i .-v., 
den and Norway. 

Viking ship bulll ■!' Christiana sw.-don. 
und sailed for the World's Fair at 
Chicago. April a. Dr. Nansen. the 
Arctic explorer, tailed from Christi- 
ana, Sweden, Juno -I. 


Joseph II. becomes Emperor. 
■ Lorraine ceded to France. 

Convention between PruBslo and Ausl 
: Germany shares In the partition of 

War with Turkey. 

Leopold II. becomes Emperor, 

Conference between the Emperor i 

Frederick of Prussia. 
Accession of Francis II. of Austric. 
Revolt In the Rhenish provinces, 
Prussians seize Danlilc and ncqi 

ssia I 

the atvlal 

A.oes<dr.n of Frederick William ill., of 

Prussians ^eke Hanover. 
Treaty of Lunevllte; Germany loses the 


! Em- 

peror of Germany, and assumes that of 

Emreror of Austria. 
i Treaty of Vienna. 

Napoleon i stabllshcs the kingdoms nl 

Wurlomburg and Bavaria. 
1 i:- .-..luiL. ii ,.f Mi,- ',. rmnii T ■" l : j. t ■ i r - ■ . 
l--.-r -I !!]■■ Conf.:,]. -ration of the 

I'm-' Inns seize Hanover. 
War declared aeaiin;t N.ii- "il'-in. Sept. ::i. 
Battles ef Auerstadl and Jena; French 

enter Berlin, Oct. 21. 
The kingdom of Westphalia established 

by Napoleon. 
Treaty of Tilsit between France and 

» An alliance concluded w-Hh Austria and 

! The war of Liberation, against N'apoleon. 
Til-- French <-v,i. n.ti ,- Berlin. March 1, 
W.i !■ .!-■ I ii ■ ,1 acain ' I- r.irn ■ . Mar. ti li",. 
Silesia Invaded p, N',ip„leon, May 111. 
Nov defeated hy lilueher nl Kal/.baeh, 

Aug. 1G. 
Allies completely defeat Napoleon at 
Lolpslc, Oct. 16. 
I France Invaded by Die allies. 

Battles of llrlenne. Creon. and Laoll, 

■ Congress of Vienna. 

Final overthrow of N'apoleon. 
Formation of the Germanic Con (odor a- 

' Insurrection In Breslnu put down. 
I The Zollvereln (commercial unlonl 

■ Antl-revolntlonary Congress .,( Carlsbad. 
! Death of Goethe, German poet. 

. Oiler German sialyl Join the ? 
I Thurlngln and Saxony Join (he Zoll- 

l Accession of Frederick William IV., of 
Attempted assassination of the Prussian 

Insurrection In Berlin, and rcvolutlonory 

roovcnsetii;: thrnm/honi Germany. 
German National Assembly meets In 

■ 'i ■ h ■ - German National Aisotiiblj elects 

the King of Prui.sla Emperor of Qcr- 
tininy, March 28. 
He declines the honor, ami recalls the 
I ' r l u . ■- 1 - < r ! Ile'inb'r.i ef the Aeseni Idy 

Frankfurt Assemt " 

t ,ir 

h against allium ,■ of 1 
T Stnt~- ■■ 

Treaty between llavarla, Saxony and 
Wiirierohure. Feb. 27. 

Parliament ineetH at Erfurt. 

The German Cnnfp deration mecls nt 
Frankfort. Sept. 2. 

Hi-., -i'.i---,| Invadi d I.v Die fnr'-os of 
Austria. Bavaria, ,md Pni'sla. Nov 12. 

Roasn-mtily uf Ulet of German Confed- 
eration at Frankfort. 

In.'urrtctl'iiniri phu In Berlin discov- 

Revision nf tin German Confederal Imi. 

Meetllii! of an assembly of the German 
Confederation at Frankfort, at the call 

Bavaria, anil ...ili-er German titates. mani- 
fest o wIlllDgnesa lo assist Austria 
against 'ho French In Italy. 

Quarrel with Denmark about Ihe Dull lull 

Federal Diet maintains Ileose-Casscl 

<',>ii! IIIHII..II aealii:.! Prussia. 

[|. .in, -In -Si lil-nvu; ilirpul- with Den- 

Death of Frederick William IV.; accca- 
alon of William I. 

National Avciublv n ifj at 1 rg 

Attempted iiiisuefilnnllon of the King. 

The National Aasemhly. at Berlin, de- 

Blnmarck bee 

l I^ower House closed, for the sec- 
id time, by William [. 

i states, except Prussia, meet at 
approve a plan of fed- 


1SCI The quarrel with Denmark results I 
war with (hot kingdom. 
The Dune? are defeated ami f„r.;.-d [ 

surrender the duchies. 

Peaeo restored, Oct. 30. 

ISCfi The Gastcln convention. 

It gives great offence to the Germn 


ISGt! War between Prussia ...... 

their respective allies. 
Austria defeated. 

Saxony and llolnteln lavaded by Prussia. 
icace with the several 

Prussia t 

North Gerniiui Confederation formed, 
Aug. IS. 
ISfi7 Formation of Ihe new Zollvereln In- 
cludes Uuvisrla. Wurteniburg. Undell. 
Hesse. Darmstadt, and Prussia. 
1S6S South German military commission ap- 
1570 France declares war against Germany, 

Munich, Siuttgarl. and other cities de- 

idare fiit mil, .a with North Germany, 
n.lvarla. Wur'einhurg. I lease, Darmstadt 

and lladen support Prussia. 
Invasion nf I'lanee t,v the Germans. Un- 
paralleled success of the German 

The Emperor, Napoleon 111., and '.wo 
French armies made prisoners by the 

The German empire formed. 
The Imperial in.ien .dieted lo the King 
of Prussia. Dee. 10. 
1671 King William I., of Prussia, proclaimed 

Emperor of Germany at Versailles. 
Prince lllsmon k Tni,,ia,-s Chaneeltiir. 
Successful close of lh.. French war. 
The lo-iiiian; ii|,v P.irls. and deprin- 

France of Alsace and Lorraine. 
Treaty or pcacu with France rallfled, 

Triumphal entry of the .__ 
man army into Berlin, June I 
m Parliament opened by 


. 1C. 

1S12 The Jesuits expelled 

July 5. 
Meeting of the Emperors of Germany. 

Russia, and Austria, at Berlin. Sept. 6. 
Bismarck resigns the premiership of 




I.itj. r.ils ■ 

.,'ith Ihe Roman Catholic 

Monetary reform law passed. June 23. 

Germany receives the last payment of 
the French Indemnity, Sept. B. 
1S7J Civil marrlnge bill passed. 

New military and press Inws. 

Attempt I.. as:a:'-iliate Prim.- V,,n Ills- 
marck. July 13. 

Bismarck resigns Chancellorship. Dee. 
1G. Resignation withdrawn upon re- 
ceiving a vote of confidence, 
147'. '1 tie liii].f-i [f.-ink bill 

Visit of the Emperor to Italy, Aug. 17. 

Government aid withdrawn from Cath- 
olic clergy. 
1676 Germany takes part In the Eastern nues- 

TheC(ar uf Russia visits Germany. 
1S77 o! huva en.nled .Mar. li 21. 

Second ie.'ii«niil Ion of Hlamarck; resig- 
nation aitain withdrawn. 
IS7S Atlempt to ai.siKslnate the Emperor Wil- 
liam by Hedel. ii sot-lnllst. May 11. A 
second atietnpi if ai.-a-sinaie the Eui- 
peror. who is wounded. 
The Crown Prlnco takes charge of the 

.Death of King George of Hanover, June 

The Berlin Conference ot the Great Pow- 

Suppresslon of many newspapers and 

Regency of the Crown Prince. 
1S19 The Emperor resumes tie government. 
Protectionists' Mil adapted. May 9. 
Meeting of Bismarck and Andrassy, nl 

Vienna, Sept. 
Code of laws passed In 1S77 goes Into 

ISiO Small slat-;; outvote Pros- la, Saxony and 

Bavaria on slump duiles. Bismarck 

resigns a third time, and the states 

"New Liberal" par!.- formed. Aug, 

1551 German Reichstag opened. Feb, It. 

The Liberals successful In the October 

1552 Imperial rescript of Jan. I asserts ex- 

treme rlthts of the Emperor, and slight 
constitutional restraints; rescript 
modified by explanation. 
Disastrous Hoods In Germany, Dee. li. 

1553 Grand celebration In Berlin upon the 

twenty-fifth anniversary of the mar- 
riage of lliu Crown Prime and Princess. 

The iJmpernr am is the HIiir of Spain 

to the command nl the W.-lilesv. lu-llol- 
sleln Uhlan regiment. Sept. 27. 

Dealh of William It. Wagner, German 

■ ■ po-.T. aged I',' 1 . Fell. I.;. 

1881 Conference of the Great Powers upon 
Egyptian finances, Aug. 2. 

Germany occupies the Caroline Islands, 
Aug. 20. 

Death of Prlnco Frederick Charles of 
Prussia, aged 67, June 15. 

Cans, en lion between Pru-fsl.i and Austria. 
1S87 Scptennat- army hill pas-i"! .March 11, 

H..-ele.ilui~ii. ,il bill paused. April 27. 
1SSS Death of l'inper..r William. March D. 

Frederick III. becomes Emperor, March 

, March 19. 

Hi Ilk!, .[and transferred to Germany by 
England, Aug. 9. 

The Empress Frledrleh visits Paris, Feb. 

HlKid passport rcK'ilatioiis enfuried In 
Alsace Lorraine. 

Death of Gen. Von Moltke, April 21. 

Princess Margaret, sister ot the Em- 
peror, weds Prince Charles Frod-rlck 
of Hcsso, Jan. 25. 

Unveiling ot the ulotuo of William I. 

Capri vl resigns the Chancellorship of 

llso Empire nnd Is succeeded by Prince 

von llohenloho. 
Grand celebration by German veterans of 

the twenl v-iifth ,iiriil..i . irles of Grav- 

elolte, Sedan, etc. 
tV lei, rat I mi and ii.-ii-iil d'-luoiistral |. >n al 

Kiel on account of the opening of the 

great canal com line the liable with 

ihe North Sea. 


17S0 Death or Frederick the Great. Aug. 17. 
1702 War with France In eonaeiiueuCD of tbo 
French rovoluT 

1703 Prussia Seizes Dantzlc and acquires Po. 

1795 Warsaw ceded to Prussia In the parlltlor 

of Poland. 
Wi Fred.-rlik William 111.. ,,r Prussia he 

comes Eniporor of Germany. 
1S01 Prusnluns selie Hanover. 
110S Treaty of Vienna. 

Downfall of Ihe German Empire. 
ism, i'ruit.sin sel?es lliiunver. Poson. 

Prussia Joins ihe allium .- against Frame 

Battles of Joria and Auersindt. 

Prussia Miteumbs lo Napoleon. 

Napoleon is-u. s the m-rlln Decree. 
1S07 Peace of Tilsit. 

Napoleon restores one-half of his do- 
minions to the King of Prussia. 
JSi'S Convention of llerlln. 

Serfdom aholitdsed in Prussia. 
1S1. I'rii-.' loiieluiles mi alliance with llux- 

1S13 The French evacuate Berlin. March I. 

The war of Liberation begun. 

Uprising of the people. 

The "Landwehr" formed. 

Battle of Lclpsic. Oct. IB, 
1S11 The allies Invade France. 

ISIS Congress of Vienna, Germanic Confed- 
eration formed. 
Prussia enters the Holy Alliance. 
1M7 Establishment of the Ministry of Kdurv 

1S10 Accession of Frederick William IV.. ot 
IS 14 Attempt to nssusslnale the King of Prus- 

Tho Constituent Assembly meets 
Brando a tin ri,<h Castle. ,\-„,-. 20. TI 
King dissolve* the Assembly, and I 
su >.-.■■ a lion i'onstltiitloii. I a ,■. .".. 
1S19 The German National Assembly ofler II 
Imperial I row ti of (lermatiy to rl 
King of Prussia. March 25. He d 
cllnes It. April 29. 

Martial -law declared throughout tl 
kingdom. May 10. 

Occupation of Carlsrulie by the Pru 


1S50 The King ti 

In lladen cot 

e oath to the n 

. Feb. 6. 

•\t.i.,-ini,t to is=!;,isslnate the lilnt Ma> :.' 
Treaty Of peine with Denmark, 
Prussia refuses to join the resl rleted Diet 
of Frankfort. 

to uphold the Constitution |„ H,,., 

Cassel. Sept. 21. 
The Prussian tinny occupies Hesse, Nov, 

The Prussian troops wlthdra 

l Ba- 

Vlslt of ihe Klne lo Russia. 

The King re-establishes the Council c 

the state as It existed prior to 164S. 
Plot ngalnst the government dlscovere 

Wavering policy of 

spectlng the Eastern question. 
Prussia remains neutral In the Crimean 

1655 Prussia not a 

Conference nt Vienna. 
1S5'", lake; part. In the Conference nt Paris. 
Crown becomes Regent In Prut- 

Quarrel with Switzerland about Neufcha- 

Prussia relinquishes her claim Tor a pe- 
cuniary compensation, 
1S57 Serious Illness of tbo King. 

The Prime of Prussia. Emperor Willi, mi 
I., made Regent. 
1S5S Prince Frederick William, son of the 
Crown Prlnco. married to Ihe Prlncss 
Royal of England. 
IS50 Franco-Kalian war. 

Prussia remains neutral, but thrcaton- 

Federal Diet 



1S61 William I, bci 
of his brothi 

National Assoclall 

against Prussia, 
onics king upon t 
r. Frederick Will 


r command of King William, of Prus- 

Cet lllilln Mill] 

Jan. IS. 

IS- 'nre-'i't'i'" "I'i'i "" " "" 'V" 1 "!" cl(,rRJr - 

ISM Greatlon of Hie new p.-ers hi ihe govern- 
ment to carry Its measures in parlia- 

1S73 Troubles with the Roman Catholic bish- 
ops. The slamp Tax. 
1K7I Troubles with the Umuan Catholic bish- 
The Old Catholic bishops given salaries 

by (he government. 
Attempt to assassinate Bismarck, July 

1ST5 Conference of the Roman Catholic bish- 
ops at Fuldn. 
Religious agitation In Prussia. 
Govern mem aid withdrawn from Cath- 
olic clergy. 
New Constitution ;irl..ot,.,i i JV - the Prot- 
-stant Stale Chi— •- 
e German mndi 
n Prussian Pola _ 

He tltlon of Catholic bishops 

ster nnd Cologne. 
Great Inundations In Prussia. 
(Sec Germany.) 

Great Britain and Ireland 

1'fij American Stamp Act passed, March 22, 

Death of Die Pretender, at Homo 

Percy's Rellnucs published. Itirtti ,,f Isaac Disraeli, died ISIS. 
176S Bruce's travels. 

Academy of arts founded. 
17fi9 Letters of Junius. 

Watt's engine. 

Arkwrlgbt's Jenny. 

Blrlh of the palmer. Lawrence died 1^0 
11"« Lord North's ministry. 

Cook's In the South Sen. 
I7il KuulPh debates reported. 

Birth of Sir Waller Scott; died 1M2 
1772 Warren Hastings In India. 
1771 Sul.-ldr of Lord Cllve. 

1775 Commenccun nt ..f the Amorlian Revolu- 
tion; (see United States.) 

Birth of Charles Lamb; died 1S3S. 
II™ "Wealth of Nation." decline and fall. 
In7 Rt.val Marrljis;,. ,.\„i 

Blrlh of T. Camphell. died 1S11. 
177s Death of the Karl of fiiatliam. 

Relief Mil (or Irish V lllioll, -. ., is;e,l 

Blrlh of H. Hallani; died 1S39. 
177S Rodney's victories. 

Eliot at Glbrallar. 
17TO Lord George Gordon's "No Popery" rlois, 

Blrth'of Channing; died 1812, 
17M Trial and m quilt;. I of Gordon. 
17S2 England acknowledges the Independence 
of the United States, N«» -ia 

Lord Rockingham's si, 

Grnltnn's Irbti Constlt 

1763 Coalition ministry. 

England wars with Tlppoo-Salb. 
1 . ■ ■ >'■ 1 1 en,, nl .-i I ' [ ■ | ■ i ■ r- i iinad i 

Birth of Sheridan Kit-.wles; died 1SS2. 
17.S5 lliitti of Do fjulncey; died 1S00. 
17SG Attempted assassination of Ihe King hy 
Margaret Nicholson, (Insane). 

Birth of Dr. Chalmers; died 1SI2. 
17S8 Trial uf Warren Hastings. 

Birth of Lord Myron; died 18J-I. 

London Times founded. 

Birth of Sir H. Dav> died IS2-J. 

1700 Boswell's Johnson published. 

1701 Birmingham riots. 

Palue and "People's Friend." 
17H; (■'Ir.-t ro.iliili.ti aL-ainst France. 
171'i Knchiml begins ivar with France. 
17'.i| Suspension of the Huhe.e Cnrpus Act. 

English expedition to Dunkirk; Lord 
Howe's lh. tor) over the French fleet. 
1 :■:>.". Ai.-.nilltlill ,.,l Warren llaslnuo April :-l 

Birth of Carlisle; died mi. 

Cape of Good Hope doubled. 

ind ralnlslry. 


I' , lutis (..niie-1 In Loieien. 
-• e Spice Island;-. 

Ilee her 


. l Lolpilg atudent, ottempls to 
filiate the King, 
e King and Queen crowned at Konlgs- 
The National Assembly at B,. r |( T1 i]e,|i,re-i 

In favor of unllleatlon. 
The government defeoled in Ihe elec- 

Count llhiimirctt Sehonhauscn made Pre- 
mier. The t'liiiiiile-r Informed by tiltu 
that the niudgct Is d.-rerred until ]<i.l. 
protest nf the deputie:. against tills as 
unconstltullmtal, Sept. 30. 

The Budget pasted by Ihe Chamber nf 
I', . rs liltllellt ii.,-. airi.-ndni. ai of the 

L79B Bnglc. 

Birth of Princess unarione. 
.737 Cosh pavinohi'i .suspended, Feb. L-7. 

Dealh of Edmund Burke, July 3. 

•The Anil-Jacobin." 
17HS Battle of tbo Nile; great victory of 
Lord Nelson over the French licet. 

Habeas Corpus Act again suspended. 

Sidney Smith at Acre. 

Great Irish rebellion; defeat Of the 

The Chamber declares the ncl 
Peers unconstitutional, Oct. II 
if the Cbai 

ot i 

.--_ of the 

the King, Oct. 13. 
JS63 Continuation of the quarrel between the 
Government and the Chamber. 

The King closes ihe session n second 
lime, and resolves to govern without 
a Parliament, May 27. 
1EG3 Severe restrictions Imposed upon the 
press. June 1. 

The Crown Prime disavows participa- 
tion In the recent acllon of tho min- 
istry. June 5; decree recalled. 
1SG4 War with Deninarti about the Danish 

Holsteln Invaded by Prussia. 

Denmark porln blockaded. 

Denmark forced to give up the duchies, 
and make peace. 

Treaty signed. Oct, 30. 
1S65 Quarrel between Ihe government and the 
Chamber of Deputies over the army 

Tho budget being rejeried tho king pro- 
rogues the parliament and deelare-.i 
bo will rule without It. 

Tho King arbitrarily solie* and disposes 
of tho revenue. July 5. 

Convention of Gasleln. 

Bismarck visits Napoleon HI,, al Paris. 
1E66 Tho Diet demands the surrender of 
Holsteln hy Prie-sln and Austria, which 
they refuse. 

I'rii:,:.lnn treaty wl'h f>lclum. 

Attempt on Bismarck's life, May 7. 

War wild Austria and her allies. 

Battle of Sadown. total defeat of Alts- 

Treaty ol 


peace with i 

io Pruisla 


posses the 



Ives the 

of Oermi 


ded by lh 

Gcrmon army u 


Battle of KIP 

Battle ot Anlr 

1791) Irish rcbellior 

1S00 Hatfield atie 

illen, Mny 23. 

a; victory of the English. 

completely suppressed 

Malta taken. 

Birth of Lord Mroaulai . died 1ST.9. 
1S01 Union of Great lirltah, and Ireland. 
Nelson's victory at Copenhagen. 
Habeas Corpu j again BUnpendcd, April 19, 
Peace of Amicus. Oct. 1. 
U02 Blrlh of, |, aimer; died 1S7J. 
1803 War declared against France, 
Mahratta India War. 
Kmmefs Insurrection In Ireland. 
Execution of Emmet. Sept. 20. 
1S0S Battle of Trafalgar. Oct. -1; victory and 
death of Nelson. 
Birth of Lord Beaconsfleld. 
Ivy, lllrlh ..I William I:. Gladstone. 

Deaths of William Pitt and Charles 
James Fox. 
1S07 Orders In Council against the Berlin 
Decree. Jan. 7. 
The African slave trode abolished. 

March 2.1. 
Death of Cardinal Henry Stuart, claim- 
ant or the Kngllsh Crown. 
11509 Wellesley rasses the Duro. 
Battle of Corunna. Jan. IS. 
"Quarterly Review" founded. 
Impeachment nl ihe Dni,e of York. 
Walehcreii expedition, August. 
Death of Sir John Moore. 
Investigation into conduct of Princess 

Birth of C. Darwin; died 1SS2. 
Mirth of Alfred Tennyson. 

1510 Tho King declared Insane, Nov. 3. 
Great financial crisis. 

Irish agitation for repeal of the union. 

1511 The Prince of Wales declared Regent. 

Feb. 5, 
Suddlte riots. Nov. 
The Roman Catholic Poard formed by 

Daniel O'Connell. Dec. 26. 
Birth of William M. Thackeray. Died 

1812 English slorm Cludnd, Podlrgo and 

Lord Liverpool Premier. 
Assassination of Mr. Perciva], tho Prime 

Minister, by !lcllln S hnm. In the House. 
Beginning of the second war with the 

United States, June 18. 
Birth of Charles Dickens; died IS70. 
Birth of Robert Browning. 
1814 Peace with Franco. 

Peace with the United Stales. 
Birth of Charles "/cade. 
Treaty of Ghent. Dec. H. 
IBIS France renew? war with the allies. 

Battle of Wnie,-|..,o. and Ileal overthrow 

Of Napoleon I.. June 18. 
Peace with France. 
1'isnrri.s thm in Tli'perary. Ireland. 
Princess Charlotte marries Prince Leo- 
pold of Sa-ie-Coburg. 

Rural and Weaver rlot3. 

payments resumed. 

! Corpus net again *u;spe uJed 

Mirth of Buskin. 
i Death of George HI., Jan. 20. 

Cato Street conspiracy discovered. Feb. 

Trial of Queen Caroline. 

Birth of Herbert Spencer. 

Mirth of George McDonald. 

Death of (Jucen Caroline, Aug. 7. 

Great outrages In Ireland. 

George IV. irownetl. Inly PL 

King George IV. , hits Scotland. 

"Whlleboy'" outrages In Ireland. 

Suicide of Cnsllereagh. 

First Mechanics' Institute held. 

Agitation about teats and corporation 

English -I hi rmese war. 
Death of 1-ord Byron in Greece. 
The great eonimerelal crisis. 
I'll it railroad In England 
limine.: tunnel , ...nluenccd. 
lllrlh of Wllkle Collins. 
Lord Canning Prime Minister. 
Lord Palmers I on Fa reign Secretary. 
1 lllltlle of Nuvarlno. 

The Hillt-s defeat tin- Turkish and Fgyj- 

tlnn fleets. 
Roman Cnlhollo Relief Bill passed, April 

e Liverpool und Manchester 

Riots In llrlslol, Oct. 29. 

Earl Grey's ministry, 

Passage of iho English llelorm BIB, 

' Death of William IV. 

Victoria succeeds in ihe throne, Juno 20, 
Hanuver r.opainipsl from tirent Britain. 
Ijoeeii vu tnrl.-t crowned. .Pine nv 
Irish Poor Law bill passed. July 31. 
Viscount Melbourne's inlnlslry. 
England nt w«r with China. 
* e ■: hi. in, .n of Lord Morihlnir. In .re- 
Penny postage Inaugurated. 
The Queen marries Prince Albert of 

Saxo-Coburg, Fob. 10. 
Qvford's assault an the Queen. June 10. 
lilrlh ■■[ \lt" ii IMsvard, Pc i Wale- . 

Nov. 10. 
MlnP.lri of Sir Hubert Peel. 
John Friuel-. atte t« to KIM the Queen. 

May 20; a second attempt by Bean. 

June 3. 

. China 


J Queen Victoria visits France. 
i Tie- Mmperor nl Ho. da and King of Hie 
French visit Englanu. 
Trial of O'Donnell, al Dublin, for sedl- 
■ Hon, his eniivietiou. Hue nnd Imprison- 
ment, and subsciiuent release from 
prison. Sept. 
?. Sir Robert Peel's new tariff. 
Great famine In Ireland. 
I'useylte or Tnoiiarlnti controversy. 
Anti-corn law ngltnllon, 

i.r- ,' r.ulr.-.i.l s] allons. 

ti Repeal of the corn laws. June 2(1. 
Great commercial iinnlc. 
Food riots In Tipperory. 
Russell form new ministry. 
7 Death ••[ oionnoll, May 15. in. (Hill ...ponded tiv Ihe government 
for relief of Irish suficrers. 
( Chartist deiiuinstrntlnns In London. 
Irish rebellion, headed by Smith. 
O'Brien, Meagher, and others, sup- 
pressed, und the leaders 
to death, Oct. 9. 
Cholera In Ireland. 
I Sentence of Irish Insurgents c 
to transportation. 
Irish Encumbered En I ales An passed. 
Cholera reappears in England, 
The Queen visits Ireland. 
I Dealh of Sir Robert I eel. and the Duke 
of Cambridge. 
Pate assault..: [he yueen. 
I The first "Great Exhibition" opened, 
May I. 
First gold arrives frnm Australia. 
! Death of Wellington, Sept. II. 
Great riots In Belfast. 
Aberdeen becomes Prime Minister. 
Khgllsli and French Heels enter Iho 

llosphorits. Oct. 22. 
Protocol between England, Austria, 

France and Prussia signed, Dec. 5. 
Alliance between England. France, nnd 

Turkey, Mnrcb \2. 
War ii.. lured against RuBBla. March 28. 
Crystal Palace opened by the Queen. 

Juno 10. 
Treaty with the United Stales, regarding 

|;. ::,■: ,i i.r, ,,1 i hi- Uicrdceh inini.-.T'.. 

Lord Pnlmerslon appointed Prime Mln- 


'and" "Prll 
Peace with Russia proclaimed, April 1 
War with China «j. v.l 
England at wi.r with Persia. 

token !•> Persians. Oct. 25. 

.... jf 1811. 
Persian war closed by treaty of Teheran. 
Herat restored. 
1853 Marriage of the Princess Royal to Prlnco 1 
Frederick William of Prussia, Jon. IT,. 
Derby- lil sr.o II ministry formed. Fob. ;«. 
Jewish disabilities removed. July 23. 
The Conspiracy and Volunteer bills 

Thc~India Bill passed. Aug. 2. 
The government of the Fast India Com- 
pany ceases, Sept. 1. 
18S9 England declares her neutrality In Ihe 

Derby ministry defcote 

i the reform 

Juno 18. 

Lord Palnierstoii resu-n: and relurno. 
Lord Stanley Secretary for India. 
16C0 Commercial treaty r.Ph France. 
Peace efTeein] mil, ctim. Oct 21. 
The Prince ot "Vales vltlu the United 
Slates and Canada. 
1S61 Death of the Duchess of Kent, tho 

Complications with Ihe United Slates 
over the sel.'.ure .,! Messrs. Ms nn and 
Slidell, from a British mall steamer by 
the It. S. steam. -r "San Jacinto." Nov. 
released by the V. S. go»- 

■utrollty In Aroer- 

Copyrlght, Ihi'G, by Get 





r,;l, 1 

— Alfred declines the throne o 
Greece, Oct. 23, 
Serious riots In Ireland. 
ISta Continual distress in cotton districts. 

Marriage of tho Prince of Wales lo Prln 
cess Alexandra, ...[ Denmark, Morel) 10 
ISfil Blrlh f-f n son in the Print.; of Wales, 
Visit of Garibaldi. 

The Ionian Ish.udK ceded to Greece. 
Powers os io Confederate prlvnleori 

Kuropenn Conference. a( London, on tin 

.Si lllcsiv ii;-l lolslcltl O.UI :■' l"ll 

ISiiT- Cntile plagoo In Knglnnd rind Irelnnd. 

Fenian troubles In Ireland; arrest oi 

Jnraes Stephen*. "Head Center." No. 1 

11; escape nl !jicji|n-iis. Nov. 2-1. 
Russell-Gladstone ministry. 
Death ..f 111. Hard Cnbden, April 2. 
Death of I.. .ril I '■! lin.jr^-.; on , Oct. IS. 
imporuuii commercial treaty with Au~ 

trln, Dee. 16. 
KV, Detent of Lord Russell's reform bill 

Juno IS. 
Resignation "f Hms. 'II ministry, Juno 2*1 
Derby fornie. his tliinl cabinet, July 6. 
Cattle plague continues, causing grcaj 

Fen 1 mi invasion of Canada. 

reform not i lis ~<-.l. 
with Abyssinia begins, caused by 

Imprisonment of Brills!) subjects. 
Sir Robert Napier commands expedition. 
Fenian outbreaks in Ireland. 
Dl smell's reform bill. 
The Dominion of Canada formed. 
ljCs Herbi mlnl.-trv resigns, Teh, Zl, 

Dlsroell forms now ministry, Fob. 25. 
Gladstone's bill fur Disestablishment of 

Irish Chur, I; pass..;:; tbe House, April 

Scotch and Irish reform dots passed. 

July 13. 
Dissolution of Parliament, Dec. 10. 
Resignation of Disraeli ministry. 
Gladstone forms new ministry, Dec. ft, 
Successful termination of the Abyssinian 

The suicide o( Theodore, King of Abys- 
sinia, April 13. 
lSOD Convention on "Alabama Claims" 
signed; it is rejected by the United 

Earl Spencer appointed Lord-Lleutenani 
or Ireland. 

Irish I. ill receives the royal as- 
sent, July 26. 

Death of the Karl of Derby, Oct. 23. 
1870 Measures ndopted for the spread of pri- 
mary education. 

Land bill ni Ireland receives royal as- 
sent, July S. 

Education bill. 

Neutrality In France. 

Prussian war proclaimed, July 19. 

Neutrality ot Belgium guaranteed, Au£. 

Resignation of John Bright, Doe. 20. 
Death ol the F.url of Clarendon. June ?$ 
1S71 Princess Louise marrl(» the Marquis of 

Black Sen Conference, March 13. 
Treaty with the United States regarding 

Alabama claims. May 8. 
The Irish Church Disestablishment bill 

goes Into effect. 
Meeting of (he Alabama Claims Com- 



I Plied. 

Tho Ballot Act passed. 
Serious Illness ,,f the Prince of Wales. 
Scott centenary at Edinburgh. 
Great riots in Dublin. 
1872 Supplemental treaty with Ihe United 
Stoles concerning Alabama claims. 

A nallonul thanksgiving lor recovery ot 

tho Prince of Wales, Feb. 27. 
O'Connor threatens the r'ueen. Feb. 29. 
Settlement of the Alabama claims, Sept. 

Scotch educational bill. 
Commercial treat) with France, Nov. C. 
Serious riots In Belfast. 
1S73 Abolition of tests In the lrlsn Univeral- 

Payment of the Geneva award. 

Death of Lord Lyllon, Jan. 18. 

Defeat ol the Dublin University bill. 

Resignation ot the Gladstone ministry. 
March 13. ministry resumes nfllce, 
March 17. 

Thu Shah ..! Pei-sla visits England. 

Passage ot Ihe Judicature bill. Aug. i, 

Wnr with (he Ashaiilees. Sir Garnet 
Wolseley placed In command. 
1ST! Irish educational bill foils. 

Marriage of the DuUc ol IMInburgh iu 
Marie Al...amlr..\ n.i of Russia, Jan. SI. 

Colebrateil Tlehhorno trial. Fob. 2.1. 

Defeat ol Ashaiitces. Ian. 31. and treaty 
of peace signed, Feb, 13. 

Disraeli kimnos I'd Minister. 

ISTa II. -..polling "l lb' Eastern ciucstton. 

The Primp- ol Wnlot, visits Inilln. 

Franco passes, tin; English Channel Tun- 
nel bill. 
1870 Great revival under Moody and Sankey. 

England purchases the Suez canal. 

O'Connell centenary in Ireland. 

queen of England proclaimed Empress 
or India. March 1. 

Bulgarian airoelilc.i produce Intense ex- 
citement in England. 

Defeat of "Home Rule" for Ireland. 

d to thu pcerago as (he 

England L 

of B ia 


: In Lin- Eastern .[ii .: 

Or. '.it Britain e-nr. ,;,i.'s her .lisappr.'.al 
of the Russo-Turklsh war, but decide! 
to remain neutral. 

Duko of Marlborough made Lord-Llou- 

xcitcment In England. 
Several changes In the ministry. 
Earl of l-'lirlm shot In Ireland. 
Beaeonsfl.-Id and Salisbury represent 

England In the Berlin Confercnco. 
Great cnmnnTi inl r 1 ..- 1 . r , ■ ;. ^ - 1 < . 1 1 In England. 
British Afghanistan war. 
Genornl Roberts' victory nt Ptewas Pass. 

Dee. 2. 
Jellnlabnd occupied by the British, Dee. 

1879 Yakooh Khan recognized os Ameer ot 

Afghan, May 'J; retirement of Brills!) 

troops, treaty of peace signed. May -I". 

British i-i !■ lei ... Fi i . :,[ C. ihli^.i.t.'.I. 

Sept. 3: Gen. Roberts reach's label. 

Sopl. 2*; nhdhat.lnii n( Vaki.i'b Khun. 

Oct. 19: British defeat Afghans ot 

Shcrpur, Dec. 23. 
Zulu. Souih Africa, war: Hrlllsh troopa 

entor /.ulubiud, Jan. 12: nwssai re ol 

Isnndula, Jon. 22. 
Victory ni KambulB March 39; Prince 

Louis Nnpnhon. ■■ f Fmpeior Nnp'.l- 

eon III., killed h) Zulus. June 1: Sir 

Garnet Wuliieli-v Uil" ■■■' command. June 

23; bottle ■,! t'lundl. tol .1 d.'feal ot the 

Zulu king. I'eiewayi.. July 1; capture of 

Cctcwnyo, Aug. 38. 
Great dlsir.- :- ami famine In Ireland. 
Parnell vlnlls III" Polled Slates In be- 

1 agitation I 


Yakoob Khan, Sept. 1. 

K. ■ .,[ th- ik-.n-.-nsileUl Minis- 
try, April Z2: G In da t,. in.- f..rnis a in>w 
ministry. April 2B, 

i',Tii|,.-n>al|.'n l...f I 'Isliirhiiiii., Hill re- 

Lord Muntniorrls shot, SepL 25. 
Boycott Ins" prnctlcud. 

Arresf nf I'nrni II. llealy and others on 
charge ol conspiracy to prevcni pay- 
Duke of Argyll, resigns Iron) rnblni-t 
April 8. 

Death of Lord lleaconslleld. 

L.ini SiihHbiiry the Cons'Tvailvo Lender. 

Brndluiigh ixeluded from Huuse nf i;..m- 

l tor Ireland paused, March 

Irish Land Bill passed. Aug. 16. 

Yusoob Khun roots the Ameer and en- 
ters Canaahar. 

Pnrnc-U nrr.sUd under Coercion A'l 
Oct. 13. 

Land I.eac.]., di-> ill. gal. Oct. H .1J. 

Yakooh Khan ilelenied bv ihe Aiu'er 
Sept. 32. 

Agrarian outrages In Ireland. 
' Attempt on the Queen's lllo by MeLean 
March 2. 

State trial o! McLean, who Is adjudged 

Prince Leopold married to Prln com Hel- 
ena of Waldeck. April 27. 

Earl S|"-iii-.i i|.|n,lnt.-J L'.nl-Lleot.'naiit 

of Irelnnd. 
Lord Cavundl: li appollll'd 

Chief Secretary of Ireland. 
Com! Cavendish and Mr. Burke, t'nd.T 

Secreiary. assassinated. In Dublin, 

May G, 
Oil.. Tr.-velvau siKreeds l.-.-J Cavendish 
File Ut-i'rcsslon ol Crime hill ims-.ei| 

July 11, 
John Bright resigns. July 15. as a mem- 
ber of t;irnl:-r. rn.-'ri Cabinet, awing to 

EKM'llao policy. 
The "Cloture" (.III passed, perinlinn^ 

closing nf debate bv majority vote, 
rifiletli nf Gladstone's entrv 

Into public life, Dec. 13. 
Prayers (.fiend In the Me-'tnes of Cnlru 

for the Queen, Dec. 13. 

Fire (n liar ni Court Palntc, Dec. H. 

s of Rent bill passed. 


■ l r< 

,Mis.-b.-Tiirkl.'.li Milll.iry Convention In- 

formally signed, Sept. C. 
War in Bgypt (q. v.) 
i The assnsslns of Sir. Burke and Lord 

Cavendish identified. Feb. 10. 
Dneiillli; of II, e K'.val CmII,- v .,, ,,( Mu-I''. 

May 1. 
Tho Marquis of 1,-insdoivuo appointed 

Governor-Cenernl of Canada. 
New Parcel Post first in operation, Aug. 

Annexation of territory on African west 

const proclaimed. Aug. 23. 
surrender of Cetewnyo to th. British 

residents, Oct. 6. 
Sir J. H. Glover appointed Governor of 

Newfoundland. Dee. 19. 
Now Patents Act goes inlo operation, 

1 eimrture of Gen. Gordon for Egypt. 
Jan. IS. 

Viio Queen visits. Darmstadt. April 16. 

Death of I'rlnee Leopold, Duke of Al- 
bany. March 28. aged 29. 

.Monster reform dimoostrotlon In Lon> 
don, July 21. 

lubllee of the abolition of slavery cele- 
brated In London. Aug. 1. 

Serious am l-Siili-.-i' lor, rl-ts, ai WitHiIiik 
Aug. 17. 

Karl of lluflerln .. j. pointed to (ho Vice- 
Royally of India, Sept. 10. 

Greenivh'h adopted as the uiiivorsnl 
prime meridian. Oct. 13. 

I'ortiigucse Are hi on the British ship 
Tyburnlii, at Madeira, Doe. " 

I.nrd tWn appointed Governor if B,'ini>:i. 

Doe. 13. 
Aitempt to blow up tin' Hi. use of Cum 

moiin. Wesliiilusier Hull and Tower o 

Ihe fall "i Khartoum, and death of Gor 

Cipeiilng nf the Mersey runnel. Feb. 13. 


ailed . 

mllllln forces 

.. . -UM-1 Bib I,? [, li-il. M.v, is 
Prlnee-js Qentrlce marrloH Prince Henry, 

of Buttenburg. July 2Z. 
Death of Sir Mose.. Moniehore, nged 101. 
July 2S. 
1S« Grunt memorial aervleea nl Wesunln- 

slor, Aug. I. 
l--; 1'arm-ll's land hill ilef-iited, sepr. :l 
1SS7 Queen's Jubilee Inuugurnted, June 21. 
Irish Crlims Bill passed, July S, 
li i !i ..".i'miisI [..-ague pi— I. urn. .1. An.' 
lv\x While Chapel mi'rder. April 

U. 3. Fishery Cnmnils-lnn > signed. 

Marriage nf Prlm-eJ.; Louis f Wales. 

July 27. 

of ovorlure 


.S|.IU In Ihe Irish i'arll.iiiienlnry Party. 
Dec. G. 

Newfoundland lisle ry dlspule, March- 

U. S. World's Fair Invltathni aeieptdl. 

Battleship "Vietoriu" sunk by ihe 

"Cnmperdown." eft the Syrian eoaot. 


r Ship Canal opened, Dec. 7. 

(eat of the Liberal parly and fall 
f the Roeehory Cabinet; la suc- 
■eded by the Earl of Salisbury and n 
cw Rndleol Cabinet. 


Captain Conk, Sir Joseph Banks and oth- 
ers land nt in.ianv U«. and name tin- 
country New South Wales. April 2S., >r.i rlnns ,..] Furncnux. 

Ca|pt. C k evplon-H Aii-trallii and New 

1 Cnpt. Cook mal.i-i (i [bird voyage nf ex- 
Flr.ii landing of ICngllsh lonvlels nt Part 

Phillips. flr..r tioverin.r, Sidney, 
wlih 1.03H persons. Jan. 20. 
i-'33 Voyage ot nilgh. 
I DIstreBs, ovylng in tin- loss of the Btoro- 

shlp "Quardlan." 
I Flrnt house fur Ful.lli \\'..rfhlp erected. 
I First publication of Government Oa- 

i Buss' Straits discovered, by Boss and 

i-'n."j Kspb. rations and uiiryeys of the const 

of Australia In lirnnr and Flinders 
: Flrnt brlek i-hunh built, 
i Van Dlemnn'a Land, now Tasmania. 

established. Urn si.ulerneut made ol 

Port Philip. 
I Insurrection of Irish eonvkla repressed 

Gov. llllgh depus-ed lor (yraniiy nnd sent 
home: surf..., ded bv Mai. Qunrrle. 
-'ii F\|.loratlens inc. the Inierlnr n{ Aus- 
tralia, by Wentworth. Laivs.m, lllox- 
and, O.xley and others. 

S'lrh-ment ol King George's Sound 

>JS South AUGiralla explored by Stuart. 

!KS West Australia iniide a province; a 
Leglslailve established nnd 
Capt. Sterling appointed Lieuienunt- 

i:n-.( Aiislralla explored by Sir T. Mitch- 

$31 rtoundnrles of the province ot South Aus- 
tralia flNCd. 

-:■", Flr-.r I;..,:, ,j, Cirlmll,; PL-ln.p arrlv... 
Port Phillip, imw Vletinla eoloiilv.ed. 
1835 South Australia a province. 

Arrival of llrst Chureli ..( ?;ngland Bish- 
Adelaide founded. 

Byre's expedlrlou ov.rl I from Adelaide 

to King George's Sound, 
llilbnurno founded. 
1S3S Explorations of Capl. Gray In northweBt 

ISM New. South Wales and Tasmania explored 
by Count StlzclccM. 
Alleged discovery of gold In l'uthurst 
kept secret by Gov. Glpps. 

So pere ion ol (ran- p-.n:itli-n. 
lsp.i Fire cvphiri'S Wesl Am.lrall.i. 

Sri , I. . [. | , .| I.e. ■ i!i, ,\n ir-.ilim. \lp-. 
lSlt Census, S7.200 mnlcu. U. "Oil females, 
1813 Incorporation ot the City of Sydney. 

Discovery ot the llurra-Burra copper 

, In ! 


IS14-'4S Explorations of Lelelihnrdt, Stuart, 
Mitchell, ilreg.rv .md Kennedy. 

IS n.l Fli;Toi- made liuiiinur-Geiioral. 

Census, ll-i.700 moles; 71, SOU females. 

I'i; III -ho i nle ni Adelalili- Poinded. 

ISIS Lelchhardl starls on second exploration; 
party never heard ol again. 
Kennedy killed by natives. 
Gregorv ovplore- the Inl.-rloi". 

ISI9 Great ae,ilii..r iransporiailon. 

1SH0 Port Philip ereiti'd Inc. tho province ot 

1SS1 Gold discovered, near Unburst, by Ed- 
ward Hargrcaves. Intense e.M.llemenl In 
the provinces; great rush to the gold 

1S31 Sir William Dontilson appointed Gover- 
nor. Gregory's expedition Inlo (he Interior. 

!S5S-'fi2 J. Mi Duiiahl siuiurs .-xpGilltlons, 

Death of Arelidea. on Cowper. after near- 
ly fifty years' re-idenee. aged sri. 

1S5U Province of IJueeii' . ;taOlb-hed. Dei . 

ISfiO Uurke and Willis and two clhers cross 

the continent, slartlnc from Melbourne 

Aug. 3ii; ull peilsh on ihe return, 

year, except John King. 

Sir John Young, Governor of New South 

1S61 Stuart and M'Klnlay croKs from »ea to 

1SC3 Recovery of the remains of Iturko and 

ISilt General resistance throughout tho prov- 
inces ngulnst trnnspurtatlon. 

ISfio Death of Morgan, c desperate bush- 
ranger and murderer. 
Cessation of tram 

Settlement of boundary between New 
South Wules ami Vl.rorla, April 19. 
IS'".G Population ol Australia, natives exclud- 
ed, l,29S.6tl7. 
1S67 Capl. Cadell explores Smith Australia; 
discovers mouth of river Roper. 
Meeting of Convention from Colonies e.l 
Melbourne, to arrange postal communl. 
cation with Europe. 
1SJ1 nelegates from the Colonics meet lo pro- 
test again. o Imp. -rial iiiti-rfeiviiL... ivllh 
■---• Iscal arrangements, Sept. 


27. le 

with Rng 

Willshlre explores Daly and Victoria rlv- 

Internallonal Exhlblllon at Sydney 
opened Sepi. 17. 
i Melbuume Evhlbltlon opened Oct. 1, 

Tallin annexed to France. 

The Queensland guvi-riimenl author' ■.e.- 
ihe construedon ol the trans-. o).(l- 
neiital railwav. to bring tin- eelmiles 
within thirty doy3 ot England. 

Hallroad eomplereil from Svdiiey to Mur- 
ray River, connecting with MellemriM'. 

Inter-, olopinl ■ onlereme Ml Sydney lo 
ennnlder federal action. 

Majority vote In favor of a tariff com- 
mission and the establishment ot an 
Australian four' of Appeal. 

'I errlble mining a< eliliTit at 
'lalbiit. Vlelnrla. I ice. It. 

Confederation of the .ulonle.i and an- 
~«."ii«.. »r popua. New Guinea. 

New University of south 


_. Ocl _ 

1 leaves syd- 

Fede'ratloti Convention drafl a Conslltu- 
llnn for the Cummninvealth of Aus- 
tralia, April 3. 

SiTloim (lo. -kh In •Juenislaml [.roi-rii 


i: itt: IIe-1i Slfilup Act a. ii'ple.l bv Can.iillan 

Sir Guy Carletou Governor. 
Great Are In Montreal. 
Id. man Callioll,- illl/ens .,( Canada oti- 

firmed In their political rights and 

l.i-giMhiilve eoiineli <if -j,i members a|i- 

Invasion of Canada by the Americana. 

under Montgomery and II. Arnold. 
Fort St. John token by Montgomery, 

Nov. 3., 
Montreal captured. Nov. 13. 
Arnold's attach on tjuebei- repuls'-d. 

Nov. H. 
Arnold and Moiirg..mi'|-\ iju. i . ■■ 

December 31. 
Failure ot attack and death of .Mont- 
The Amerl. i nireal frmii c.iiiada. 

June IS. 
Scttleuiom nf Cppur Canada. 
Canada Is nix .ii a i "UHlltuGon, and Is 

divided 'mo upper and lower prov- 

Slavery abolished In Canada. 
: Sceond war between tho United f 

nnd Great Britain. 
Capture of Detroit by the British. 

SnrrenrliT ..( Gcnernl \\', r i a 

Van Ronsselcar capitulates. Nov. T 

: Americans carry Queenstown Heights. 
Death of General ilrneh. 

: Am, iicrupi d.-i.aleil at Frenehtown. 
Capture of Toronto. April :7. and For' 

George. May zl. by Hie Americana. 
Defeat of the Hrltlsli at S.i.-k.ii- Harl.-.r 

May 29. 
Victory of Americans at Stony Creeh 

June t 
Ijidei-lslve balilp of Williamsburg, Nov. 7 

'■"rn d..c- I'err.'s vl'fury on I.ako Crb- 

Cap(ure of English squadron. 

Defeal of Proctor ni (he Thames ,.„& 

dcnlh of Tecumseh, 
United Slate, ir pn sine.'sslul nt battle 

of Longwood, .March 4. 
Defeat of the British at Chippewa, July 

Rattle of Lundy's Lane. 

Nnvnl baiile ..n I, all..- ctiamplnln. 

Treaty of Ghent closes the wnr. 

Slr i;.-..rgv i^hiTbroke lo.eomes Ce.vrii.,r 

of Lower Ca In. , 

I'olitl. al agltallon In Upper Canada, 

Career of Itohen Coiirlay. 

Duko_ of Uiclimond app t..,l ti.ivcrner 


I ills; 

Wellntid Canal Ini orporated. 

Flrsr ,.u;lta( agalnsl Ihe I Irnnge u. 

\i-iiallon m Upper Canada on the alien 

Mo 1 ■■!. I.-":. T'f I :i u ..III. ■■ rle.rr.o -■.] I-. 

Petition again:.! nilsuso ot revenues. 

First ugllalloi, (or a responsible gr.vern- 
nient in Upper Cannda. 

Lord Aylruer I... onus Governor of Low- 
er Canada. 

Imperial duties surrendered lo the Cun.t- 



Tho Puplnonn party nlni nl a totni s 

ration from Great Britain. 
First Canadian railway opened. 

House of Assembly ..f Lower Canada ic- 
tuses to transact business. 

"Suns nf Liberty" rise In Montreal. 

Commercial crisis in Cannda and (he 
United States. 

Troops withdrawn from Upper Canada 

Rebellion In Upper Canada begins. 

Attempt Ihe eaptun- ..I Toronto. Dec. 1. 

Totally def.-uted by jl. [Cuscne. Mo. >l 

Rebels rerelve aid [mm sympathizers in 
the United States. 

Affair of Ihe "Caroline." 
1S38 Sir John C,,li„,rne appointed Governor, 
Jan. HI. 

Affairs of the "Anne'' mid the "Sir Rob- 
ert Peel." 

Fori ...I th" reb.'llloii In Upper Canada. 

RoalgnaU.m ol Sir Krum Is Head, who Is 
succeeded by Lord Durham. 
1S33 Union of Upper and Lower Cannda. 

Lord Sydenham appoint..! Governor. 
ISW Settlement of the clergy reserves ques- 

RespoiiMlble government established. 

Death of Lord Sydenham. 

Charles P. Thompson Governor. 
1S11 Sir Charles Metcalf appointed Governor. 
1S-14 Governinenl removed from Kingston to 

ISC. Great lire in Quebec. 
IS17 Earl Cathcurt Governor. 

I..-r.l Flgin (1 rre,r-C..|i..| it. lot,, r. 

Agltatlal) over (be Kehelllon Losses bill. 
ISIS Continued agitation over Ihe Rebellion 

Losses bill. 
1S19 Annexation to Ihe Unit..! States advo- 
cated by tho opposition. 

Great riots In Montreal. 

Destruction ot Parliament House. April 

Attack on Lord Elgin 
fubsfdenee of the agitation. 
Iv.d It.-, iprmlty with United states urged. 
Ii-sl C.jiutrucUori nt new railways. 

Cheaper postage rat.- Introduced. 
ISoU Great Are at Monlreul. 

Government removed to Quebec. 
1S53 Clergy reserves abolished by Engllih 

Parliament, May 3. 
1B51 Close of Lord Elgin's administration. 
Prosperous ...minion of Canada. 
Treaty wllh the I nlr. .1 States. June 7. 
1S5G Sir Rduiund W. Head Governor-G.ner il. 
lS5f! Sir John A. Mncdonald. (he Attorn ey- 
Generol, becomes leader of the Con- 
Opening of railway from Quebec to To- 
ronto, Nov. 12. 
Tho ursi railway aeeldem In Canada. 
Quebec mad.- the seat nl gevrmmelK. 
1S57 Stringency In (he money inurlcol caused 

by the mutiny in India. 
JWS Ottawa. lormerly Bytoivn, made the seal 

of the provincial g n n< by IJucea 

VIctorlo; the opposition defeat (his 

IStlO Visit of the Prince or Wales io Cannda. 
1S«1 Grent fire in Quebec. June 7. 

Commencement of the civil war in the 
United Stales; (.itrs of hostilities Willi 
that nation. 
Lord Monek made Governor-General 

Nov. 2S. 
British troops soul lo Camilla on account 

of "Trent" affair. 
Resignation nf ministry, Mncdonald 
forms a new cabfnel. 
1S62 Death of Sir Allan M'Nnh. 
1864 Delegates assemble at Quebec 

: The Marquis of Lome, son-in-law of 

'in.'. -II VI. I.irln :i|.,,,lnlr.[ VI. ,T.n 

Oct. 14. 
Fortune Ray outrages. 
United States pay Fishery award, Nov. 

Arrival of Marquis of Lome and Prin- 
cess Loulso, Nov. 26. 
Industrial Exposition nt Ottawa. 

176,000 award for Fortune Ray outrages, 


L rallr 


.J Buziard llllel passed. June ill. 
Patents Issued tn Canadian I'ai lilt Kail- 

way Company, Feb. lfi. 
: The Marquis of Lonsdowne appointed 

Governur-G.neral. May 21. 
Sir John lluwl.-y (ik.v.-r appointed Gov- 
ernor of Newfoundland. 
Medlng or the llrlilsh Association, at 

Montreal. Aug. 27. 
Uym.uilto at Quebec, Ocl. 11. 
Opening mntlh-i ,,i Fish Creeh with tho 

hnlf-brced and Indian rebels, unJ .r 

Louis Kiel, April 2J. 
Capture, near Bntoche, of Louis Rlr-I. 
. Orenlng ol Ihe Canadian Paclilc Rall- 

Kes. dm Ion against ihe Coercion Dill 
passed April 2fi. 
: Newfoundland refuties to Join Canada. 

Lord Stanley made Governor, June 11. 
■ Wcldon Fxtrndltlon Bill passed, April 

election, Ma'reh'C. 
General eensiis taken April !,. 
Earl of Aberdeen appointed Gove 


First Medical College established In 

The Slump Act passed, in Eng 

Virginia resolutions against right ot 


j of t 

iposed by 




turn, followed b. tMl li •• barge. Dee. 
11; General HI- bi iln ,tI al 

Crlli.lin nl iigc.-s I" .. . .'Mi d. ration. 

Great fire at Quebc. . 

C mola I'.Ll-ll.uilcnl i"l" '-"■". I"l 'I' ■ 

tensu or (he Dominion, Mnieh .'.!. 

Canada . onsents In union of the prov- 
inces. April 1. 

First Parliament ol (he r nlun iiuels 

at Ottawa, June 7. 

Dlscuverv r.r gold hi llnsilngi- County, 

i threatened. 
Fenians, under O'Neill, cross Inlo Cnn- 

ndn: Canadian volunteers drive iliem 

(no k and .IP 1" r . Minn 
1 lain i-- Corpus suspended, 
Mr. Gall's new tariff. 
' Formation or the Dominion of Canada 

by the conredeiailon .if Canada. NVw 

Brunswick and Nova Seotla, March 2'.i. 
Lord Monek unpointed Vl.eroy, July 2. 
Ciiiadlari Uallnav I .-■ n n art p.eeic.i. April 

: Sir John Young be.nmrs (;.>i eriiur-llen 

oral. Nov. 27. 
i Hudson Bay lerrliorirs purchased for 

i Se.oiiil Fen Inn raid re|.elle.1 by militia 

the leader. O'Neill, captured by United 

States troops. 
Manitoba, formerly Rupert's Land. 

formed and hecomes a pari of tho Do- 
minion of Canada, 
Prince Alfred visits Canada. 
British Columbia Joins the Dominion oT 


IMs. II: d. 1 Hi" Fish, rles question. 

Prince Edward's Island becomes ■ pari 

1S7II Mnrdunuld'H ministry charged with cor- 
ruption, nnd roreed lo resign, new 
mlnlslry r..r d lo Mackenzie. 

1N7", Reject Inn nf Heolpro.di v Treaty by United 

Congress of ;7 delegates meet at New 
York and publish a .1. eluraUon of (he 
rights and rules ^galiif-i tit,- stamp 
Act. Oct. 7, 

Massachusetts. Rhudc- Island. Delaware 
and .^larylund unite In resisting Si amp 

17i'.G Dr. Franklin visits England, and Is ex- 
amined before the House ol Cjiuiiuns. 
In February. 

Si.-i In |, A. r i ip.-ii l,..|. .Muri'h )'-. 

Stage rout., between I'r-.i iileuce nnd Bos- 
ton established. 

Philip Embury and Captain Webb llrst 
Introduce Methodism In America. 
1767 An obnoxlnij? tai imposed on paper, 
glass, tea and palmers' colors Imported 

Colonies adopt a non-lmporlntlon ngree- 

Mason und Blxon, nent out by Ihe heirs 
of Win. Pean Mil,] l.ur.l llalllmore. run 
a lino in d.-Hiio the boundaries of (heir 
IIS. It afterwards became the 

I., Ull-.. 

be two 

1763 Meeting of a convention ot delegates 
called by Massaehuueiis. at I'anuol 
Hall, Boston. 

A military force stationed In Boston by 
the British government under General 
170*5 Tho Governor of Virginia dissolves (ho 
House of Burgess. 

Tho assembly of North Carolina dis- 
solved by the Governor. 

Goods seni lo llusinii from Great Britain 
refused and sent bach. 

First paper mill erected at Milton. 
1770 Boston massacre, March n: British sol- 
diers hill Hirer and wound four elll- 

1772 The Br 

in N 

from Provider..... 

1773 First American .Method!. K Conterenec. 

consisting ..r irn mlnlsi.-rs. all of for- 
eign birth. 

Blind Asylum established al Williams- 
burg!), Vn., the first In America. 

The cargoes of the Ira-shlps In Boston 
thrown Into (he harbor b. masked men, 
Dec. 16. 
1771 Boston Port Bill deprives Boston ot Its 
port rights, March 2.".. 

Meeting of the First CriUneutai m Sec- 
ond Colonial Congress, nl Philadelphia. 

Congress Issues a Dec In 

itlon of Rights, 


Battle of Lexington, April : 
Ferpelual Union .d the CI. ml 

1 forces, Juno 

Americans under F.lhan Allen take Tl- 
couderogu. May 10. 

Genernls Howe. ("Union and Burgoyne 
arrive from England. 

Defeat of the Americans nt Bunker Hill, 
after stubborn n-slstaner. Juno 17. 

Washington assumes ..'111111111111 nt Cam- 
bridge. July 3. 

Con lln on tnl Post Day. July 20. 

Falmouth burned by tin- British. Oct. 17. 

Generals M011t1.un1.rv and Arnold IrivaJe 
Canada; capture of St. I0I111, Nov. 3. 
ol Montreal, Nov. 12. Hepuho ol Ar- 
nold al Quebec. Nov. 14; second nnd 
joint assault deleaied and Montgom- 
ery killed. Dec, 31. 
177e Uoslruetlon of Norfolk by Ihe British, ■ 

Declaration oT Independent ... July I. 
C.iiiiinlssl.iner.: .-.rnr bv Congress to solicit 

a treaty with the French, 
llanle ol Flathush, or Brooklyn, on 

Long Island, Howe (loss IiHU defeats 

unted by the Amerl. .ins 

and ..iciipl. .1 bv Urn llrlilsh, S.-[.t. P". 
Batlle of While Plains; Howe (loss inn 

or |.-o ,1..|,..,r.s \,ln K l.,n ll.-:- ■ ■■'• 

or 100). Oct. 28. 
Battle of Lake chaniplaln ; capture of 

the American fleet. Oct. 11-13. 
l'urt Waablnglun . apltulalci Nov. Hi. 
Fngllsh occupy Rhode island. 
Washington ret reals beyond (he Dela- 

Congrcss adjoi 

. Balilu 

!eo. A. Ogle & Co. 



I77fi Battle o( Trenton; Washington (loss 91 

defeats Kulil an,] 111! Ufsa) loss 

1.000). Dec. SB. 

1777 Battle of l'rln. oturi ; Washing ton (loss 

10*1 1 iji'f'- lis M.1V.I 1 I loji;; | 

Battle ot Bennington. Vt.; Stark (losa 
loOl defeats Onum nnd Bremen (loss 

Arrival of Lafayette, who I 

ccuplcd by ihn 

Second battle. 

) defeats Ourgoyne 

Surrender of [liirgnyno. ,ii Saratoga »i(h 

-1.752 men, to Gales, Oct. 17. 
Articles of Confederal Ion adopted by Con- 

llatlle n! Monmouth: Washington (Ins;. 

2.1m defeats Clinton (loss linii. Juno l!ii. 
Massacre ot Wvomlng Valley, July 3. 
Count d'Estalng, ullli twelve ships of 

Hit- line, sis frigate*, nnd French 

troops, arrives. 
Balile on lili,..-].- I;-lnn.l . Soilllvnii il..,s 

211) defeats Pl«.!l il.^s W.n. Aug. 20. 
Ann'fl. .in-, r.-tr. «t Ir-un I! In,.].- Island. 

Aug. 30. 
- isaHn;ili ■..!.■. ■) ti\ [ho flrlllsh. He. . L. 1 !!. 
Repulse ..f Americans nt Briar Creek. 


Iditndnred by the Brlllih, 

Fairlli 1.1 .mil fir. 'Mji [-'a nil- ii 
' i by Hie British, Ji 

surrendered to the 
C.; Cornwallls iloss 

Stony Point tahoi 

July 1C. 
Charleston, S. C., 

BriUsh, Mav 1'J. 
Baltic of Camden, i. ... 

.::■".) .li'liMt'. i.ioio r.,1 G;itf-s Ih'ss Ilio). 

Aug. 16. 
riiT).;.li. i Arnold betrays and .|o:-erir his 

Major Aiidr> captured. Sept. 23. nnd 

hung as a spy. OcL 2. 
Battle nt Co 

Morgan (los 

721 defeats Tnrleton (loss 

fled by all the State-. 
Defeat or General Greene by Corliwnlllit, 

at Guilford. 
Battle of Eutiiw Springs: General Greene 

Ross r.'.r.) defeats Stewart Moss I.Kmi, 

Sept- S. 

Tin; inillor. Arnold, burns Nov.- London. 
Surrender of Lord Cor 


7,07.1 i 

i Wqb 

Independence of the United Sla'.e'i 
acknowledge. 1 by Holland, April 19. 

1 rnlepondoio .■ a.-kimivlcdg '1 I iv Sweden . 
Denmark. Spain and Prussia. 

Armistice with Great Britain, Jan. 20. 

Peace with Great Britain, at Treaty uf 
Paris. Sept. 2a. 

New York evacuated, Nov. 25. 

Resignation of General Washington, 1 i.*. 
* 23. 
■ Treaty of pence ratified by Congress, 

Jan. 4. 
i John Adams sent to England as first 

Ambassador from the Cnltod States. 
, Cotton introduced Into Georgia. 

Shay's rebellion In Massachusetts. 

Ik-lfccnien us.scniblo nt Annapolis, and 
recommend a Convention io revise ar- 
ticles of Cop federation. 

Meeting ot Convention at Philadelphia. 
George Washington presiding. 

Constitution ill Ho' lulled Mules adopt- 
ed. Sept. 17. 
1 Constitution ratified by all the States 
eicept Rhode Island and North Caro- 

Emanclpation ot slaves by the Gunlcirs 
of Philadelphia. 

First loriKf' : - meets at Now York. 
George WaMiliiKt.ii] elei ted first Presi- 
dent o( the United States. 
-N'orth Carolina ramie-- i in- i 'onsl ituij,-.n. 
"It of Benjamin Franklin, April 17. 

Mink nt Hi'- l'nli.-.l Siaies est iloi.-i.e.i 

nt Philadelphia. 
Vermont admitted as the f--url--i r.t h 

Indians defeat .St. Clair. 
Konnoky admitted as Uie fill eolith 

The Columbia river discovered by Cap- 

tain Grey. 
Washington City c 

the republic. of the cotton gin l.y Whtlnc-y. 

resulting In the revolutionizing uf the 

culture of eolton. 
Trouble with the French Ambassador, 

Washington's second term as President 

Whisk! rebellion in Pennsylvania. 

capital of 

Resignation of George Washington, 
1757 John Adams inniigiii-.ned a,i President, 

Treaty with l'r.i s.tniull<-d. 

ITfi War with France threatened. 

1759 Death ot Washington, at Mt. Vernon, 

Dec. 14. 
lfH» The Government removed from Phila- 
delphia to Washington. 
Treaty nlgned with Prnnee. 
General Bankruptcy Low passed. 
1M1 fnaiigurnllon of Thomas Jefferson ub 
Now York Evening I'ust ealnbllshcd. 
War with Tripoli commenced, June 10. 
Death of Benedict Arnold. June 11. 
1802 Ohio admitted n.c ilio seventeenth State. 
Port of New Orleans closed by Spain, 
and American vessels forbidden to 
ipnas down Mississippi river. 
1S03 Louisiana pun-based from the French; 
lir..0OO,000 paid. 
Pianos llrsi mnnufai tored at Boston. 
ISul Aaron Burr kills -.h-.nndor Ilamlllon In 
a duel. July 11. 
Frlgola "Pr-shlem" destroyed at Tripoli 

by Decatur, Feb. 4. 
Fort Dearborn, present site of Chicago, 

Lewis '& Clark's expedition starts across 
the plains. 
1805 Treaty of peace with Tripoli, Jan. 4. 

[i .. Hi i-r. li.-.-iiio.--. an ji ii 1. If of . ommorco 
SelKtiro of armed American vesaols by 


l^wln and Clark arrive at mouth of the 
Columbia river. 
IKOfi American commerce after ted by blockade 

nt French and English cotata. 
1S07 British v ossein ordered to leave United 

Trouble Willi England respecting 'he 
rights of noulrnln. 

Attack on the American nhlp "Chesa- 
peake." by tho British ship. "Lco- 


lSii7 The first coast survey ordered by Con- 
importation of slaves forbidden by Con- 
Ell Terry manufactures first wooden 

Pulton's first successful steamboat. 
180S Abolition of the slave (rude, Jan. 1. 

France orders the seizure and confisca- 
tion of American vessels. 
First printing o 111 re west of the MIbe- 

is-lppl. estobllshod at St. Louis. 
First Bible Socl-ty founded, In Phllad']- 
ia» First woolen mills smrled, In New York. 
Embargo repealed. March I. 
James Madison President. 
Intercourse between France and Eng- 
land forbidden. 
1S10 132 cotiflHcnted American vessels aold by 

First manufacture of steel pons begun. 
First agricultural fair, held at George- 
Porcelain clay discovered in Vermont. 
Hartford Fire Insurance Conipnny Incor- 
I ■ . l-.-. i - .] 

Depredations on American vessels by 
France and England, 

Stevens devises plan lor plating vessels. 

First manufacture of screws by ma- 

Battle of Tippecanoe; Gen. Morrison de- 
feats Tccumseh, Nov. 7. 

Reparation made bv the British far Ilio 
altock on the "Chesapeake." 

Great carll.uunke „i ,ww Madrid. Mo. 

A'"(-'i: iur i.iimpntiy establishes post of 

liivw-li loioline rltlcs iiiicoicil. 
1812 Einhargo (aid for ninety days. 

Louisiana admitted lain I he Union. 

Congress levies a tin" of S3. 000.000. 

A ilJ Ii l.oia I lor. e or ;i r . lie-ii iuiili.'rl/...| 

lii'tiiMlnuenl i.f iiilllil i, nor ,- ,.-i.-.-ilin t - 
lOO.noo men, authorized. 

War declared against Great Britain. 

British orders In council revoked, June 

Van Morne dofeuted. Aug.- G. 

Detent ,.f Mlll.r. Aug. s. 

Gen. Hull Invades ranadn. July 12. sur- 
renders Mackinaw, July 17. 

Hull surrenders Delcolt with 2,f.i'«l men. 
Aug. 1C. 

The "Alert." a British ship of war, 
captured bv tho "Essex," Aug. 13. 

The "Guerrlere." a British frigate, 
captured by tho "Constitution" ("Old 
Ironsides"). Capt. Hull, Aug. 19. 

Gen. Harrison lakes command of the 
Northwestern army. 

Queensto,vn aitucl.-cd. unsuccessfully, by 

The "Frolic." a British ship, captured 
by the U. S. sloop ot war "Wasp." 
Both vessels afterwards taken by tho 
"Polctlors." n British 71. 

The ".Macedonian," a British frigate, 
captured by the "United States." Com- 
modore Decatur. Oct. 25. 

The -'lava," a Prltlsh frltale .-.i|turod 
by the "Constitution," Capt. Batu- 
brldge, Dee. 3. 
I'll At the River Raisin, the British and 
Indians surprise and il.-feat Winches- 
ter. Most ot the Americans were mas- 
sacred bv the Indians, who were left 
unprotected by Gen. Proctor, July 13. 

Tho "Peacock." a British ship, captured 
by (he "Hornet." Feb. 23. 

The inauguration of lames Madison as 
President. March 4. 

The Creek Indians subdued by Gen. 

The Amor k, in i o isi blockaded by ihe 

Duel between Gen. Jackson and Col. 

York (now Toronto) In Upper Canada, 
token by the Americans under Gen 
Pike, who was killed. April 27. 

The "Choiapi-.ike" frigate taken by Ihe 
British fritiato •'" June 1. 

First rolling mill at Pittsburgh. 

Stereotyping iir.-t introduced Into Anier- 

Deoth of Capt. Lawrence, ot the "Ch«n- 

Battle of Fort George. May 27. 

flrRish attai k on Sa.-liett's Harbor re- 
pulsed. May 23. 

Forts Meigs and Stephenson allocked 
by the British and Indians. 

The U. S. brig "Argus" taken by the 
British sloop "Pelican." Aug. 14. 

The British fleet, 'i'l guns, on Lake Erie, 
captured hy the American fled. G6 
gun3. under Commodore Perry. Sept. 

Massacre of Fort MImms, Ala., by Ihe 
Indians, Auk. 30. 

Battle id Willi iloirg. Nov. H. 

Burning of Newark, Canada.. Nov. 12. 

Buffalo l.y tin- British, Dec. 13. 

The British caplure Fort Niagara, Dec. 

Niagara frontier ranged l.v the British. 
Doc. 30. 

Gen. Harrison otter having crossed Into 
Canada, defeats nnd disperses Ihe 
British armv under Gi-n. Proctor, near 
the River Thames, death of Te. umseh. 
Oct. 5. 
1814 The frigate "Essex" raptured, ut Val- 
paraiso. I iv two British vessels. 

Battle of Horse She,- lieml, March 20. 
I lie "Epervler." a British vessel, cap- 
tured bv ilio ■■1'enroi k." April 29. 

Oswego bombarded and taken hy Ihe 
British, May C. 

The "Reindeer." a British vessel, cap- 
tured, by the "Wasp." Juno 2li. 

Fort Erie captured by the Americans 
under Gen, Brown, July 3. 

Battle of Chippewa. 

Brown defeats Droniniond. Julv G. 

Battle of Brldgewntnr. Lundy's Lane. 
and Scott defeat **— 

III;, I 

f 2.i. 

rltlsh bombard Stonlngton. Conn.. 

Baltic of Fort Erie, Aug, lfi. 
Battle of Bladensburg. 

Drltlsli i..M| Ross, def. nis Winder, 
Aue. 21. 

a tho 

Ah.xanilriiMokoii l.y Ihe Brltlah, Aug. 29. 

; -,.■ " A-. ■ I ■ ,i 1-1 ill- h -■■ ' I. ■ U-l'ilMil 

by tho '-WuBp," Sept. 1. 
Attack on Fort Bower (now Morgan! 

Ala., Sept. 5. 
TIim Hrlilsh fb'H on Lake l.'lialii|-lalu. f'.'i 
guns. Commodore Downle. captured 
by (ho AiihtIi an Ilecl, ,,[ SO guns. Com- 
madoro MacDonough. and their army 
defeated nt I'latlsburg. by Gen. Ma- 
comb, Sopt. 11. ' 
Hrlil.ili ev|,iii, .1 ([-.on 1'oiisjioola, by Jack- 
Battle on Lake Dorgue. La.. Dec. 14. 
Baltic below New Orleans. Dec. 21. 

ielltro W rl pir.-nis his own plow. 

Perkins makes finit steel plates for en- 

Mn-isai re at Fort Dearborn, (Chicago) by 

Attack on Baltimore. 
B.-mhardiiieril of Fort McHonry. 
Brltlsb defeated, and Gen. Ross killed, 

-' of peace with Great Britain 



their lender. Gen. Pnckenhaiu. by Gen 
Jackson, Jan. S. 
Capture of the frigate "President" Ii 

the British sciuadron. Jan. 16. 
Treaty of Ghenl rati lied hv [he s.-n;,!.- 

Feb. 17. 
'■Constitution" captures the "Cyane 1 

and "Levant," Feb. 20, 
War d.-clared wkh Algiers. 
Tho "Penguin" captured by the "Hor 

Indiana ailtnlltcd as a State. 

v '-' I I' -lales bank chartered. 

St. sun llr:-i applied to paper making. 
Flection of lanie-i Monrce. i'rcslilem. 
Mrs. lOuiinn Wlllnrd opens her girls' 

This was known as the year without a 

1SI7 Illinois admitted Into the Union. 

Pensions grained revolutionary solillTt. 
Jackson subdue:, Imhoiia In Georgia ami 

Erie Canol commenced. 
Mississippi admitted Into (he Union. 
Harper ISm- put.lhMiig house founded. 
Clymer Invents Columbian printing 

New England Deaf and Dumb Asylum 
ISIS Foundation of (he new Capllol laid at 
Washington, Aug. 24. 
Pcnsiicols, Pin., captured from the 
Spanish, bv Jackson. 
ISIS The "Savannah." \}„! first steam packet 
that crosses (he Atlantic, makes a voy- 
age to Liverpool. 
The first permanent Lodge of Odd Fel- 
lows founded, in April :'■!. 

Spain for 55.000.1. .. 

.Maine ,„In,|ti.-,i into the Union. March It: 
lleadd discussion In Congress on Ihe 

Re-election of .Tames .Monroe as Presl- 

Perr- 'leum first discovered in Ohio. 
Macadaml/ed reads tlrst Introduced. 
Death of Daniel Boone. 

I admitted Into (he Union, Aug 

1S32 Morse Invents electric magnet telegraph. 
Cholera in Nov. y„ r k, :i, i«. deaths 
Fairbanks Scale first patented. 

1S-11 The President removes the public de- 
posits from (he Bank of tho I'nitd 

President Jackson begins his second 

Tho Southern States hold a states-right 

of (he Mississippi. 

line's ll.illl.IC-, vlllir],', [.rlllllllg-piCS:- . ■' 11 - 


First successful reaper patented. 

Erlcison invents Un- uiloclc ,-ntlne. 



takes possession of Florida. July 

Death of Maj.-Ot 

First Cotton mill built in Lowell, 

Elliott makes first pkitf.irm scales. 

War with the Cuban pirates. 

Gas first successfully Introduced In Ros- 

1S2.1 The Monroe docirlnc. June IS. 

First gas enmpnnv in New York. 

First ii-i.-h.--|--;' -.ooiinarv .-.pencd In C>n- 
cord. Vt. 

1524 The principles „r R„hert Owen preached. 
Pins first made by machinery. 

First reformatory school founded In New 

Act passed Io protect nnd encourage cot- 
Convention with Great llrllnln to sup- 
press slave trade. March 13. 
Convention with Russia In relation to 

northwest boundary, April . r .. 
Arrival ot Lafayette on a visit to the 

TJ. S. 
Election of John Qtllncy Adams as Presl- 

1525 The Cnnltol at Washington compleled. 
First edge to,. I manufactory established. 
Smith, a trapper, performs (he first over- 
land Journey io California, and found 

Departure of Lafayette for France. 
Sept. 7. 
ISM Dealhs of Thomas Jefferson nnd John 

Convention with Great Britain concern- 
ing Indemnities, 

Fiftieth anniversary or Amoricon Inde- 
pendence, July 4. 

Great anil-mason excitement. 
v h<l ik r p. n ..f William 

Baron Von Humboldt visits (he United 

Opening of the Frio Canal. OcL 26. 

Duel between Henry Clay ami John 


Delano's first tire-proof snfes, 
1-27 Treat v with fr.-el; Indians concluded. 

Treaty with Ihe Kansas Indians, and (he 
great and little Osaces. 

Treaty with the Republic of Columbia. 

Continued intense eicllemcnt over the 
"Morgan offnlr". 

First rnllron.1 t.olh at iiiilncy. Massa- 
chusetts, and operated by horse power. 
1S21 Pnssnfio of the Protective Tariff Bill. 

Sandpaper and einor\ first made. 

First loeomoMvc introdueed from Eng- 
land, by the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal Company. 

Baltimore 1 Ohio railroad commenced. 

Congress makes provision for ofilcers of 
the revolutionary war. 

Democrat and Republican first chosen 
bv (heir respective political parties. 

General Jackson .-■In-led President. 

Treaty ot Teace with Brazil nnd Buenos 

Planing mill first patented. 
1S2!> Andrew Jackson, President, oppones tho 
project to re.harter the Bank of Iho 
United States. 
Independence ot Mexico recognized. 
Webster's great speech in Congress. Ian. 

< resolution against Tariff 

First Asylum for the Blind established. 

First Hortl. uliurul S.,clety formed. 

Removal of 700 ofllceholders by Jackson. 
li:'(0 Commercial treatv with Turkey. 

South Carolina asserts "Suites Rights". 

Tho Mormiii eliun h founded by Joseph 
Smith, April 0. 

Building of the Smith 1'iirnltna railroad, 

American Institute of Learning founded. 

Great debate between Webster and 
Hay no. 
ISHI Intense Tariff and Free trade oxi Hernial. 

Garrison starts the "Liberator" antl- 


■Int... , 

Death of James Monroe. July 4. 
Manning mowing machines patented. 
Guthrlo discovers chloroform. 
Howe Invents hi.-.t pro. thai pin machine. 
Buttons lirnt mndo l.y nimhlnory. 
Western College of Teachers established. 
IS32 President Jackson vetoes the Bank BIB. 
New protective larltf measure passed. 

U. S. frlgnle "poiniiine," iit.tarvs ij nulla 

Bntoo, Feb. 0. 
First case of aslatlc cholera In U. S, 

Black Hawk \ 

I his caplure, Aug. 

rally- of Now York organize 

Re-election of / 

Copyright. IV"1, liy 'leo A i iglo A- Co. 

B4 Congi 

the President for removing bi 

I'M: It-.^ Sllti e. |ll, .nil/ eil.ullKC'l 

raid established by Bcn- 

Semlnole Indian war renewed. 
Gas first ,.il Into I'lilla.l. Iphin. 
Brown makes first gold pens with dia- 
mond points. 
Guano becomes an article of commerce 

Massacre or MaJ. Dade nnd his command 

In Florida. 
153G The national debt virtually paid. 

Arkansas admitted into the Union. 
Battle of San Jacinto, Te.vas ; Santa 

Anna defeated and a prisoner, April 21. 
Bequest „f James riuiillison Io the U. S. 

of J5I5.16U. 
Smlthfionlan Institute al Washington 

Death of James M rli.e.n. June 2S. 
Governor Call, of Georgia, invades Sem- 
inole country, 
Snm Houston elei.ted President of Texas, 

Oct. 22. 
Martin Van Buien elected President. 
Burning of the- Patent ami General Tost- 

offlce at Washington. 
Texas declared Independent 
Sam Colt Invents (he revolver. 
First National temperance Convention 

held at Saratoga. 
Adams' great debale for the right of 

Death of Aaron Burr. 
Sioux ami Wino. 1mm... Indians removed 

beyond (he Mississippi. 
Scott subdues the Creek Indians. 
lh.17 Great financial crash and panic through- 

Harndon originates the express business. 
Michigan admitted Ini" Iho Union. 
1S3S First line produced in the country. 

Wilkes' exploring expedition to the South 

United St.-i-t.;. Bank suspends specie pny- 

Mormon war in Missouri. 
ISP) Intense political excitement. 

The Log Cabin campaign. 

Election of William Henry Harrison as 

Goodyear Invents vulcanized rubber. 

Tho first steam Arc engine constructed 
by Ericsson. 

Sub-Treasury dill bocntui'S a law, June 

First Wnshlneionlan Society founded, 

Adams' Express Company organized. 

Wilkes discover' Antarctic continent. 
tS4l William II. Harrison Inaugurated. March 
I. die.-. April I; John .jler, Vli e-lTesl- 
dent. InaUL-iirated l'risl.lent, Aprils. 

McLcod difficulty. 

Webstor'j (iVo.ilu Di.Monary first pub- 

Sub-Treasurv 1.111 repealed. Aug. 5, 

Bankruptcy Act bee -s a law. Aug. I*. 

Imprisonment for debts due the govern- 
ment abolished. 

Greeley establishes the N*w York Tri- 

1SJ2 Klngford produces the first sample of 
pure corn starch. 
Mutiny on United Slates brig of war 
"Soraers" instigated by Midshipman 

The Fourier coiiitnuiiltv excitement. 
Fremont's expedition Io the Rocky Moun- 

Ashburlon or first Washington Trealy 

cltcr maiches first made by machinery- 

President vetoes bill lor National Bank. 

Dorr rebellion in Island. 

Bankrupt Act repealed. March 3. 

Death of Dr. Chnunlng. Oct. 2. 
1841 William Miller and the "MIHorltcs." 

S3D.0OO voted hv i.'.oid.'is to aid Morse to 
establish telegraph lines. 

Fremont explores C ml, la River. Wll- 

Inmet Valley, and Klamath Lake. 

Great comet visible during the day. 

Death of Noah Webster. 

Wltder's patent lor lire-proof safe. 
1SH Explosion of the gun. the "peace-mak- 
er," killing the secretaries Ot Navy 
and S(a(c. 

Commercial trealy with China. 

First telegraph lino from Washington 


, York, jOO buildings 

First and-slaverv candidate 

for the presidency. 
The "Midas," first American 

rounds Capo ot Good Hope. 
James K. Polk olccted President. 
Mormon war In Illinois, murder 

Joseph Smith; Brlgbnm Young k 

Iec(cd as his successor. 
Copper discovered in Michigan. 
Texas asks for annexation. 
First telegraph line. 
1B4S Texas annexed by Act ot Congress, Mc 

Ico tiikeu ottense. 
Florida and Iowa admitted Into tl 

War declared by Mexico, June 4. 
Naval school at Annapolis opened. 
Ellas Howe produces Ids first sewll 

Great lire In Pltlsburgh. 
Serious lire '~ * 


Death of Justice Joseph Story. 
Firm manufacture of flies. 
Zaehary Taylor, with 4,000 Iroops, «d- 

vanccd (o Corpus ChrlsM, Texas. 
Negotiations toward purchase of San 

Death p,f Andrew lm lison, June S. 
Freo Soil party originated. 
18411 Northwestern boumiarv llxed at 4SS. 
Hostilities begin In Mexico. 
Untiles of Palo Alto. Mav S. and Reaacn 

do 1ft Palma, May 9; victory or Gon. 

Mnlamoras taken, May IS. 

New Tarld bill passed, July LIS. 

President vetoes River IHarbor bill, 

"Wilson Proviso" against extension of 

slavery passes (ho House. 
Gun-cotton Invented. 
Great lire In Louisville. 
Ether first used as nn anesthetic by Dr. 

Kearney takes possession of New 
i blockades Mexican 

Mexico. Aug. is. 
commodore stockt 
ports on Pacific ,..,.., 

Monterey taken to G.-n. Tavlor Sept. "I 
KIslU days' nrmlrttlee granted. esp.,iin,,ii. ,m.|er Stephenson, 

sails (cm \"..,v \-,.rl, «Pn, "■- 

.. Connor, Nov. 

nunl." IVe 
Col. It. .iilp I 

Doniphati defeats Mexicans at Bra- 
Gen. Taylor relieved by Gen. Scott. 
Tho Mormons driven from Mnuvoo, 111. 
Iowa admitted as a S(a(e. 
1847 Kearney victorious at San Gabriel and 
Mesa, Cnl., Jan. S. S. 
Mexican Congress resolves to raise loan 
o( (15,1)0(1. 000 on property of the clergy 

Revolt of Mexicans 

against United istai, 
Defeat of insurgents 

Battle of lluena Vista, Feb. 23; Taylor 

Bat'le of Sj. rami nto; defeat ot Mex- 

Gmii. Ucariiey declares California a part 

of the United Slates, March 1. 
Vera Crux tahen by army nnd navy, 

Alvarado capitulates, April 2. 
Battle of Cerro (lor. hi, April S; Scitl 
defeats Mexicans, also at Coniroran, 

Molino del Rev (alien. Sept. S. 

Got:, Scott emers the city of Mexico 
Sept. 15. 

Death of John Qulncy Adams, Fob. 21. 

Gold .llsio,, n.i ir, diipToi.-i. March. 

t.'tielda I'uiiimiinliy. New York estab- 

Wisconsin admitted into the Union, May 

Missouri Compromise repealed. 

Election .-.f .'.,11 lm r> Taylor as President, 
drrier atone or w.ishiiigli.n Mir, niu.-iit 


Oregon Territorial till passed, Aug. 13. 
First receipt of California g,,ld at United 

States mint. Dec, 8. 
Treaty signed with Mexico. Feb. ;, 
Upper C'ulirornl.i i.e. led to United Stales. 
Mevioans unsn. i-e--i',ilh lu-Oete ['uelilo. 

held by Americans,. Sept. It to Oct. 1J. 
Iluiiiusoil'. taken by AuotI. aus. Oct. 9. 
Guyannc". captured, Oct. 20. 
Great excitement at itoeliester, N. Y,, 

caused by "Spirit Tappings." 
Food sent to starving Ireland. 
Los Angeles. Cal.. Rtken by Kearney. 

and a system of government organ- 

Inll..] ^t.Ues gold dollar first coined. 
Calif. rnl.i ailopls .i coni-litutlon prolilh- 

Itlng slavery. 
Death of James K. Polk, June 1G. 
Filil.ij ..t.o-iiig i..v|,edillons against Cuhi 

forblild"h hy Ihe Pre-sldent- 
Vlslt of Father Malhow. the tempi ran. c 



Capt. Mluio Invents (ho Mlnlo conical 

Mason und Dixon's line surveyed. 
Cholera visits the United States, severe 

at Cincinnati and St. Louis. 
California Constitution formed nt Mon- 

Great riot at Astor Place Opera lloune, 

New York. 
1830 Treaty with England for a transit way 

across Punama. 
French Ambassador dismissed from 

Death of John C. Calhoun. March 31. 
Congress passes the Oregon Donation 

Uncle Tom's Cabin first published. 
Watches first made by machinery. 
Fugitive Slave Law passed. 
Death of Zachary Taylor. July 0. 

Grlnoell An IP K\p e.iiili.u .-jl! -. 
California admitted as a Free State. 

New Mexico and Utah organized a3 ter- 
ritories, Sept. II. 

Visit of luiinv 1 inl to America. Sept. 12, 

Dahlgreu Invents ihe cast-iron gun. 
1S51 Appearance of tbe great sea serpent. 

Completion of Erie railroad. 

Corner-stone of Capitol extension laid, 
July 4. 

First Asylum for idiots established In 
Now York. 

California Vlgil.irce Committee formed. 

American yacht victorious at regatta In 
l^ondon, Eng. 

Frightful catastrophe ot public school 
building. New York. 

Congress ion a I Llbratj destroyed by (Ire, 
Dec. 24. 
1852 Dispute with England about thu flsh- 

Expeilltlon to Japan, under Com. Perry. 

First street-rail wn> In -Sew York. 

Deaths of Henry Clay. June 2U, and 
Daniel Webster. Oct. 24. 

Treatv of Commerce with Chill. 

Branch mini -stobUfiici! In San Fran- 

Franklin Pierce elected President. 
185J Crystal Palace, New York, opened. 

Treaty with Mexico, tor purchase of 

Treaty with Russlo. 

Yellow fever In New York. 

Children's Aid Society, New \-ork, 

Walker's ruil.u.-i.-iin. .-.;.■ .I.'i o. '- -■ ■ 

nora, Mexico. 
1854 Commercial Treaty with Japan signed, 

March 31. 
American, or Know-Nothing Soclaly 

Loss of (ho steamship Arctic. 

Bla.-I, Warrior, F-b. M v 
First railway from Lake Michigan to Ihe 
Mlssls.l]ipl. the Rock Inland. 

':an ship "Cayne" bombards Grey 
. Central America, on refusal to 
r<>r property destroyed. June 12. 
_ n of the Iron Tower for Iron- 
clad vessels, by Ericsson. 
fteclpr.-lt, IT.-.-.k witli England; settle- 
ment uf tho Fishery .p lion, Aug- 2. 

Bill passed organising Kansas and 
Nebr.ese-a as Territories, repealing Hi- 
Compromise of 15)20, which excluded 
slavery from tl 
chase, May 24. 
Massachusetts Aid Soclely send out set- 
tlers to Kansas. 
A. II. Rceder, of Pennsylvania, ap- 
pointed Oovernor of Kansas. 

" Inl Legislature ot Kansas meets 
i Shawnee. July; great emigration 

Ii. , siHUks between tho Free and Slave 

State settlers begin. 
Slum Indians defealed by Gen. Harney. 
Paraguayans atlack l'niled Stales 

steamer, "Waler-Wllcta." 
fompleiiun of Niagara Suspension 

Court Claims eslnbllshcd. 
William Walker unsuccessfully Invade* 

Dispute with Great Britain cnmernlng 

recruiting for the Crimen army. 

j Louisiana pur- 



1S55 British discovery ship "Resolute" abon- 
dunod in Arctic sea, brought to New 

]ST> 6 ll.msac Tunnel begun. 

Victory of John Drown at Ossawalomlc. 

Republican party formed. 

A !■]■ ii In i onl ■ I i I" ■■■'■' ' 'in' ill " hint; 
Rock Island bridge, across the Mlssls- 

El|.rl. opened. April 11. 
AITrnv m Faiinnni (" passengers 

and natives. April IT.. 
Pngc makes first wood type by tun- 


II Of I 

Introduction of sorghum, or Chines 
Dudley observatory, Albany. inuugui 

Loom [or weaving A.ynilnstor carpets 

first patented, 
lilooihm u( James lluchntian as Presl- 

Dcalh ol BIIeIiu Kent Kane. Arctic 

plorer. Feb. 1C. 
Robert J. Walker a Intel Tcrrll" 

Covernor of Kansas. 
Taney renders Drod Scott 

First attempt to lay Atlantic cable. 
Aldon secures patent fur condensed 

ml Ik. 
Great financial crash. 
New York. Uoslon nnd Philadelphia 

banks suspend, Oct- H, 15. 
Banks resume specie piiymcnlB, Dec. II!. 

Murder of Dr. Durdol). arrest and trial 
of Mrs. Cunningham. PL. mistress. 

Foundering ol (he ■'Central America" off 
Cape Halt eras, over 10" lives ami Si - 
000,000 lost. 

Great religious revival throughout the 

Troubles with the Mormons In Utah: 
Col. Johnson, with a military force. 
sent out; Ltrlgliani Voung fcrbldi- urn 
armed force entering Salt Lake City; 
Mormon trou] s ordered to bold thoiu- 
selvcs In readiness, martial law de- 
cleared. Sept. 15. 
ISiS Dispute with England respecting the 
right o! search. 



Atlantic lele- 

F.vcltlne , .itiL|'iiii;ii i<[ Lincoln and Doug- 
las in Illinois, 

Mlnnes«la admlltod as a State. May IS. 

Seward announces Ills ' Irrepressible con. 
Old" doctrine. 

Kansas rejects the pro-.Havcr> cmsUnj- 
tlOTI by overwhelming majority. Aug. J. 

First iui.os.ii;o across Hie Atlantic rablo. 
Irom Victoria lo " 

The Fenian organisation perfcelcd. 

Treaty uiili Panignav digued. Feb. 10. 

Oregon admitted ar ,t State, Feb. H. 

Drake borci -.11 well a I Titui: vlllo, 

Gicat storm In the Northern and South- 
ern Stales. 

Daniel E. Sickles shoots Philip Barton 
Key. Feb. 27- 

Kansas Free State party frame a State 
constitution at Wyandotte. 

Vlcksburg Convention doeluros In favor 
of reopening slave trade. May 11. 

'■ i of Worcester's Unabridged 

e of the potato bug. 

Ek-citon of Republican officers In Kan- 
sas. Dec. tl. 

Comstock Great Bonanza Mine pur- 
chased fur an Indian pony and a 

f Wale 

Tour of the 

Hall's expedition to the Polar Sea. 
Arrival at New York of the Great East- 
ern, June 2S. 
ISO] Election of .Mr. Pennington as Speaker 
of the House, 
Abraham Lin- "It '-■■ i. I I n Ident. Nov. 
6. South Carolina panes the "Ordl- 
" i first 



of the 

c. 20. 
f Thlr- 

t. Dec. __. 

11 a J, i r Anderson tr.oisiers bin comma nil 

from Fort Moultrie to Fart Sumter. 
The Parrott Gun invented by Robert R. 

1861 Mississippi secedes, Jan. 3. 
Florida secedes, Jan. 10. 
Alabama accedes. Jan. 11. 
South (,il i ti.i tri..i|,.. tire upon Ibe "Star 

of Iho West." 
" orgia seced 



v. .,, 

i. 1. 

I. Monlgoin 

, Pcb. 

Jefferson Davis, ol Mississippi, Prcsl- 
dcnl, Feb. S. 

Abraham Lin... In In.iii-Jiir lied 1'rci.iriciit 
of United States, March 1. 

Fort Sumter. Charleston Harbor, bom- 
barded—boh,!.- emr.rn,. cement of hostil- 
ities In the Civil War. April 12. 

Lincoln talhi (or Til, Cell volunteers, April 

Proclamation announcing blockade ul 

Southern ports, April 17. 
Federal troops allocked In ItaUlrunr-. 

April 1'J. 
[■}, . i t ,,, i|. ,n ,,f Kiiir. al Nnrf. It. '. . 

Yard by Itiilon Commander. April 20. 
Murclarui refuses to secede. April 27. 
KlPvorUi shut at Alexandria by Jack- 
son. May. 
MlKsnurl turn;", over to Confederates eu- 

tlro control of financial and military 
3 of the Stale. May 2. 
nl call for (2,000 three yearn' 

volunteers. May 3. 
Arkansas »fr.«lw from II, <■ Union. May 0. 
Capt, Lyon receives nnrrender ol Fort 

JnekBon. May 10- 
Uiiltlinore occupied ly General llutler. 

May 13. 
North Carolina n-i'J'-i Irom the Union, 

May 20. 
Butler I" command at fortress Monroe. 

May 22. 
Advance ol Union for. e-.i Into Virginia. 

May 24. 
Death of Stephen A. Douglas. Juno 3. 
Ten uost.oo w.cilci Irom the Union. June 

8. Fast Tennessee opposihr it. 

flattie of iilu Iieiliel, Vn„ June If). 
ConercBM mccla In eitraordluary aeaslon, 

July \. 
Dottle near Carthage, Mo., July 6. 

1SG1 Privateer "Sumter" escapes, to sea, from 
New Orleans. July 7. 

Battle of Carrhhi: Ford. W r . Va.; Con- 
federate Gem-rat Garuott killed. 

Bottle at Itomnoy. Vs., Juno 11. 

West Virginia admitted a:i a Stale, June 

Battle at Rich Mountain ; Confederates, 
under Retrain, dcieated hi llceiccrnn-i. 
July 11. 

Bottle near CcnircUlle Va.. July IS. 

Destruction -A the Confederate "Petrol" 
hy frlKate "St. Lawrence," 

Maryland Inuohd hv Sloneivali Jackson. 

Bailie of Hull Hun: Union forces, un- 
der McDowell, defeated; union killed 
and wounded. 1.1'in- Confederated, 
1.003 killed and iveunded, July 21. 

Gen. Modeller, ajwumc command of 
army In Virginia and on the Fotoiiiu.:. 

Battle ot Laurel Hill, July 22. 

Dottle of Drug Spring, Mo., under Gen- 
eral Lyon: Southern pieces defeated. 

Battle of Athens. Mo., under Gen. Lyon: 
Confederates defeated. Aug. 6, 

Battle of Wllrun's Creek. Mo.: 5."00 
men. under Gens. Lyon and Sigel. at- 
tach IM. oik), under Gens. McCullo. b 
Price, etc., Lyon killed; of Sl- 
gol, Aug. 10. 

President Lit.. ..Ins non-intercourse proc- 
lamation. Aug. 1G. 

Gen. Bulier ami Commodore 
lake Forts llattcros and Clark on 
North Carollnn coast. Auk. 2S. 

Fort Morisan nbandoio-d in Confederates. 
Aug. 30. 

Fremont Issues proclamntlon freeing 
slaves In Missouri, Aug. 31. 

Battle of Cnrnlfox Ferry. Gens, ftose- 
crans and Floyd, Sept. 10. 

Destruction or [ rlvauer "Judah," Sept. 

Repulse of i.'uiilcderatcs at Cheat Moun- 
tain. W. Va. 

Battle ot Lexington. Mo.; Col. Mulli- 
gan defends [or four dais against -y._- 
000 Confederates, bin Is forced to sur- 
render; loss. 2,^:0 prisoners, and n 
]. ir >,, .lunmrit ol K..M. 

Battle of Greenbrier, Va. ; success of 
Union forces. Oct. 3. 

Confedcriilc "Savjinnah"' captured by U. 
S. brig "Perry." 

Wilson Zouaics repiil-,.'d nt Santa Hesit 
Island. Oct. 9. 

Confederate privateer "Nashville" es- 
capes from Charleston, S. C-, Oct. 11. 

Repulse- nl Cotifc I e rate ram .ind five ships 
at South West Pass. Oct. 12. 

Escape of Mason and S Udell from 
Charleston. of FreiJorlcl'toivri. Mo.; flight of 
Je(T Thompson, Oct. EL 

Recapture of Lexington, Mo., by Union 

Gen. Sherman appointed lo the com- 
mand of Kentucky forces. 

Battle of Ball's Uluff; Col. Baker killed. 
Oel. 21. 

Zrie,-"ivl ilefi-als Confederates nt Spring- 
Held. Mo.. Oct. 20. 

Gen. Scott re'lgn.s minninnd of army. 
Gen. McClellan succeeds him. 

Soldiers' Aid Society formed at Detroit, 

Commodore Wilkes, < 

and Slldcll, from British steamer 
"Trent," In Indlun waters. 

Port l.-'iiitianled. Nov, 7. 

Bnttle of Belmont, Grant's flrsl fight. 

Capture tit Tybee Island, coiiimandlng 
Savannah, taken Ilee. 20. 

Charleston Harhor shut by sinking stone 
lleot, Dee. 21. 

Galling gun Invented by J. Galling, 

Death of Sam Houston. Oct, S. 

Kentucky admitted Into Conteder.ite 
States. Dec. 9. 

Bnttle of M.irilrishurr;. Va.; Gen. Pope. 
Union, capture:; I.J'.h.i prisoners. Dec. 
lSi',2 Indian massacre In Minnesota. 

Battle ot Blue Gap, Va., Jan. 8. 

Death of John Tyler. Jan. 8. 

"Ericsson" Monitor launched at Green- 
point, Jan. 30. 

Edwin M. Mjnioii. ,,f Pennsylvania, he* 
comes Secrotnrj of War, Simon Cam- 
eron, ot [Vmisvlvaiiln. lollrlng Jan. IS. 

Battle of Mill Springs, K>. ; ZolllcolTer 
defeated by Iroojis, under Gen. 
George II. TliomaN. Jan. 19. 

Fort Henry, on Tennessee River, cap- 
tured by naval forces, under Com- 
modore A. II, Foulc. Feb. ii. 

Roanoke Island. N\ C. captured by Gen. 
Uurnslde nnd Coiumudore Goldsbor- 
ougb. Feb. B. 

Fort Douelson. Tenn., surrender. <d 

Gen. i 

. IC. 

■ Congress meels nl Rich- 
mond. Va., Fob. IS. 
Jefferson Davis Inaugurated Prealdo 

Southern ( onlcdt ■racy, (or : 
Feb. I' ' 


Battle ot Pea Hldge. Ark.; Gen. Mc- 
Culloeh killed March 9. 

Confederate ram. "Morrlmuc" rslnkB 
"Cuinherland" and "Ct ingress.'" V. S. 
naval vessels in Uatnpion Itoads. Vir- 
ginia. March S. 

"Monitor." LI. S. Iron-clad, attack* and 
drives "Merrluiac" back, March 9. 

Muua:-sa;; .laiictloii ev.icuated and occu- 
pied by Union forces. March 10. 

Battle nf Winchester. Va,; Union loss, 
HS killed, ir.o w. oiiided; t'oiiledoraie 
loss. sOj lulled, wounded, .md iTili-ilnc. 
March 13. 

Baltic ot Newborn, N. C March II. 

Battle at I'ltiwburt-' Lauding; Grant, 
Union commander; Gen. \. Sidney 
Johnston Killed, Union loss, April 
and 7. IJ.iiiS. Coiifcderale loss. 10.- 

Capture of Island No. 10, by Union 
forces, April «. 

Raid or Gen. Mitchell; rapture of 
HunUYlllO, Ma., anil RuSHcllvllle, 

Fort Pulaski, Gn.. surrendered after 
thren day.".' Inunliarduient. to Union 
forces, under Gen. Gilniore. April 11. 

Slnierj al.iillchi-il In IHnlrlel ol Colum- 
bia, April lfJ. 

P...iiil,r(Mnieiit ..( Fi.rt Ullloiv. by Coill- 
nnulore 1'i.oto, April 17. 

Union He. i. under Furraitiii pat: : ' l, u|. 
Hie Mlaslhalppl river and takes Ne* 
Orleans, passing l-'orla Jueksmi and 
Philip. April 21. 

Gen. Ilutl.r In command, at New Or- 
leans. May 1. 

Ynrktown ovocualed. May *. 

S u r ren tier of New Orleans lo Coramo- 

Patilc of Williamsburg, Va., May B. 

Batlle ol West Point, May 7. 

Norfolk surrendered to Gon. Wool. May 

Battle of Seven Pines, Virginia. May 29. 
Corinth ovaoutilcil. May 30. 

Little l(i iek i aptnred, Mav :il. 
Balllo of Fair Oalis; Union loan, heavy; 
renewal of baltle of Fair Oaks, bug- 

Repulse of Confederates, i 

Mo.. June H, 
Seven days' light before Rlchm 

dor McClellan. June 26; Mechanlrs- 
vllle, June -■;. Caiu.s' Mills, June Jl: 
Savage Station and I'e.i. h Orchard. 
June 2S; White Oak Swamp. Juno SO; 
Malvern Hill, July l; change of base 

President Lincoln culls for M0, 000 vol- 
unteers, July 1. 
Mur frees bo rough captured by Forrest. 

Raid of Morgan In Kentucky. July 7. 

Surrender . r I', n Il'i-hoii. July .v 

Death of Martin Van llurcn. July 21. 

Buttle ■! ■ ■ mi \"a., Aug. 0; 

UnlOJl [ - ■ . ,:, !■ r Hanks, Inso 1,K00 
kilhil !,-■ in I. .1 in i mls.ilni!; Confed- 
erates, trader Stonewall" Jackson. 

Raid ol Phillips Inn. Mledsslpul, Aug. 16. 

Battle of Sulphur Springs. Va.. Aug. :'i. 

Fighting on Kappaliaunnck under Pope. 
Confederates Fwoll mid Jackson, 
Aug. 27. 

Gen. Ilriii; t invade... '|r ....,.,,- and Ken- 

Baltle of Kettle Run. Va.. AUK. 27. 

Battle of Groveton, Va.. Aug. 23. 

liilent of Union lories at Richmond, Ivy., 
Aug. 29. 

Surrender of Memphis, Aug. 29. 

Second Halt f Hull Hun; defeat of 

Federals. Aug. 30. 

Bnttle of Chantllly. Va.; Union Generals 
Kearney and Stevens killed. Sept. 1. 

Confedcraies cross Potomac into Mary- 
land, nt Poolsvlllo. Md., Sept. 1. 

Battle of S.,uUi Mountain, Md.; Union 
victory; Gen. Jesse L. Reno killed. 

Harper's Ferry surrendered, after three 
days' fighting bv tieneral .Mips. Sept. 

Battle ot Anlle(_._ 
Clellnn and Gen. Lee, Retreat ot mi- 
Confederates, Sepl. 17. 

Battle of luka. Miss., between Gen. 
Itoserruns and Gen. Price, Sepl. 1ft. 

Reoccnpathin of Harper's Ferry by Fed- 
erals, Sept. 22. 

President Lincoln Issues preliminary 
Proclamation of Emancipation, Sept. 

Battle ot Corinth, Miss., between Gens. 

Roscerans and Price, defeat of the lat- 
ter, Oct. 3. J. 
Bottle of Perrvvlllc, Ky., between Gens 

Bucll and llragg ; cliarric of Phil. 

Sheridan irlna the day. Oct. S. 
Bald of Confederate,, under Stuart Into 

Pennsylvania, Chamborsburg seized 

nnd looted, Oct. 10-" 
Union Gen. O. M. .> 

died at Beaufort, S. C, Oct, 30. 
La Cranee, Tenn., occupied by Gen. 

Grant with Union forces. 
Bottle of Fredericksburg. \"a. Union 

force; under iooi. luirnside defeated. 

Union losses, 13,771. 
Bnttle of Kingston, N. C. Confederates 

defeated, Dec, If. 
Murphy surrenders Holly Springs to 

General Van Dorn, Dec. 21. 
JetTurson Dnvis Issues u proclamation 

outlawing Hen. Butler, Dec. 2-1. 
Porler'a licet open lire upon Vicksburg. 

Sherman's unsuccessful attack upon 

Vlcksburg. Dec. 27, 2S. 
Iron-clad "Monitor" lonnders at sea. olT 

Cape llntleras. 
West Virginia admit'. <l as n Slate ot tho 

Union, Dec. 31. 
1SG3 Battle of Murfrcosboro; Roscerans de- 
feats Bragg. Jan. 1. 
Emancipation Proclamation of President 

Lincoln goes into effect, liberating all 

slaves In Southern Stales. 
Death nt Lyman Bceclier. D, D., aged 

S7, Jan. 10. 
U. S. steamer "ilatieras" sunk by South- 

em privateer "Alabama" off Texas. 

Jan. II. 
Capture ot Arkansas Po.-t bv Gen. Me- 

Clernand, Jan. 11. 
Confcdsraie ram "Allantn" captured o(T 

Savannah. Ga.. bv Union monitor 

"Wrehnwken," Jan. 17. 
First U. S. i. .hired regiment enrolled In 

Smith Carolina, Jan. 2a. 
Act lo provide a national currency be- 
comes a law. Feb. 25. 
Farrugut runs batteries al Grand Gulf. 

April l. 

Com. Porter sue. cssfullv runs the bat- 
lerlea at VlckBburg, Acrtl Ifi. 

Port Gibson and Grain! (Hilt, on Missis- 
sippi river, taken by U. S. Grunt, 
May 1. 

Col. Grlerson's raid through Mississippi 
arrives nt Ikiton Rouge, May 2. 

Arrest of C. L. Vulandlgliurn. 

Severe lighting between Union forces, 
under Hooker, and Conlederates. un- 
iler Lee. al'.oit t'h.iro ctlorM ille V,i.. 
Confederal. Gen. "St. .to wall" Jackson 
killed; Hooker defeated. May 2. ?., ■]. 

Battle of Jackson. Miss.; captured by 
Gen. Grant, May H. 

Rattle of Bnker's Creek: Pemberton 
routed by Grant. May IE. 

Battle of Bl&ek Itlver Bridge; retreat 
of Pemberton to Vlel.sburg, May 17 

Vlcksburg besieged P> Grant, May 21. 

Colored troops first brought Into action 
at Port Hudson, May 27. 

Ii.ntle .,, MUiiken'H lleml. Juno ti, 7. 

Retreat of Milroy from Winchester. 

Invasion of Pennsylvania by Lee's en- 
tire army, June 16-25. 

Untllo of Gettysburg. Pa.; Gen. Leo 
defeated bv Union forces, under Cen. 
Meade. July 2, 3. 

Morgan begins hla raid through Indiana 
and Ohio. July 3. 

Vlcksburg surrendered by Gen. Pember- 
ton lo Union forces, under Grant. 
July I. 

Port Hudson to Gen. Uu-iks. 
nnd Natch.-/ occupied by Gen. Grant— 
Mississippi river Peine ihu.- open .1 I-- 
navigation, July S. 

Anti-drafl riots In New York; 2,000 riot- 
ers killed, July 1" II. 15. 

Riot In Boston. July 15, 

Gen. Burnsldc occupies Klloxvlllo. 
'Venn.. Sept. :l. 

Con fedora Id: ovarii Die Fori Wagner. 
Sept. Ii. 

Burnslde captures Cumberland Gap, 
Sept. 3. 

Battle of Chlrkamnuga, Union forces, 
under Roscerans, fall back lo Chatta- 
nooga, Sept. 10. 

Qunntrell raids Lawrence. Kan., Aug. 


-ii. 1 

destroying much Chi 
ment property. Oct. 2. 

Hooker Inkes Lookout Mountain. Oct. 

First Fenian Congress held In the 
United Stnleo. 

Gen. Meade crosses the 
1-ce retiring, Nov, 7. 

Long3treoi begins (ho siege of Ifn.n- 
vllto, Nov. 17. 

Battle of Missionary Ridge; success of 
Federals, Nov. 2f, 

Repulse of I.ongslroot at Knoxvllle. 
Nov. 38. 29. 

Banks starts on his c!ipcdltlon Into 
Tosns, Nov. 20. 

Longstreet raises (do siege of Knox- 
vllle. Dee. G. 

President Lincoln Issues Proclamation 
of Amnesty. Dec. 8. 
1EG4 Draft of r.nn.riia „„,„ ordered by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, Feb. 1. 

Colt's armory, at tlurlford, destroyed 
by lire. Fob. S. 

Disaster lo Union forces In Florida, un- 
der Gen. Seymour, Feb. 20. 

Kllpntrlrk'u raid Into Virginia. Gen. 
Dahlgrcn killed. Feb. 28. 

"Copyiiglit, iv;.r,, by Qoo! a. Ogle & Co, 

1S61 General Grant made Lieutenuol-Gen- 
ural, March 2. 
A Free State government Inaugurated 

Gen. b s. i, rant appointed CouimnudcT- 
In-t hief of army of United States. 
March 12; assumes command, .March 


i 10. 

: of Jenkins Ferry, Ark.; defeat 

of Ktrby Smith, April 4. 
New York Sankarj Commission Fair 

receipts over one million dollars. 
Union expedition to Mansfleld, La. 

foiled, April S; Union fortes rein- 
forced, repulse Confedcnites at Pleas- 
Fort Pillow massacre, April 12. 
Weoo-lj surrenders Plymouth, N. C, to 

Confederates. April 20. 
.Sever.- lit htiog between I 'onf.-ilera (■■'■-, 

under Lee, and Union forces, under 

Grant, In Virginia, III advance on 

Richmond. May 3-11. 
Bottle of Wilderness, May 5. 
Occupation of City Point by General 

Butler, May 4. 
Sherman begins his march toward At- 
lanta, May 7. 
Battle ol l;-:-.i, ;., Ga.. Oetue.-n Gen, -ral: 

Sherman and Johnston, May 16. 
Failure of Butler to capture lirurv't 

Bluff, May 10. 
Heath of Nathaniel lIav.Uii.rno. May 10. 
Fighting between lac and Grant nt the 

North Anna. May 21-24. 
Battle of Dallon. On.. May 2S; Union 

Sheridan captures Cold Harbor. May 31. 
Evacuation ot Allatooiui Puss, June 1. 
Buttle of Cold Harbor, June 2, 3. 
Battle of Piedmont, Va,. June li. 
Hunler attacks Litu tituirg; relreats 

Into West Virginia, June s. 
Army uf the i'otoniac crosses lo south 

side ot James River. June 12-15. 
\ssaiilis on Peienlnirg; Union forces 

losing 10.C00 men In four days, Juno 

c,.ii!..,|.|-,n- [■[-!■. .ii,-,.,- "Mat, una ' m:i. 

by the United States .steamer "Keir- 

sarge." off Cherbourg. Fr:ni< e. I urn. I'.'. 
l|..,,d attaeks Hooker at Keuliesaw and 

falls. June 22. 
Kiiiain I [■ ail.m Amendment submitted to 

the States by Congress. June 22, 
Butler occupies I p Bottom, ten miles 

below Richmond. June 22. 
Mankind abolishes slavery. June 21. 
Repulse of Thomas and McPberson at 

Ke-iincsaiv, June 27. 
Fugitive Slave Law of 1SJ0 repealed by 

Congress, Juno 28. 
Early begins hit: raid Into .Maryland. 

July 2. 
Wallace deleated hv Farly at, 

Md., July 0. 
Bureau's raid Into Alabama. July 10. 
Early's, entire army within »!v miles ot 

Washington. July 12. 
Gold reach '■■ bighesl premium, viz., LSI 

per cent, July 1H. 
Gre,. ley's negotiations with Conled- 
erates, at Niagara, July IS. 
Battle around Atlanta between forces 

under Huml, t'onl. derate, and under 

Sherman, Union. July 22. 
Clitiiiibirsburg. 1'a., burned by General 

Sluart. July SO. 
K.|,losl"ti of ;i mine under Contcder.ile 

works, Petersburg. July 30. 
Farragut captures M.ibilc. Aug. 3. 
Great naval vleiorv. under Farrogut. at 

Mobile. Ala.. Aug. 5. 
Atlanta ■:■■!' uat.'l and .:■•:. -o|-|e-l h. Sir r- 

nian. Aug. 31. 
Baltle ot Winchester. Va. Sheridan cap- 
tures 5,0CH) [ rlsoTiers, 5 guns, and all 
the wounded. Sept. 13. 
Defeats of Karl., bv Sheridan, In Shen- 

nndonh, Sept. 10-22. 
Thliieenth Ametiilmeiii passed, forever 

abolishing slavery. 
Pilot Knob evacuated by Unionists'. 

whelming deleat of Early at Cedar 

Creek. Oct. 19. 

Raid of Conledcriitcs ..n St Albans, Vt.. 
Oct. IS. 

fiest ruction of ram "Albemarle" by a 
lori.edo affixed to her by Lieut, dish- 
ing. Oct. 27. 

President Lincoln re-olci led; Andrew 
Johnson Vice-President. Nov. 6. 

Sherman eoiniileiues bis "March 10 the 
Sen," from Atlanta, Nov. IS. 

In. i.-uillariMii In Confederates in New- 
York-. Nov. 25. 

Halite ,.f Franklin, Tenn.. between Hood 
and Tbomns, Nov. 30. 

Battle of Nashville, under Gen. Thom- 
as, Groat H< lory. Confederate-: un- 
der Hoed retreat. Dec. 16. 18. 

Savannah. Ga.. ... copied lo Gen. Shor- 
inu, completing the "March to Iho 


President orders a drull for 3im,tH.iii i ■■> 

men. Dec. 10. 
Duller and Porter attack Fort Fisher. 

N. C, and fall. Doc. 24. 25. 
1505 Establishment of the Frccdmnn's Uu- 

Fort Fish or, N. C., captured by Gen, 
Terry nnd Commodore Porter. Jan. 15. 

Sherman leaves Savannah, and starts 
northward. Feb. 1. 

President's fnulcrenco with Confed- 
i-1-.iie Coiniiil: don. 1-'. b. ■'■■ 

Evacuation of Cliarlcstn" S. C, by Con- 
federates, Feb. 17. 

Its occupation bj Union forces, Feb. 18. 

Rc-innuguratlon ot President Lincoln, 

Confederate t:oiigress adjourns for the 
last time. Mnrch 18. 

Desperate lighting commences before 
Richmond. Battle of Five Forks. 
April 1. 

Gen. Grant advances upon Petersburg. 
April 2. 

Richmond and Petersburg cvacualcJ 
during night of April 2. 

Flight of Hails from Richmond. April 2. 

Richmond and Petersburg occupied by 
Union forces, April 3. 

Selma. Alio, captured with large stores, 
April 5. 

Buttle uf Sailors' Crceki defeat of Ewell 
and Cuntis Leo. April S. 

Grant demands llio surrender of Iho 
Southern army, April 7. 

Lee surrender lo U. 3. Oram at Ap- 
|omatlo> Court Douse. Va.. April n. 

Mobile evacuated by the Confederates, 
April 10. 

Montgomery, Ala., surrenders to Wil- 
son. April 11. 

President Issues orders to stop draft- 
ing and further purchase »I war ma- 
terial. April 13. 

President Lincoln nssosslnnted. In 
Washington, by Wilkes lloolli, April 

Attempted assassination nt Sownrd, 
April 14. 

President Lincoln dies. April IB. 

Andrew Johnson, ot Tennessee, VI -e- 
I'rc.ildeiit. lakes oath of office no Presl- 

Macon. Go., occupied by Union forces; 
1 ot army otoros taken, 



Capture and death of Will 

April 2a. 
Gon. Johnston's army surrendcra |o 

Gon. Sherman. April 20. 

1S55 Jefferson Davis captured at Irwlnsvllle 
Gu.. with purl nt Til-, cabinet, Mai in' 

Rngogcmoiii at lioeo 1-hlio, hei'wec, out. 
Confederates and loo Union truop-i 
being the last In the "War uf ilie ite- 
belllon," May 12. 

Grand review of the army, at Washing- 
ton, May 23. 2i. 

Gen. Klrby Smltli siirreti'Iers all his 
coiniuanil, Trans-Mlsjlsslppl Army. 

Amnesty Proclamation of President 
Johnson, with fourteen different ex- 
ceptions, May 20. 

Georgia declnres slavery abolished etc 
December -J. 

Secretary Soward nfficlnlly declared 
slavery abolished throughout the U. 
S., Dec. 18. 

Mississippi nullified secession ordinance, 

Alabama declared ordinance of scceislin 
null and void, Sept. 12. 

South Carollnn repealed the secession 
ordinance, Sept. 15. 

Florida annulled se. e.-.ion nrdlnnnce, 

_Oct. 25, 

illon opening nil ports In South- 
id ending bloekude, Juno 

ti Stoics, . 



It, July i. 

It.-P.-t Indian Chiefs ilgn treaty ot loy- 
alty. Sept- 14. 

i:\ccutlnu of Capt. Win, the Anderson- 
vllle prison i onunan.lant. \'ov. 10. 

1'rc-hlent . i „,■ , ,|,. luring i|, e 

Fenians Uivn-I.- r 'l... lune ].' 

Fourteenth A mend ment passed the Sen- 
Successful laying of the Atlantic Cable, 

July 27. 
Massacre In New Orleans, July HO. 
ISG7 Nebraska admitted ns the thirty-seventh 

Tenure of Ofllce hill passed, June I. 
Confiscation and Amnesty bill passed, 

Purchaso of Alaska, for $7,-'OO,ia)0. Mnrch 

Jefferson Dnvln admitted lo bull. In Iho 
sum of J100.000. May 13. 

Southern States organized as military 
districts, Jan. 
1SG3 Impeachment, trial, and acquittal of 
President Johnson. 

Hc-atli ..f Kit it'll rlsio;heri Carson, trap- 
per and guide. May 23. 

Dealtt ot James Buchanan. June 1. 

Heath of Maitlnw Vaesar, June 23; he 
donate:: -sou "in fur endowment. .■!.-.. 
nt Vassar College. 

Wyoming Territ.irv orgaiilv.ert. July 2.1. 

Death of 'I'h.ul.leus Stevens. Aug. 11. 

Cornell University, of Hhnca, opened, 

Election of Gen. Grant as President, 
Nov. 3. 
1363 Pacific Railway completed. Mav In 

neat ll of l--ranl.Mli Pierce. Jan. 

Nolle Prosequi ends pre-ecuilon nl Jef- 
ferson Davis. Feb. G. 

Fifteenth Amendment passed. Feb. 2a. 

Supreme Court pronounces Confederate 
currency to be worthless. 

Great peace Jubilee at liislou. June 10- 

French frontier cable laid, July 27. 

Great Wall street panic, "lllaek Frl- 
dav," Sept. 21. 

Death of G. orge Peahody, Nov. 4. 

Dealh of Edwin M. Stanton. Dec. 14. 
1870 Ratification ot the Fifteenth Amend- 
ment by the States. 

Death ot Admiral David G. Farragut, 

Death of ijen. R. E. Lee. Oct. 12, 

The Nntliao mui-.l.-r. .'■■:.. « Voik, .Inly :f. 
Proelnmallon ot neutrality In Franco- 
First narrow-Rauge railway built. Doil- 

vcr & Rio Grande. 
Ku-Khix bill passes Congress. 

1571 Treaty of Washington with Great Rrlt- 

Great fire at Chicago; 17.IM bulld'nn* 
destroyed ; loss about JlOfi.OtW.tXii). 

Tho Volloivstono National Park bill 

Visit of iho Grand Duke Alexia to United 

The Credit Moblller scandal. 

1572 SetHemeut "f tho Alabama Claims. 
Congress removes the political disability 

of the Southern people. 
Rc-elecil.iu of President Grant. 
Great fire at Boslon; loss about (78,000,- 

lie.Uli of Ilei'i -e Gn i ■ I ."- v . V.H- ja 

Death ot Samuel F. Morse, lnventoi 
j electric telegroi 1 


Northwestern boundary tpiestlon settled 
by the Emperor of Germany. 

Death ,.f Tane ■- Gordon ItoiiTiett, June I. 

Eplj-.ootle throiicliout the United Stales. 

Natlonul Gcngcs organised. 

Deoth of William II. Seward. 
1873 Wreck of tho Atlantic, G35 lives lost, 
April 1. 

Modoc massacre, death of General Can- 
by, April II. 

Colfax muss e re, La., by While League. 

Dealh ot Salmon P- Chase, Chief Justice, 
May 7. 

Bceclier and Tlllon ocandal, Brooklyn, 

The Salary Grab Bill. 

Failure of Jay Cooke £ Co.; great finan- 
cial panic, Sept. 19. 

Trial and conviction or William M. 
Tweed, Mov. 22. 

Seizure ot the "Vlrglnlu 
tlnn of a number of 1 . . 
by the Spanish authorities In Cuba. 

Surrender of tho "VlrglnluH" to tho 
United Suites by Spain, Dec. 12. 

Dealh ot Louis Agassi*, Dec. II. 

1574 Woman's Tctii; erimce Crusade. 
Visit of Knpikiiun. Klin; of Hawaii. 
Compromise Currency Rill signed by tho 

Pre, ident. 
Death of Churh'j Sumner. March 11. 
Grasshopper raid In the Northwest. 
Abduction of Charley 1,'ors, July 1. 
A second large (In- In Chicago, July II. 
Presidential election; result disputed, 

November 7. 

1575 Passage of the Art for the Resumption 

of Specie ['.iiineuH In l!»7fl. 
Colorado admitted Into the Union, 

March I. 
Centennial celebration at Lexington, 

Concord and Bunker Mill. 
Denlli of Andrew John: on. July 31, 
Trial ot Henry Ward lleecher for odtll- 

Trial of Prof, -Swing for heresy. May n. 

Death of John C. Breckinridge. May 17. 

Military rub: dl.:....nti d in tho South- 
ern States. 

Suspension of tho California Rank, and 
aulcldo of President Ralston. 

Death or Henry Wilson, Nov. 22. 

Great fire In Virginia City. Nov., Oct. 

Foundering of steamship "Pacific." be- 
tween San Fraud! co and Portland, 
Nov. 4. 
Death of William II. Aslor. Nov. 21. 
Escape of Tweed from the custody of 

tho Sheriff, Dec. 4. 
Great revivals, under Moody and San- 
Great Inundation In Texas, 



Serious diin.-iiUl.-s hot ween Americans 

and Chinese In California. 
Bursting of reservoir at Worcester, 

Mass., destroying millions of dollars 

worth of properly. March 3. 
Death of Ale-Minder T. Stewart. April 10. 
War win, Sittlno, Hull and the Sioux. 
Massacre nt Hamburg. S. C. June. 
Massacre of Gen. Custer and his com- 
mand, by the Sloii.v Indiana, July 2. 
Completion of the First One Hundred 

Years of American Independents; 

great rejnl.-liifc: ihi-oiigl.oin tin: United 

Stales. July t. 
Cssllo Garden, N, Y., destroyed tiy fire, 

July 0. 
Younger Brothers and NbrthDeld Dank 

robbery. Sept. 7. 
Arrest of W. M. Tweed, at Vigo, Spain, 

Sept. 8. 
Yellow lever in Georgia. September. 
Trial of M..IR M.iguiree. October. 
Dastardly attempt In rob Hie grave Of 

Burning or (he Brooklyn Theater. !7fl 
lives lost, Dec." 6. 

First furnace fur cremation built, at 

Washington. Penn.. Doc. 6. 
1 li. V-Malml,. r;i i [ r- ■_! . 1 I,, rf' r. Hev. 1?. 
1S77 Closo of the Indian War. 

The Electoral Commission Hill passed 
by Congress. Jnn. 25. 2G. 

Rutherford B. Hnycr d<« larod Trcilde it 
March 2. 

Blue Glass mania. 

Death of C.tu. mi . Vniidorldll. June 4. 

Great Railroad rloi;,, Cast and West. 
July and August. 
IBIS Yellow fever epldoniP along 'he Lotv..r 

Meeting or the Alabama Claims Commis- 
sion. Feb. 27. 

Fenians attempt a second Invasion of 
Canada. .May 29. 

Dealh i>( Robert Hale Owen, Juno 21. 

The Colorado I'l.'trirted l.isut humbug. 

Return of H.-nry M. Stanley from Afri- 
can explorations, August. 

Death nf Rrlghnm Young. Aug, 29. 

Death or Oliver I". Morton, Nov. 1. 

Earthquake shock! In New England and 
middle. States. 

Ku-KJin Hill passe J tie Congress. 

Death of Mcujamln F. Wade. March 2. 

Development of the telephone and 

Bankrupt Repeal r< i I ■ passed. May 10. 

"-'■-n Bryant. June 

Death of Willi 


; In Washington Terri- 
tory, July. 

Chinese Embassy visits the United 

Sliver Bill passed by both Houses of 

Yellow fever In the South. 

Gold sold at par— the first time since 
1562— Dec. 17. 
1879 Resumption of specie pavtnents, Jan. 1, 

Death of Richard Henry Dana. Feb. 2. 

Great Are nt Reno. Nov.. March 2. 

New Constitution of California adopted 

May 5 

' Wlllli 

i Lloyd Garrison. May 

Washington's birthplace i>rcisi-< Poll. 

Houses, June 10. 
Waterspout In Black Hills o.iu-ho: 

loss of proportv and life June 12. 
rusiiftroiifi 't.irni- cast and ,-,-f-st, Jul v. 
1 1 real lire ni headwood, Dak., Sept. £5. 
Death or Gen le-eph Hooker. Ocl. 31. 
I lenth of Zneharv Chandler, Oct. 31. 
Caleb Cushlng dies at Madrid. 
"Exodus" n r negroes from South to 

James Russell Lowell made Minister to 

Feb. 10. 

Terrific tornado i-wo-r-. over parts of 
Western and southern States. April 8. 

Groat for.-st nr.:« In S-uth-rri Nov. Jer- 
sey, April and May. 

Collision on Long Island Sound destrjys 
*■" steamers -'Narragunselt" t nd 

. nlal celebrs 
Andre, Sept- 23. 

GarUeld and Arlhur nominated by Chi- 
cago Republican Convention. June 9: 
Hancock and English by Cincinnati 
Democratic Convention. 

At the General Flection, the Repub- 
lican candidates secured 213 out of 
359 electoral votes. Nov. G. 
1SS1 Electoral College vote counted, Feb. 9. 

Three per cent, funding bill pass-id. 
March 2. 

Steamer Corwln sails for the Arctic re- 
gions In search of the Jeannctte. 

Revised New Testament Issued, May 20. 

Sitting Bull. Chief of the Sioux, sur- 
renders, July 31. 

Jam;s A. Garfield Inaugurated. .March 4. 

Contest between Garfield and Senator 
Coukllng (N. Y.l about New York Col- 
leetorshlp, Mny. 

Commercial treaty with China signed, 

Greai Britain pays £15,000 award for 

Fortune flay affair. 

Assassination ot President Garfield by 
Charles J. Culloau, ,it Baltimore rail- 
way depot In U'iihhliigion. July 2. 

Death o[ Pre.dd.nt C,aruold at Elheron. 
N. J.. Sept. 19, burial at Cleveland. 
Sept. 26. 

Vice President Arthur becomes Presi- 
dent. Sept. 26. 

Special session of the Senate. Ocl. 10. 

Tl I. orated Gnl'eail trial In gins. 

Nov. H. 

News ot destruction or le.mnetle, Arctic 
exploring vessel, Dec. 30. 
1SS2 Oi.lleau convicted Jan. 25; sentenced 
Feb. i; hanged June 30. 

Anti-Chinese iilil [twenty \carsl pasted 

. March 23: vetoed by the President 
April *. 

Senate pas ■'.-.■; Edmund:: Antl-1'..h gam\ 
tllll, Feb. 1C; approved March 23. 


H-eh. 17. 

I ir.-at .Ml:-. I :.' 1 1 - 1 .' 1 ..I i rttoa :\ 1,1 iji trie - 

tlon and loss of life. 
'larlff Commission Bill passes both 

Houses, May •;-'.'. approved May IE. 
Jill eileiiding National Hunk charters 

passed both Houses, Mny 19. 

Violent al (Irl II, la., June 8. 

Second Anll-Chlncse bill (ten yearn) 

passed. slened In I'roiildcnl Arthur. 

May 6. 

Collision of the SHi r, Ohio river. B3 

drowned, July " 


and 1 

Bill [ 

r the 

President'* veto. Aug. .. 

Return of the nurilvorii of the North 
Pole expedition. 

Star Route trlnl ended by verdict of 
Jury. Sept. II, ocqullllng Tumor, con- 
victing Miner mid Herdell, and dis- 
agreeing na to Brady, the Dorsey 

i Lake Huron, 

mplotcs registration 

1S52 The Pendicler 

Senate, Dec, 

1!83 Civil Service 

House. Jan. 

Presidential S 

Reform bill passes the 

iccesslon BUI passed Sun- 
. , not considered In ibe 

Burning of Newhall House, Mllnuuiteo, 

59 lives lost, Jan. 10. 
Great Oooii In Ohio River. 60,000 people 

homeless, Feb. 10-15. 
TarlfT and Tax. Amendment Ojtl passes 

both Houses, March 2. 
Death of Aleiander H. Stephens, aged 

Death of Peter Cooper, aged 93, April 4. 
Cyclone at Beauregard. Mlae., S3 lives 

lost: tornadoei In Iowa and Georgia, 

April 22. 
Op nlng .-f Hie Hr.'i.l-: r h . .■„. ,„ „ ,j. „ 

Bridge. May 21, 
Pendleton Civil Service A. t jias.'ien oolh 

Houses. July 1€. 
Steamer Protous ot tho Greoly Relief 

F.xpedilion crushed by Ice In Smilb'j 

Sound. July 23. 
Terrific tornado at Rochester, Jflnil., 

many lives lost. Auk. 21. 
Northern Pacific Railroad formally 

opened. Sept. 8. 
Civil Rlght.i Act of March !, 1B75. de- 
clared um orn.fitutl.'nn! by U S, Su- 
premo Court. Ocl. 15. 
Oen. Sherman relinquishes command of 

tho army, Nov. 1, Gen. Sheridan suc- 
Two-cent loner peonage ^o.-s Into effect 

throughout tho United States, Oct. 1. 
Serious riot at Danville, Va.. between 

negrnt;* un<l nliiit imlii-.r, "."■■- 
Dakota ud.-pted ■• c.iiis'ilul1"n ,-r- tint 

Southern Dakota Into a State. Nov. G. 
Festivals Id hinor of the 400th anni- 
versary of Luther's birth. Nov. 10-11. 
4Sth Congress organised. 
1SSI House repeals the Iron-, lad oath law, 

Jan. 21. 
Germany returns resolutions of the 

House laud.iiory -.f Rukln. Feb. IE. 
United States Supreme Curt affirms the 

constitutionality '■( l.e,-,i| Tender Act. 

March 3. 
Mexican War pension bill passes House, 

March 3. 
The Senate rutlOes commercial treaty 

with Mexico. March 11. 
Defeat of Morrison Tariff bill. May S. 
CongrCKS ;irir,,[,ridiej fi ."'ii .WO for New 

Orleans Exposition, Mav S. 
Groat panic In Wall strc:t. Failure ot 

Grant and Ward and others, Mny fi-14. 
Relief expedition rescue* survivor" ot 

tho Greelv A.-,ii-. e>.|" litlon. at Capo 

Sablno, Juno 22. 
President vetoes the PUi-John Porter 

bill, July 2. 
Corner-stoto.- of tin: Bnrtholdl Statue of 

Liberty laid. Aug. 6. 
The general election resulted in the 

Nov. i. 

s against 1S2 

i G. Bla'n 

Opening of the 18th Congress, Dec. 1. 

1555 Grover Cleveland resigns the New York 

governorship, Jan. G. 

Dedication of the Washington monu- 
ment, the tallest structure known, 
5S5 feet. Feb. 21. 

Occupation of Asplnwall. S. A., by 
United States troops. 

Inauguration of Grover Cleveland aa 
President, March 4. 

New Orl'llis !■: M'u:.ill.HI opened Dei 

Treaty Tilth Colombian Govemni 
providing a joint p rot cetn rate over the 
Isthmus, May 5. 

Tho Revised Old Testament and com- 
plete Bible published. May IS. 

Death or Gen. U. S. Grant, at Mt. Mc- 
Gregor N. Y.. aged S3, July 23. 

Grant memorial services held at Wost- 
minster Abbey, London. Aug. 4. 

Death or Vke-Breaideni T. A. Hen- 
dricks, aged 66, Nov. 25. 

1556 The Presidential succession act signed 

the Senate and 

Jan. 19. 

President ove 

public officers. Jan. 25. 

400 Chinamen driven from Seattle. W. 
Tor., by a mob, Feb. 9. 

Death of General W infield Scott Han- 
cock, aged 61. Feb. 9. 

B|alr Educational Dill passes the Sen- 
Bill 'for Tree mid unlimited coinage Of 
silver defeated, April S. 

Chicago Anarchist riot, 6 police killed 
and 61 wounded, May 4. 

Anarchists indicted at Chicago, May 27. 

President Cleveland married to Mlsu 
Frances Folsotn, Juno 2. 

Oleomargarine hill pn.ises the Senate, 
June 20. 

Morrison Tariff bill defeated, June IT. 

House of Representatives passed bill 
repealing the pre-emption. limber 
culture and desert-land laws. June 7. 

Bill lo repeal the. Civil Service law In- 
definitely postponed by the U. S. Son- 
Congress requires the Treasury to issue 
small denomination silver certificates 
July 21. 

Tho President wnrnn ofllce holder.i 
against attempts to control political 
movements, July. 

Dealh of Samuel J. Tllden, aged 74, 
Aug. 4. 

Chicago anarchists to the number of S, 
found guilty of murder. Aug. 20. 

Earthquake nt Charleston. S. C. de- 
stroying }r,.iHinr«hi north of property 
and 67 lives. Aug. 30-31. 

Surrender of the Apache chief Geronlmo 
and hla band, Sept. I. 

Death of F,x-rreslile,m Chester A. Ar- 
thur, aged CO. 

Bill to regulate (he ■ ounllng of electoral 
votes passed, Dee. 9. 
1SS7 Inter-State Commerce bill signed, 
Feb. i. 

defeats the Dependent Soldier 




Bill to redi 
March 10. 

Inter-State i 

Feb 24. 

the Amerhan Volunteer in race for 
■'America cup.- Sept. 27 and 30. 

Pn-ildeiit and Mrn. Cleveland leave 
Washington for a Western trip, 

Mormmi conversion of inouoi'.'uvil^':' pe- 
tition Cnligr.-., for admission or Utah 
as a State, Oct. .8. 

tinned Stale:! Supreme Court refuses 
to Interfere win. ilie finding of Illi- 
nois courts In anarch lit eases. Nov. 1. 

Governor Ogh'.idy commutes death .-..■n- 
tenccs of Schwab and Fleldcn "- " 


. 10. 

ind Fischer 

Republican National Committee select 

CJiliond lor National Convention. June 

10. IfiSS. Dec. 8. 
Terrible blli./nrd In Minnesota, Dakota 

and Iowa: IWii lives lost. Jan. 12. 
Inter-Hljrt.. Com nils* I on confirmed l.i 

tho U. S. Senate, Jan. Ifi. 
Fisheries ir.atv mtti Great Britain 

:..l,<[|.-l .It \t.ei1ilni.".T, i-vi, ir, 

Slrlke of eri,;ln.ero and firemen on tho 
C, II. & (J. R. R. began Feb. 25 

Death of Chlet justice Morrii 
Walte. aged ;■ vi'.irs March 23. 

Knights ot Labor appeal to Congress for 
a system of Government telegraph, 

Death of Roseoe Conklln, cx-U. 3. Sen- 
ator, aged 60 years, April 18. 
Dally sales of U. S. bonds began, April 

Melville W. Fuller, of Illinois, nom- 
inated by the President as Chief Jus- 
tice. April ;:i>. roufirmi'd l.v the rtro;il". 
July 20. 

Chliie.ii. Treaty rallfled [n U, S. Sennle. 
May 7. 

E.veeution ot murderers by elect ricl'v 
after Jan. 1. 1SS9. posses N. Y. Sen- 
ate, May S; approved by the Governor, 

The President approves of bill to invite 
a. conference of American States nt 
Washington In IKSfl. May 2-1. 

Lieut-Gen. Philip H. Sheridan con- 
firmed as General of the Army. June I. 

National lieinoeratlc Convention nt SI. 
Louis renominates President Cleve- 
land, June 0. 

National Department of Labor bill ap- 
proved by tin- President, June 13. 

Tho President signed the Chinese In- 
clusion Bill, forbidding any Chinese 
laborer who has heen. or may now be, 
or may hereafter be. n resident within 
tho U. S., and may depart therefrom, 
and who may not have returned be- 
fore the ps^o'ice of thl* act. to return 
to, or remain in, the U. S.. Oct. 1. 

neath of General Philip H. Sheridan, 
aged 57 years, August ft, 

Major-Cen. John M. Sepoflcld appointed 
to the command of the nrnjy, August 

U. S. Senate rejects the Fisheries treaty. 

President's message to the U. S. Senate 
recommending enlarged powers under 
the Retaliation act, August 23, 

Floods at MlgUfta. C,a.. destroyed 51- 
OTO.Oon worth or property, Sept. 12. 

Bill prohibiting coming of Chinese la- 
borers approved, Sept. 13. 

Pej.t.. out. or wheat too. lied J.' on Chicago 
Board of Trade. Sept. 29. 

U. S. Supreme- Court sustains the con- 
stitutionality of the Iowa "Prohibitory 
Law," Oct. 22, 

The "Murrhl.'ein" decoy letter to Lsrd 
Sackvllle Wi-ii made putdlc, Oct. 24. 

Lord Sackvllle Wr-.t Brltl-h Minister, 

■f- ml .-.| I.. II,.- IT. i,l-nl (lei .!■. 

National Cle.tion for President; the 
Republican ■ iruiidaie-: elected, Nov. 6. 

Offlelal yellow fever bulletin gave total 
number of deaths 412. and of c^ea 
4,705, at Jacksonville. Fla., Dee. 10. 

U. S. men-of-war Galena and Vantlc 

salted for Hovii to demand release or 

the Haytlnn Republic, Dec. 12. 

i Great storm In Pennsylvania: many 

lives lost at Pittsburgh end Reading. 

Niiicira Suspension Bridge blown down 
at 3 a- m.. Jnn. 10. 

D---j.nrtment of Ai-rii ui' are created. 

Feb. 4. 

The States of North and South Dakota, 
Montana and Washington created by 
Congress, Feb. 20. 

Kenjniiiln Harrison inaugurated Presi- 
dent, March 4. 

Oklahoma proclamation issued. May 27. 

Opening ot the Oklahoma country, 
April 22. 

Centennial of Washington's Inaugura- 
tion, April 30. 

Murder of Dr. Cronln al Chicago. May \. 

Destruction by flood of Johusli 

a lost; 
0O0 worth of property destroyec 

r I20,ffl 



Judge D. S. Terry shot by U. S. Mar- 
shal Nngle. d.-renrlm.- Justice Field 
Aug. 14. 

International Marine Congress meets nt 
WashlnKton. Oct. 10. 

North and South Dakota ndroitteri by 
proclnntntion. Nov, 2. 

Trial of Cronln BUGpeets begun Aug. 30. 

ended In--,; Co Ik hi In. Sulllv-iri 

and Burke found guilty, and rceelved 

life sentences; Kunir. ImprlsoTini-ni 
three years, Beggs found not guilty. 
LVld J. Brewer appointed a Supreme 



, Dec. 

Death ot Jeffersun Davis, lite President 
of the Confederate States. Dec. 8. 
I Appointment of Special World's Pair 
Committee, Jan. IS. 

La Grippe or Influenza prevalent 
throughout the Northern and Western 


Death of Gen. Crook, at Chicago, March 

Act approved providing for the World's 
Columbian Exposition, nt Chicago. 
April 25. 

Death of Gen. Fremont, at New York 
City. July 13. 

First execution by electricity, at Au- 
burn. N. Y-. Wm. Kemmter. Aug. fi. 

First legislature or nklalmma iiieels. 
Aug. 31. 

Act Torblddlng the use of the malls for 
lottery purpose approved Sept. III. 

The M.-KlnhM iJirllf bill lakes .-fleet. 
Oct. 6. 

Gonernl election; next House ot Repre- 
sentatives Democratic, Nov. 4. 

Tho 01st Congress convenes. Dee. 1. 

Sitting Bull and seven other Indians 
killed near Standing Rock Agency, 

. IB. 

t the 


Death of George Bnnernft. historian, at 
Washington. Jan. 17. 

Death nt Win. Wlmlom at a baiepi.1 In 
New York. Jan. 23. 

International Monetary Congress mot 
at Washington, Jan. 7. 

Applieiulon before the U. S. Supremo 
Court for a prohibition to the U. S. 
District Court nn Its decision in the 
Dohring Sea difficulty by Canadian 
representatives, Jan. 12. 

Sioux Indian war ended by suloiih: :ion 
of the IIOHlllCG. Jan. IE. 

Heeipr.ii Itv treaty with Broill An- 
nounced, Feb. R. 

Dentil of Admlrol David D. Porlcr. nt 
WnshlrtKlon, Feb. 13. 

Death of fien. Wm. T. Sherman, at 
Washington, Feb. 14. 

Chailet, Foster, of Ohio, appointed Secre- 
tary of tho Treasury, Feb. 21. 

passed March 

French Spollnll.-n Bill passed. March 2. 

The Coin right hill be. oue-r, u lev,. 

The Enllstmeni nl Indians In the V. S. 
army authorized March 0. 

Proposed urliltrntinn of Retiring Sea dis- 
pute. March 11. 

Lvni hlug of 11 Italians at New Orleans, 
March 11. 

Nicaragua Canal Party sails. March 14. 

American Society of Authors leruod for 
the protection of writers. March 20. 

rtceall of tho Italian Minister, Daren 
Favn, March 31. 

2flth anniversary of I lift founding of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, April G, 

Ground broken for the Grant Monu- 
ment, Now York City, April 27. 

. Chli 


April 23. 

Fort Herlhold Reservation, N. D„ opened 
lor -lultlemenl. May 20. 

"The People's Party" formed nt Cin- 
cinnati. May 20. 

St.-itue of Abraham Lincoln unveiled at 
Lincoln Park. Chicago, May 23. 

liron.-e statue of General Grant, nt Ga- 
lena, HI., unveiled, June 3. 

The Czar of Russia presents Stanford 
University wllli n complete collection 
of Russian .mil ;-!l>rrl.-ui niUn-ml- 
Juno 12. 

Surrender of the Chilian ship. Rata, al 
Iqiilnue. to the U. S.. June i. 

KlrM shipment of clock tin from Cali- 
fornia mines. June 16. 

International Postal Congress held at 
' i decides to hold next Congreis 

at Washing to 
rcial f- 


Spain signed, 

Transfer of the Weather Bureau to tho 
Agrlcultunil liepartnieiit. June 20. 

S.'ii.Ki.n.i an opted fr the | uita for viola- 
tion of the V. H. .Vavlgiilloii laws July 

Libel riled ngiilnH the nrius nod aiiiniuni- 
tlun on the Hiii .i. at San lilego. lull iu. 

.Statue of Stonewall .Jaolcon unveiled al 
Levinnton, Vu., July 21. 

Kniokel-ss powder need for the first time 
by the H. S. Government, July 25. 

The ■'Majestic" breaks the ocean rec- 
ord. Mine h.-iim ;-„]. i>h. iin., Aug. ;,. 

Chorofc' .. .strip In Indian Territory .he;,-.! 
to Whites, Aug. 13. 

Ilnin-iiiiiking experiment at Midland 
Texas. Aug. IS. 

The "Teutonic" breaks the irans-Atlan- 
llc record of the "Majestic," time Od. 
16h. 31m.. Aug. 19. 

Indian lands ..I Oklahoma opened, Sept 

Alto. Col., opened. Oct. ; 

Equestrian statue of Gen 

Lincoln Park. Chicago, 

lal treaty with Germany i 
OcL 11. 
and Arapahoe Indians sell 

from Chill fur 

the Baltimore. Oct. 26. 
Argument In the Say ward c 

Congees* niot; Mr. Crisp, ot Georgia, 
chosen Speaker. Dec. 7. 

Stevens Count), Kan., war ..gain break; 

Ind. T 

rolgn i 

with Ger 

quired by (he Tariff I-aw. Jan. 8. 

Special message i" Congress from the 
President, recommending Bnam lal .ild 
to the World's Columbian VAhlhli |..n 
Feb. 2t. 

The President submits corresponded e 
with England to Conitrv's. r'-ioiruia;' 
Behrlng Sea i',nlruver:;v. March 9. 

Ks-CiiiiBressinan W It. Morrison selc led 
as President or the Inter-Slate I'oin- 
meree Comml'islon, vice Judge Cooley. 

Crij.- Silier i olriag.- debate in Congress. 
March 22-21. 

French Extradition Treaty signed, 
March 25. 

Tho Silver loll shelved. March 28. 

The Free Wool hill parsed. April 7. 

[ilplomath- Int.-reouro. with Italy re- 
newed, April H. 

Slssiton Reservation, S. D., opened, 
April 15. 

Revenue :-teiinn-r- ordered lo llehring 
Sea, April 1G. 

Copyright agri 
signed, April iu. 

The President approves Bel 
modus vlvendl, April 18. 

U. S. Commercial Treaty 
Switzerland --ind Italv. signed April 1['. 

The President Invite, foreign nations 
to participate m an Iniernatifinal Sil- 
ver Conference. April 21. 

The President lays Grant mor fit 

corner stone. Nov. York City, April Ti. 

Chinese Exclusion bill sikiicd. May S. 

Terrible floods In the Mississippi Val- 
ley, May 8-16. 

W j ■.•mini: appoints women to N'ational 
Republican Convention. May 7. 

The Alliance parly proposes a new cur- 
rency, May 8. 

The Pope approves AroliMshop Ireland's 
Ndmallrjiial Policy, May 10. 

As.'.oelalloii of authors ("mod. 
May 17. 

Roeiproclti with -niiiki goes Into 
effect. May .10. 

James G. Illalne resigns as Secretary 
ot State. June 4. 

Repuldlean National Convention held, 

Benjamin Harrison and Whltelaw Reld 
nominated, June 11, 

ratio National Convention held, 

Steve r 


Hoi itead. Pa., Sic 

Juno 30. 
Prohibitionists nomln 

for President. July 
People's Party iiomlm 

vcr for President, .n 
Slaughter of Plnkorb 

stead, July 6. 
National Christian Endeavor So. Icty 

Convention at New YorX, July 7. 
PennsvlMinla troops tak« possession of 

Homestead. Pa.. July 10. 
Dill to close the World's Fair on Sun- 
day passes both Houses, July 11. 
Great litorms in Mlnnesoia, July 30. 

John nidwell 

i I), Won- 


r. ■:.!. I.n 

I Oct. 

II. C. FrieV 

. July 21. 

chairman Carnegie Steel 
. „, Uerkman. July 23, 
George Shlro- eonllruied hv Ihe Seniile 

as Associate Juatlce V. S. Supreme 

Court. July 26. Stoatuer <~lt> ■■! Paris break-; Ihe 

Ocean Record. 5rt. If.h. 11m.. July 27. 
C.-nlral Labor (Inlon rejects iinar.btsll'- 

resolmlons. July 30. 
I'ongresi appropriates |2,B00.fM0 to tho 

World's Pair. Aug. 6. 
Chinese sailors forbldil-li .■nipl'-vni-iit 

on American ships. Aug. 1. 
International Monetary representatives 

appointed by the President, Aug. 7. 
Trouble among East Tennessee miners. 

Railroad strike o! 

fafo. groat destruction of property, 

Aug. 11. 
Tho President prnrlalins rotnllatton 

against Canada on canals. Aug. 20. 

Hanks again breaks tho trotting 

Cholera brought In NVw York City by 
Hamburg ele.uner Monrovia. Aug. 31. 

Nelson heats (he stallion record. IM-l^i. 
Aug. SI. 

1B32 Death of J. G. Whlliler. poet, Sept. 7. 
.Nancy Hank:. ,n;a re.iks the trotting 

Dedication ot the World's Fair build- 
ings, at Chicago, Ocl. 21. 

Flro nt Milwaukee desiro Si , air. build- 
ings, with [5.000,000 loss. 

Anarchist monument do die, tied al Wald- 
" r Chicago. Nov. ii. 

Imm.-n.-o- gold 11. Id; discovered In Utah 

Dec. 27. 
Prof. Ilrlggs acquitted of heresy, Dec 

Great floods In California, Dec. IB, 
Geor«c W. V.inilerhllt gives a costly s.i 
gallery lo tho Fine Arts Society a 

I Protection Dill, 


Dealh of .lames c. niatne sinie.-.nian 

Jan. 27. 
Russian E'tradltlon Treat, i-nllrni'd. 

Feb. S. 
Conflict of rival Let-lsliitiir.-:: In Kan«.is, 

Feb. 21-25. 
Rank of Am.-ro an Amh.i ouh.r esMo- 

llshcd. March 1. 
Inauguration of President Cleveland, 

Fielirins; Sea arbitration opened al Paris. 
France, April 111. 

President ileiehuid o,,ens World'n Fair 
al Chicago, May 1. 

Chinese Exclusion Act goes Inlo ef- 
fect, May 1. 

Governor Altgeld Chkage an- 
archists. June 2S. 4 

EMra session of Congress called June 


t World'., 

Hebrlng Sen arbitrators award In favor 

of England. Aug. Id. 
Great storm on South Atlantic coo.1t, 

Aug. 2S. 

\\ iih 1: h 1. illr, Mil .e ■ nl. ill .ii 1, mt -loir , 

II killed. Ifi wounded. Sept. 22. 

Chicago H,i> a 1 the World's Fair, nt- 
tendanee 716. Ml, Oct. 3. 

World's Fall closed at Chi- ago. Oct. DO. 

Repeal of the Silver Purchase Claone 
Act of ISM, Nov. I. 

New York Court "f Appeals decides Hint 
foreign corporations may hold real 
estate In New York Slat.-. Jan. IB, 

Wilson Tariff Rill and Income Tas 
passes the House. Jan. 31. 

II. S. Warship Kearsarge, famous as Ihe 
d.rstrover of the Confederate Ala- 
bama, wrecked on Ropeador Reel, Feb. 

Greater New York hill signed by th* 

Governor. Feb. 2S. 
president Cleveland vetoes the Bland 

Silver bill, March 30. 
Retiring Sea pro--lamallon Mailed, April 

t'n.onsiltiitl.inalltj of tie- Sou ill Caro- 
lina Dl!.peie;ar> law declared. April 13. 
lj.;,ivn:t , miner;; ordered to strike In 

Ohio, April 20. 
Co-iey's army Invaded Washington, D. 

C. April' 23. 
Dr. Talmag.- l'at.ernneh- in Hroolilyn 

destroyed by fire, May 13. 
177 tiulldlm.;:; burned l.v lire al Ronton. 

May IB. 
American Railwm I'm.. 11 boycott'; Pull- 
man Car Company. Affected W.000 

miles of railroad, June 25. 
Armor-plate frniula delected, June 29. 
U. S. Court etijollo- .'trlkers from liiler- 

ferlng with railroad trains. July 2. 
Railroad mohs destroy pio|.erty In and 

near Chicago, July B-10. .strike de, lured off. July 13. 
Utah Enabling Act signed, July 17. 
Auierhat irines landed at Seoul, 

Corea, July 27. 
Work re. on, -,1 ,-n III., Aug. 2. 
Hawaiian Republic officially recognized, 

SS licet o'rles close at Fall River, 20,000 
men Idle. Aug. 13. 

United States recognizes the sover- 
eignty of Nicaragua over tho Mosquito 
Coast. Aug. 26. 



President's signature, Aug. 27. 
l-l.irthuunke with great loss of life at 

Uvalde, Texas, Aug. 31. 
R.-.lpro-ltv Treaty with Cuba cancelled 

hv Spain. Sept. 3. 
IT. i-l' m Cleveland':' Hawaiian letter 

first published, Sept. B. 
\mro ■•! . tf.iot. ■! j-. I -. i-'iLi. 1 1 . 1 in I'tiili 

Sept. 27. 
Death ot Prof. I invlil Swing at Chloaeo. 

" :. 3. 

Famoii:; .Mora nisi- settled with Spain. 
Cotton States Eipoalllon at Atlanta, Ga., 

. l.y Hi-ii A. Ogle 

19 -H B4